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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Asian Journal of Epidemiology

There is continuing controversy over the association between serum level of
25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25 OHD) and cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the
present study was to examine the association between serum lipid profile and
S-25 OHD levels in Bangladeshi young female garment factory workers with exclusive
indoor lifestyle. A total of 200 subjects (aged 18-36 years) were randomly selected.
Fasting S-25 OHD, Total Cholesterol (T-C), Triacylglycerol (TAG), High-density
Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C), Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C),
Very-low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (VLDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were measured.
About 92% of the subjects were below 30 years of age. A high prevalence (88.5%)
of hypovitaminosis D (S-25 OHD <50 mmol L-1) was observed and
there was no significant association between S-25 OHD and T-C. The acceptable
level of T-C was highly prevalent (92%) in the subjects. The prevalence of high
T-C and LDL-C were 1.5 and 2.5%, respectively. The HDL-C level (<1.04 mmol
L-1) was predominantly low (about 90% ) in the subjects. Data indicated
that subjects with S-25 OHD level both <50 and >50 mmol L-1
had no influence on T-C, LDL-C, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL-C and TAG levels. Anthropometric
variables such as Body Mass Index (BMI), bicep and tricep skinfolds, Mid-upper
Arm Circumference (MUAC), hip and waist circumference had a significant (p<0.005)
association with T-C and TAG. The results of the study do not support any association
of S-25 OHD levels with unfavourable lipid profile. Further intervention studies
in different subject groups are warranted to evaluate whether increasing vitamin
D intake with supplementation or increased exposure to sunlight will improve
the metabolic cardiovascular risk factors profile.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2014.1.8 2014/03/23 - 08:56

Inadequate public knowledge about preventive oral health care may lead to increased
burden of oral disease. This study aimed to assess level of knowledge of, attitudes
toward and behavior of adults residing in Mashhad, Iran regarding preventive
oral health care. A total of 946 adult subjects were selected by stratified-cluster
random sampling approach. Data were collected via a telephone interview. The
interview employed a structured questionnaire about sociodemographic characteristics,
knowledge, attitude and practice toward preventive oral health care. Also a
question was considered about the respondent’s
resource for oral health prevention information. Mean score of knowledge was
0.54±0.56 (full score: 3). Higher scores were significantly more prevalent
in women, younger’s, people with
more income and higher level of education. Mean attitude score was 1.6±0.7
(full score: 3). only 17.6% of the respondents showed positive attitude. It
showed significant correlation with level of education and monthly income. Mean
of behavior score was 4.5±2.07 (full score: 8). Dental flossing was more
reported in more educated (OR = 2.27) and non smoker people (OR = 1.85). Dental
visit was more prevalent in more educated ones (OR = 1.34). The most important
source of information was semiprofessional source (mass media and health care
center staff). As conclusion knowledge of Mashhad’s
people about preventive oral health care was low. Their mean attitude shifted
to negative score and the average of behavior was moderate. This study certainly
serves local health policy making. Reinforcing collaboration between dentist
and semiprofessional sources could be suggested.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2014.9.15 2014/03/23 - 08:56

Health care personnel are the first line of contact for public with the health
care system and therefore, can have an important role in public’s
oral health promotion. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health knowledge,
attitude and behavior of Health Care centers personnel in Neyshabour, Iran.
One hundred and thirty four health care personnel in Neyshabour participated
in this cross sectional study. A researcher-led questionnaire was used to evaluate
oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior of participants. Oral hygiene examination
was carried out by a qualified dentist using simplified oral hygiene index.
Then the association between knowledge, attitude and behavior of health care
personnel with age, gender, occupation and education level were assessed by
Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that 56% of participants
had good knowledge, 80% reported positive attitude and 86% of personnel reported
tooth brushing once daily. Average score for oral hygiene index was 1.26±1.66.
Personnel with higher educational level had more knowledge (p = 0.007) and people
with higher education and income had more positive attitude (p = 0.001 and 0.04,
respectively). The oral hygiene index of people with higher education was better
than others (p = 0.001). It seems that level of knowledge and behavior of studied
Health Care employees regarding oral health needs improvement. Enhancement and
continuation of oral health educational courses is mandatory.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2014.16.22 2014/03/23 - 08:56

Immunization status of children in Chinnamanur and Cumbum area were studied. It was noticed that extended package of vaccination and oral polio vaccination coverage reaches 100%. But the immunization rate declined dramatically with increase in age of children. The study clearly shows there is a positive correlation between the parent’s education and immunization coverage. But in some cases educated parents fails to vaccinate their children after eight years. Promotion and creating awareness to the parents about complete vaccination may reach cent percent in future to create disease free society.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2014.23.27 2014/03/23 - 08:56

Breast cancer cases have been increasing worldwide over the span of last few decades but the greatest increase is seen in developing Asian countries. In 2008 India, had about 115,000 new cases with 53,000 deaths a ratio of 2:1 (meaning 1 death for 2 detected cases). There is a lacuna in documentation of the true incidence of breast cancer in India. This retrospective study was carried out for the better understanding the socio-demographic pattern and risk factors of breast cancer patients presenting to a tertiary care hospital, located in north Karnataka in southern India. The record based descriptive epidemiological data pertaining to demography and risk factors for breast cancer patients for period of 2001-10 was analyzed. Totally 20,505 cases of cancer were reported during 2001-2010 of which 1,829 (8.92%) were breast cancer patients. The average age was 49.16 and the median age was 48. Maximum numbers were in the age group of 41-50. Most of the patients came from rural area and majority were from lower socioeconomic status. Obesity was seen in 34.00% of patients. The most common histology was infiltrating duct carcinoma (92.07%). Family history of cancer was seen in 107 (7.19%) of cases. This epidemiological study helps to understand the unique patterns in incidence of breast cancer in this region and to some extent the associated probable risk factors. The increasing burden of breast cancer in Indian women warrants rigorous epidemiological investigations of trends observed in different rural, semi-urban and urban populations.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.103.113 2013/03/20 - 05:15

Bleeding symptoms are common in population. However, it is difficult to assess the clinical relevance of mild bleeding disorder. One of the causes of mild bleeding disorder is due to platelet function defects either related to abnormality in the membrane receptor on platelet or its signal transduction pathway. Platelet adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor, namely P2Y12 played a central role in platelet activation. The receptor is important as it is one of the therapeutic targets for antithrombotic drugs. The objective of this study was to determine causes of impaired platelet aggregation to ADP agonist, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics among patients in National Blood Centre. Data were recorded from 1st January 2009 to 31st May 2011. The results showed 32 (13%) out of 251 platelet aggregation test performed had impaired platelet aggregation to ADP (20 μM) using local cut off point of 65%. Out of those, 16 (50%) possibly had inherited ADP receptor dysfunction. Sixteen (50%) patients had secondary causes of impaired platelet aggregation to ADP either associated with von Willebrand disease (vWD), glycogen storage disease (GSD) or acquired platelet dysfunction with eosinophilia (APDE). Majority of patients were Malays (78.1%), with slight female preponderance (59.4%) and age ranged from 1-44 years old. Results obtained from this study could serve as a reference for a national registry on mild bleeding disorder related to platelet function defects. This knowledge is also important for future research related to platelets as biomarkers or potential therapeutic application in various diseases.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.114.122 2013/03/20 - 05:15

Poisoning, a major cause of morbidity among children may be accidental or deliberate. This study was undertaken to assess the factors associated with poisoning in children in a south Indian city with high levels of education and health care facilities. The study included all children 18 years and below, admitted with poisoning during a four year period at the PSG institute of medical science and research, Coimbatore. The relevant data including the substance(s) consumed, time interval at presentation to the casualty, Poisoning Severity Score (PSS) and outcome were noted on a pre-designed questionnaire. There were 121 cases of poisoning, constituting 0.5% of total pediatric admissions. Among them, 86 (70.2%) children consumed poison for Deliberate Self Harm (DSH) and in 35 (29.8%) it was accidental. In 31 of the 35 children with accidental poisoning, easily available household items (drugs, insecticides, cleaning solutions) were responsible. The median age of children with accidental poisoning was 2 years, while in DSH it was 16 years. One third of children with DSH had an underlying psychiatric disorder. A majority (75%) of children were brought to hospital within six hours. The poison severity score was none or mild in 91 (75.2%), while 17 had moderate and 10 had severe poisoning. The overall mortality was only 2.5%. Poisoning is usually accidental in young children and its prevention requires educating the public regarding safe storage of drugs, pesticides, floor cleaners etc., In older children, DSH is the commonest reason for poisoning. All children with DSH should have a psychiatric evaluation. Most children with poisoning have low PSS and the prognosis is good.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.123.129 2013/03/20 - 05:15

Q fever is a zoonotic disease considered as an emerging or re-emerging disease
in many countries. It is caused by Coxiella burnetii that are highly
resistant to the environment. The most common reservoirs of the diseases are
livestock. In this study, all studies carried out on Q fever in Iran were reviewed,
in order to have a better understanding of the epidemiological features of the
disease in this country. All published documents were systematically searched
to find the related studies between the years 1937 and 2012. The collected studies
were then classified based on the study group. In this review 29 published papers
or reports were found, which included 12 studies on animals and birds, 1 on
foetuses, 4 on ticks, 4 on milk and 14 on humans. The existence of the Q fever
pathogen has been confirmed in different molecular and serological studies among
different animals (including sheep, cattle, goats, horses, camels, wild rodents
and wild pigeons) and their productions in Iran. Also, there are few seroepidemiological
studies on the presence of human Q fever in Iran that most of them confirmed
this issue. According to this study, Iran can be considered as an endemic focus
of Q fever. As the presence of C. burnetii or its antibody has been reported
among different animals in Iran, the disease can be transmitted to humans and
so it can be considered as a public health problem in Iran.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.66.74 2012/11/21 - 11:45

The study aimed to determine whether hospital controls could be used in case-control
studies with minimal bias, where resource constraints limit recruitment of community
controls. Hospital controls and community controls were compared for socio-demographic
and risk factor variables in a study of Smokeless Tobacco (SLT) use and Coronary
Heart Disease (CHD) in Bangladesh in 2010. Incident cases of CHD and hospital
controls were selected from cardiac hospitals. Community controls were selected
from neighbourhoods of CHD cases. We enrolled 302 cases, 302 hospital controls,
and 1208 community controls. Distribution of age, gender, marital status, occupation,
and socio-economic status was similar between hospital controls and community
controls. Compared to community controls, hospital controls were more educated,
had higher rates of hypertension and reported more family history of heart diseases.
But they reported relatively less physical activity. Current use of SLT was
higher amongst community controls compared to hospital controls, but was not
significant (adjusted OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.58-1.12). Current use of SLT was not
associated with an increased risk of CHD when community controls were used (adjusted
OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.19, p>0.05), nor when hospital controls were used
(adjusted OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.60, p>0.05). There were significant differences
between two control groups but only on confounding variables which could be
measured and adjusted for during multivariate analyses. For comparable future
studies in resource-scarce settings, it is possible to enrol hospital controls
with careful planning which are similar to potential community controls, whilst
minimising selection bias.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.75.86 2012/11/21 - 11:45

Sibling recurrence risk ratio (λS), defined as the ratio of
risk of disease manifestation in siblings of probands compared with risk of
disease in general population, is an extensively used measure of familial aggregation.
A λS>1 is suggestive of familial aggregation. To assess the
extent of familial clustering according to parental history of type 2 diabetes
mellitus, the sibling recurrence risks (KS) and the sibling recurrence
risk ratios (λS) were estimated in a randomly selected sample
of 275 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 325 out of 1125 siblings
were affected giving an overall KS of 28.90% (95%CI: 26.21%-31.51%)
and a λS of 2.31x (95%CI: 2.09x-2.50x) which is suggestive of
a complex aetiology involving both genetic factors and environmental triggers.
The KS and the λS values were elevated in families
with one or two diabetic parents indicating that susceptibility to type 2 diabetes
mellitus is transmitted primarily through an affected parent. The risk varied
with respect to the status of the probands’
parents with KS (49.21%; 95%CI: 43.04%-55.38%) and λS
(3.94x; 95%CI: 3.41x-4.43x) when both parents were affected being the highest
reflecting a predominant influence of the predisposing genetic factors. The
λS was found to be significantly higher (Z = 2.05; p = 0.04)
when the affected parent was the mother (2.59x; 95%CI: 2.20x-3.06x) rather than
the father (1.81x; 95%CI: 1.31x-2.31x) indicative of an excess of maternal transmission
of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is the first study on sibling recurrence risk
ratio estimates for type 2 diabetes mellitus from India.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.87.94 2012/11/21 - 11:45

Malaria intensity in rural areas of Nigeria is of public health significance.
In this study, the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in Umuchieze and Uturu
rural communities of Abia State, Southeast Nigeria were investigated in order
to provide epidemiological data on malaria in the study communities for effective
management programme. A total of 620 individuals (310 in each community) were
examined for malaria parasites using standard methods. The results showed that
a total of 455 (73.39%) among the studied individuals were infected. Infection
rates in Umuchieze and Uturu were 72.58 and 74.19%, respectively but the difference
was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Also, the infection rates recorded
for males (73.87%) and females (72.90%) in both communities did not differ statistically
(p>0.05). Members of the age cohorts 11-20 years recorded the highest rate
of infection, 82.61% and 88.24 in Umuchieze and Uturu, respectively. The highest
rate of prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was identified among farmers in Umuchieze
(85.60%) while in Uturu it was identified among students (81.33%). Plasmodium
falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae were found among the
positive cases in both study areas with Plasmodium falciparum being the
highest with infection rate of 52.26% in Umuchieze and 53.55% in Uturu. Overall,
the infection rate of Plasmodium species in both study communities is
72.09, 19.56 and 8.35% for P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae,
respectively. The results showed that Umuchieze and Uturu Communities were endemic
for malaria.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.95.102 2012/11/21 - 11:45

To assess the effect of nutrition education on the eating habits that may predispose undergraduates to cancer, a quasi-experimental study was carried out in a representative sample of undergraduates aged 16 to 25 years in two Universities in South-west Nigeria. A sample of 436 participants (males and females) was randomly selected from both universities (1 control group; 1 experimental group). Participants’ eating habits was assessed before nutrition education intervention by having a focussed group discussion and responding to a 19-item self-developed food frequency scale (pretest). Nutrition education intervention was given to the experimental group for 8 weeks and the control group had a placebo. The effect of nutrition education on eating habits was measured immediately and 8 weeks after intervention using the pretest scale (posttest). Data analysis was employed using SPSS version 15; independent t-test, ANCOVA, using the pretest as the covariate to measure the effect of the intervention. Nutrition education significantly affected the eating habits of the participants (p<0.05). The experimental group performed better by contributing a higher mean score of 61.48 while the control group contributed a mean score of 56.64. The level of study significantly affected the eating habits of the participants with students in lower level of study performing better (p<0.05). Nutrition education positively modulated the eating habits of the participants. More students need to be exposed to nutrition education on eating habits because it appears to be a potent tool in forestalling the harmful effects of poor eating habits especially cancer.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.32.41 2012/01/21 - 02:03

To assess the effect of nutrition education on the eating habits that may predispose undergraduates to cancer, a quasi-experimental study was carried out in a representative sample of undergraduates aged 16 to 25 years in two Universities in South-west Nigeria. A sample of 436 participants (males and females) was randomly selected from both universities (1 control group; 1 experimental group). Participants’ eating habits was assessed before nutrition education intervention by having a focussed group discussion and responding to a 19-item self-developed food frequency scale (pretest). Nutrition education intervention was given to the experimental group for 8 weeks and the control group had a placebo. The effect of nutrition education on eating habits was measured immediately and 8 weeks after intervention using the pretest scale (posttest). Data analysis was employed using SPSS version 15; independent t-test, ANCOVA, using the pretest as the covariate to measure the effect of the intervention. Nutrition education significantly affected the eating habits of the participants (p<0.05). The experimental group performed better by contributing a higher mean score of 61.48 while the control group contributed a mean score of 56.64. The level of study significantly affected the eating habits of the participants with students in lower level of study performing better (p<0.05). Nutrition education positively modulated the eating habits of the participants. More students need to be exposed to nutrition education on eating habits because it appears to be a potent tool in forestalling the harmful effects of poor eating habits especially cancer.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.32.41 2012/01/21 - 02:03

In order to generate baseline information for developing content and context-sensitive anti- malaria behavioral change communication messages, this study was carried out to assess the people’s knowledge about malaria in an urban area of north central Nigeria, between May and October 2010. Data were collected from about 1,500 respondents, using a pre-tested structured questionnaire, that assessed the people’s knowledge of the symptoms, mode of transmission and prevention of malaria, as well as, the frequency at which they experience episodes of the disease. The results revealed that 80.95% of the respondents correctly associated malaria with clinical symptoms of the disease, while the remaining 19.05% attributed non-malaria conditions, especially, stomach pain (4.50%), influenza (2.74%), diarrhea (2.36%), etc., to the disease. About 97% of the respondents had experienced malaria, with 49.16% of them having an episode in the three months preceding this survey. Though, all the respondents claimed to know the cause of malaria, only 89.47% correctly mentioned mosquito bites while, the remaining 10.53% gave spurious answers including, changes in weather conditions (3.09%), onset of teething in infants (2.75%), dirty environment (1.66%), etc. Almost all the respondents (96.53%) knew an appropriate method of preventing malaria, with the use of mosquito coils/aerosols (33.69%) and bed nets (27.30%) been the most preferred options. The epidemiological implications of these results were highlighted and discussed and it was concluded that the findings will serve as an impetus for re-designing anti-malaria behavioural change communication messages.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.42.49 2012/01/21 - 02:03

In order to generate baseline information for developing content and context-sensitive anti- malaria behavioral change communication messages, this study was carried out to assess the people’s knowledge about malaria in an urban area of north central Nigeria, between May and October 2010. Data were collected from about 1,500 respondents, using a pre-tested structured questionnaire, that assessed the people’s knowledge of the symptoms, mode of transmission and prevention of malaria, as well as, the frequency at which they experience episodes of the disease. The results revealed that 80.95% of the respondents correctly associated malaria with clinical symptoms of the disease, while the remaining 19.05% attributed non-malaria conditions, especially, stomach pain (4.50%), influenza (2.74%), diarrhea (2.36%), etc., to the disease. About 97% of the respondents had experienced malaria, with 49.16% of them having an episode in the three months preceding this survey. Though, all the respondents claimed to know the cause of malaria, only 89.47% correctly mentioned mosquito bites while, the remaining 10.53% gave spurious answers including, changes in weather conditions (3.09%), onset of teething in infants (2.75%), dirty environment (1.66%), etc. Almost all the respondents (96.53%) knew an appropriate method of preventing malaria, with the use of mosquito coils/aerosols (33.69%) and bed nets (27.30%) been the most preferred options. The epidemiological implications of these results were highlighted and discussed and it was concluded that the findings will serve as an impetus for re-designing anti-malaria behavioural change communication messages.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.42.49 2012/01/21 - 02:03

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive health problem associated with long term complications. It is a condition of high clinical heterogeneity with familial clustering, however, the mode of inheritance is still controversial. A number of candidate genes have been implicated in susceptibility to PCOS, suggesting a strong role of genetic factor in the aetiopathogenesis of PCOS. The aim of the present study was to determine possible association between PCOS and family history of complex genetic diseases such as PCOS, Menstrual disturbance, type II Diabetes and Cardiovascular diseases. A total of 432 individuals comprising of 206 patients and 226 controls were involved in the present study. Clinical information, anthropometric measurements and three generation pedigree data with respect to CD was collected through proforma. Twenty five percent of PCOS probands exhibited clinical hyperandrogenism in the form of hirsutism, acne, premature pubarche and alopecia. Eighteen percent showed acanthosis, a marker for insulin resistance. Twenty percent of the patients were under the category of amenorrhea; while remaining 75% of cases were either with primary/secondary infertility. The anthropometric analysis revealed higher BMI and W/H ratio in the patient group compared to the controls. A high frequency of PCOS women exhibited the prevalence of complex diseases in their families compared to the control families (60 vs. 20%; p<0.05). It is suggested that complex diseases provide significant genetic background for the susceptibility to develop this multifactorial disorder in a section of patients.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.50.55 2012/01/21 - 02:03

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive health problem associated with long term complications. It is a condition of high clinical heterogeneity with familial clustering, however, the mode of inheritance is still controversial. A number of candidate genes have been implicated in susceptibility to PCOS, suggesting a strong role of genetic factor in the aetiopathogenesis of PCOS. The aim of the present study was to determine possible association between PCOS and family history of complex genetic diseases such as PCOS, Menstrual disturbance, type II Diabetes and Cardiovascular diseases. A total of 432 individuals comprising of 206 patients and 226 controls were involved in the present study. Clinical information, anthropometric measurements and three generation pedigree data with respect to CD was collected through proforma. Twenty five percent of PCOS probands exhibited clinical hyperandrogenism in the form of hirsutism, acne, premature pubarche and alopecia. Eighteen percent showed acanthosis, a marker for insulin resistance. Twenty percent of the patients were under the category of amenorrhea; while remaining 75% of cases were either with primary/secondary infertility. The anthropometric analysis revealed higher BMI and W/H ratio in the patient group compared to the controls. A high frequency of PCOS women exhibited the prevalence of complex diseases in their families compared to the control families (60 vs. 20%; p<0.05). It is suggested that complex diseases provide significant genetic background for the susceptibility to develop this multifactorial disorder in a section of patients.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.50.55 2012/01/21 - 02:03

The malaria cases were increasing in Mamuju district. Several factors influence of the malaria prevention specifically socioeconomic and access to health services. The objectives of the study were to find out socioeconomic determinants, access to health services and behaviour towards prevention of malaria in Mamuju district, West Sulawesi. The design study was cross sectional. The population of this study was the residence in Mamuju District, number sample 739 respondents taken by random sampling and data analysis by using Chi-square and logistic regression in α 5%. Results of the study reveal that 51% of respondents have done malaria control in the Mamuju District. Socioeconomic factors like education (p = 0.000), income (p = 0.004), knowledge (p = 0.000) and attitude (p = 0.000) were significant to prevent malaria. Variables that are not related were employed (p = 0.060) and access to health services (p = 0.223). Logistic regression analysis showed that behavior; knowledge and attitude most impact for prevention of malaria in the district Mamuju. This research recommended the dissemination of health information about malaria prevention to the public through various media both of print and written media also counseling.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.56.61 2012/01/21 - 02:03

The malaria cases were increasing in Mamuju district. Several factors influence of the malaria prevention specifically socioeconomic and access to health services. The objectives of the study were to find out socioeconomic determinants, access to health services and behaviour towards prevention of malaria in Mamuju district, West Sulawesi. The design study was cross sectional. The population of this study was the residence in Mamuju District, number sample 739 respondents taken by random sampling and data analysis by using Chi-square and logistic regression in α 5%. Results of the study reveal that 51% of respondents have done malaria control in the Mamuju District. Socioeconomic factors like education (p = 0.000), income (p = 0.004), knowledge (p = 0.000) and attitude (p = 0.000) were significant to prevent malaria. Variables that are not related were employed (p = 0.060) and access to health services (p = 0.223). Logistic regression analysis showed that behavior; knowledge and attitude most impact for prevention of malaria in the district Mamuju. This research recommended the dissemination of health information about malaria prevention to the public through various media both of print and written media also counseling.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.56.61 2012/01/21 - 02:03

For an informed consent, patients must be impartially informed about the advantages, disadvantages and alternatives of the intervention of interest. This data should be presented in a neutral manner and without preconception to respect the autonomy of the patient. One common pitfall in presentation of data in medical literature is unintentional and seldom intentional misuse of Relative Risk Ratios (RRR) instead of Absolute Risk Ratios (ARR). This study discussed the differences between absolute and relative risk ratios followed by current evidence on how physicians and patients can be persuaded to alter their decisions by framing the data into relative risks.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.62.65 2012/01/21 - 02:03

For an informed consent, patients must be impartially informed about the advantages, disadvantages and alternatives of the intervention of interest. This data should be presented in a neutral manner and without preconception to respect the autonomy of the patient. One common pitfall in presentation of data in medical literature is unintentional and seldom intentional misuse of Relative Risk Ratios (RRR) instead of Absolute Risk Ratios (ARR). This study discussed the differences between absolute and relative risk ratios followed by current evidence on how physicians and patients can be persuaded to alter their decisions by framing the data into relative risks.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.62.65 2012/01/21 - 02:03

South East Asia Region (SEAR) is one of the most populous world regions and also bears a disproportionate burden of mortality compared to other world regions. The purpose of this article was to analyze the situation of maternal, neonatal and perinatal health in SEAR to inform public health practitioners, program managers and policy makers about the situation in this world region. A secondary review of policy and programmatic documents published by ministries of health in SEAR countries, WHO, other UN agencies and peer reviewed journal articles in the area of maternal, child, neonatal and perinatal health published in the last five years was conducted. This article discusses the current situation of maternal, perinatal and neonatal health in SEAR countries, highlights some of the key challenges and provides recommendations to countries on the way forward for improving perinatal and maternal health. Key issues are discussed under the broad themes of improving maternal and perinatal health information systems, improving quality of care and human resource management. The article concludes that Health Systems Strengthening, Scaling up of Skilled Human Resource, Investing in information systems and improving the quality of maternal and neonatal care services are essential for future progress in countries but these are long term processes which need sustained commitment and ownership at all levels.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.1.14 2012/01/10 - 18:13

The prevalence, biochemical characterization and antibiogram of Vibrio species associated with diarrhoea in some parts of Niger Delta region of Nigeria were studied using standard microbiological diagnostic procedures. The prevalence rate of 31.7% was obtained. Fifty one isolates of Vibrio species were isolated of which 39 (76.5%) were Vibrio cholerae while 12 (23.5%) were Vibrio parahaemolyticus and were identified as predominant species responsible for diarrhoeic cases in the region. Further characterization of V. cholerae identified the isolates as El Tor (48.7%), classical (38.5%) and non-01 Vibrio cholera (12.8%) biotypes. The distribution of the isolates according to age range of the subjects was studied and it differed statistically (p<0.05). Subjects 0-10 years of age had the highest percentage (46.3%) of positive cases while the lowest percentage of 9.68% was obtained from subjects of age range 21-30 years. Samples from female patients yielded higher percentage (62.7%) of positive cases than male subjects (37.3%) but there was no significant difference (p<0.05). Antibiogram of isolates revealed 100% sensitivity to Gentamycin with variable percentage resistance of 11.8 and 17.6% to Nitrofurantoin and Oflaxacin, respectively. However, 100% resistances of the isolates were observed with Amoxacillin and Cotrimoxazole antibiotics.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.15.21 2012/01/10 - 18:13

The study involved investigations of prevalence rates of health problems of residents in some affected regions of Kasaragod district, Kerala, India seven years after the official banning of the use of Endosulfan by the Plantation Corporation of Kerala (PCK) on their Cashew plantations. Thousand respondents were selected using simple random survey. It was observed that 0-30 year age group had recorded the highest cases of mental retardation with 74.5% male and 74.1% female. Also in the 0-14 years age group 46% males and 42.5% females had Congenital anomalies whereas in the 15-30 years age group 30.4% males and 31.7% female cases were recorded. As with the case of cancer, only 39.2% had mostly lung, throat or prostate cancers, whereas, 35.4% females had breast, ovarian or blood cancer. In the 0-14 years age group there were only 2 male and 3 female having cancer. Generally the prevalence of disease was highest in Males in Enmakaje Panchayat (0.31 for 0-14 years) but lowest in Muliyar and Periya (0.1) above the age of 46 years. Whereas, in females, it was highest among 15-30 years age group in Cheemeni (0.38) and also lowest (0.11 ) for women over age 46 years. Although, it had been several years after the ban on the use of Endosulfan in the plantation and residues are no more present, there is still a likelihood of the children being born with deformities similar to the effects of pesticide poisoning.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2012.22.31 2012/01/10 - 18:13

Helicobacter pylori infects about one half of the world population. Since there was no information about the epidemiology of H. pylori infection in Khorramabad, west of Iran, this study was done to determine the prevalence and potential risk factors of H. pylori infection in this region. Helicobacter pylori specific ELISA for the presence of IgG antibodies was done on the sera of 381 cases. A questionnaire was used to gather the information related to demographic, hygienic and lifestyle variables. The overall prevalence of infection was 43%. A positive association was found with increasing age (p = 0.002), premastication of food by mother (p = 0.019) and education level (p = 0.011), but not with gender and family size. The prevalence of the infection was lower than that in other parts of the country and it is predicted that it will decrease in the future because of the increasing education rate and reduction of bad hygienic behaviors such as food premastication by mothers.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2011.1.8 2011/07/28 - 21:03

To assess the prevalence of selected risk factors for chronic disease and the association of these risk factors with sociodemographic variables, a cross sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of adults aged 40 years or more in the district of Shimoga. A sample of 992 subjects was selected from all the blocks of the district using the World Health Organization’s STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors. The study participants’ blood pressure was measured; their body mass index calculated and collected information on self-reported smoking status. The extent to which, being overweight, hypertension, smoking and various combinations of these risk factors were associated with the study participants’ education level, occupational category and economic status was measured. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 14 and multivariate logistic regression model to note the associations between the outcome variables and select demographic variables. Mean blood pressure levels were higher among men than among women and increased progressively with age. Sixty three percent of men were current smokers and 58% were current daily smokers; less than 1% of women smoked. Mean body mass index was 19.6 among men and 19.9 among women and only 3.5% of the population was overweight. Education level was inversely associated with the prevalence of hypertension among both men and women and with the prevalence of smoking among men. Hypertension was directly associated with socioeconomic status among men but inversely associated with socioeconomic status among women. India is experiencing an increase in the prevalence of many risk factors for chronic diseases and is in urgent need of interventions to reduce the prevalence of these risk factors and to deal with the chronic diseases to which they contribute.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2011.9.16 2011/07/28 - 21:03

Leptospirosis is probably the world’s most widespread zoonosis of global importance. It occurs in both developed and developing countries and large outbreaks have been reported from all over the world. Leptospirosis is now being recognized as a re-emerging infectious disease. Understanding the epidemiology of this infectious disease in Morocco is a critical step for designing interventions and consequently diminishing the risk of leptospirosis transmission. This study reviews on the epidemiological features of leptospirosis in Morocco between 2001 and 2010. Moreover, depending on these epidemiological data preventive measures are being suggested.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2011.17.22 2011/07/28 - 21:03

Cancer mortality rates are climbing in India and it is under-reported due to poor recording of the cause of death. An effective population-based screening program can give reliable data on over-all malignancy profile. An 8-year (2003-2010) multi-centre based study was assessed to understand the malignancy profile in the population of West Bengal. The cancer frequency was moderate during 2003 to 2006, after that it rises drastically and reached maximum peak in 2010. The most frequently affected organs were breast, cervix, stomach, lung, oesophagus, ovary, cheek, prostrate, liver and pancreas, gall bladder and tongue. The incidence in rural areas was slightly low compared to more polluted urban counterparts. Malignancies are in epidemic peak in this population with new cancer cases and greater increase among females. The largest threat among females was seen for breast and cervix cancer, among males for prostate cancer. Among children of age group below 10 years non hodgkin’s lymphoma was alarmingly high, followed by acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myelocytic leukemia. Exposure to various environmental toxicants, industrial wastages, asbestos dusts, colored agricultural commodities and food products incredibly elevate the levels of malignant risk and status. Multiple neoplastic syndromes were common for cancers of liver-lung-brain, breast-ovary, prostrate-lung-bone and others in this population and more specifically in multiple endocrine neoplasias. This devastating cancer scenario can be prevented by public education on tobacco and its health hazards, recommended dietary guidelines, safe sexual practices and lifestyle modifications.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2011.23.27 2011/07/28 - 21:03

Schistosomiasis is a snail-borne trematode infection of humans, domestic and wild animals in different parts of Asia, Africa, the Middle East, South America and the Carribbean. Approximately 200 million people in 74 countries are affected; 120 million of these are symptomatic and 20 million have severe disease. Elimination of schistosomiasis has been mainly accomplished by control of the snail host. As measures of snail control, cement-lining of ditches and chemical mollusciciding were most effective in many countries. But the cost of this joint program is too expensive compared with health budget in almost developing countries. Due to persisting conditions of poor health infrastructure, lack of access to clean water and poverty, re-infections in humans still poses a challenge for the long-term control of schistosomiasis. It is hoped that vaccines and better diagnosis of human will help alleviate some of these challenges. However, until these become available, alternative strategies, including blocking parasite transmission in the snail host have been considered. Several studies have been conducted in recent years to begin to understand the molecular basis of the snail-parasite interaction and to identify genes that may be involved in rendering snails resistant to infection.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=aje.2010.123.140 2011/02/06 - 02:51