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Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Lately, it has been shown that topical Aloe vera extract is effective against acne lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of oral Aloe vera juice in a group of patients with mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, 40 volunteers with mild-to moderate acne vulgaris were randomized equally into two, age and sex-matched groups, receiving either 50 cc of freshly prepared Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) juice or placebo once daily for 30 consecutive days. Facial acne noninflamed, inflamed and total (noninflamed plus inflamed) lesion counts were documented at baseline on week 2 and at endpoint (day 30) by an observer who was blind to the grouping of patients. There were 12 males (60%) and 8 females (40%) with a mean age of 17.5±5.1 years (range: 12-27) in the case group and 10 males (20%) and 10 females (20%) with a mean age of 17.4±5.6 years (range: 12-29) in the control group (p = 0.53 and 0.98, respectively). Although, the mean number of inflamed and total acne lesions decreased from baseline to the endpoint in the case group, these changes were not statistically different from those documented in the control group (p = 0.96 and 0.91, respectively). In conclusion, oral Aloe vera juice may be helpful in decreasing noninflamed and total facial acne lesion counts in patients with mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris, this beneficial effect is not significant when compared to controls. 2014/10/02 - 23:20

The association between chocolate consumption and acne vulgaris is a historical enigma. This study sought to investigate the effect of dark and white chocolate consumption on acne lesions. In this case-control, clinical trial, 57 volunteers with mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris were randomized in three groups, receiving 100 g of either white or dark (100%) chocolate bars daily for 30 consecutive days (case groups) or no chocolate (control group) during the study period. Facial acne noninflamed, inflamed and total lesions were counted at baseline, on week 2 and at endpoint (day 30). In white chocolate group, there were 11 males (61.1%) and 7 females (38.9%) with a mean age of 17.9±7.2 years (range: 12-29). In dark chocolate group, there were 14 males (73.7%) and 5 females (26%) with a mean age of 17.6±6.0 years (range: 12-29). In control group, there were 13 males (65%) and 7 females (35%) with a mean age of 17.7±6.6 years (range: 12-29). The three groups were comparable for sex (p = 0.71) and age (p = 0.99). No significant difference was found between the patients in dark chocolate group and those served as controls in terms of changes in acne lesions (p>0.05). All noninflamed (p = 0.02), inflamed (p = 0.04) and total (p = 0.02) acne lesions in white chocolate group, however, increased significantly in comparison with the two other groups. According to this study, white but not dark chocolate consumption is associated with exacerbation of acne lesions. 2014/10/02 - 23:20

Green tea is an ancient beverage and a famous herbal medicine. Recently, it has been used successfully as a topical preparation in acne patients. The objective of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of oral green tea extract in a group of patients with mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, 34 volunteers with mild-to moderate acne vulgaris were randomly categorized in two, age and sex-matched groups, receiving either three capsules containing 500 mg aqueous extract of green tea in each (cases, n = 18), or placebo (controls, n = 16) three times daily for 30 consecutive days. Facial acne noninflamed, inflamed and total (noninflamed plus inflamed) lesion counts were documented at baseline, on week 2 and at endpoint (day 30) by an observer who was blind to the grouping of patients. In case group, there were 9 males (50%) and 9 females (50%) with a mean age of 14.3±1.8 years (range: 12-17). In control group, there were 11 males (68.8%) and 5 females (31.3%) with a mean age of 13.4±1.3 years (range: 12-16). The two groups were comparable for sex (p = 0.27) and gender (p = 0.11). The mean number of inflamed and total acne lesions decreased significantly more in the case group in comparison with that in the control group (p = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Similar difference was not found for noninflamed lesions (p = 0.33). This study showed that oral aqueous extract of green tea is effective against acne lesions in patients with mild-to-moderate disease. 2014/10/02 - 23:20

It has previously shown that aqueous extract of dried Berberis vulgaris fruit is useful against inflamed and total acne lesions. This study aimed to investigate the role of fresh Berberis vulgaris fruit juice in decreasing acne lesion counts in a group of patients with mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris. A total of 38 volunteers with mild-to moderate acne vulgaris were enrolled in this study; double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. They received either 100 mL freshly prepared Berberis vulgaris fruit juice (n = 18, case group) or placebo (n = 20, control group) once daily for 30 consecutive days. Facial acne noninflamed, inflamed and total (noninflamed plus inflamed) lesions were counted at baseline, on week 2 and at endpoint (day 30) by an observer who was not aware of the grouping of patients. In the case group, there were 9 males (50%) and 9 females (50%) with a mean age of 16.1±3.9 years (Range: 12-25). In the control group, there were 9 males (45%) and 11 females (55%) with a mean age of 15.9±4.7 years (Range: 12-29). The two groups were matched for sex (p = 0.76) and age (p = 0.89). Changes in the mean count of noninflamed lesions were not different between the two groups (p = 0.33). In contrast, the mean number of inflamed and total acne lesions decreased significantly more pronounced in the case than in the control group (p = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). In conclusion, this study showed that fresh Berberis vulgaris fruit juice is effective against acne lesions in patients with mild-to-moderate disease. 2014/10/02 - 23:20

Association between dietary habits and development or exacerbation of acne vulgaris has been an interesting topic for many years. The goal of the present study was to investigate possible association between pepper (red and black pepper, separately) consumption and changes in acne lesions. A total of 45 volunteers with mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris were recruited from a private clinic and enrolled in this case-control, clinical trial. Patients were randomized in three equal age and sex-matched groups, receiving 8 mg of either red or black pepper powder mixed with their food at lunch for 30 consecutive days (cases); or no additive to food was added (controls). In red pepper group there were 11 males (73.3%) and 4 females (26.7%) with a mean age of 17.8±5.1 years (range: 12-27). In black pepper group there were 6 males (40%) and 9 females (60%) with a mean age of 17.9±6.3 years (range: 12-29). In control group there were 10 males (66.7%) and 5 females (33.3%) with a mean age of 16.6±5.2 years (range: 12-27). The three groups were comparable for sex (p = 0.14) and age (p = 0.78). Changes in the mean number of noninflamed, inflamed or total lesions within the study period did not differ significantly between three study groups (p = 0.22, 0.54 and 0.46, respectively). In patients receiving red pepper, mild amelioration of acne lesions was documented. According to the findings of this study, neither black pepper, nor red pepper is associated with exacerbation of acne lesions. Red pepper even may have mild ameliorating effect on acne lesions. 2014/10/02 - 23:20

Iron overload (IOL) is one of the most common metal related toxicity. Under this circumstance, excessive iron deposition in liver will lead to further injury such as hepatocellular necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis and even to carcinoma. In this study, the effect of a nature flavonoid, curcumin, on IOL-induced rats liver oxidative damage was investigated. Sixty male albino rats were randomly divided into three equal groups. Group I: Control group, Group II: Iron-overload group, received six doses (three doses per week) of ferric hydroxide poly maltose (100 mg kg-1 b.wt.) by intraperitoneal injections (IP) and Group III: Iron overload+curcumin group, received six doses of 100 mg kg-1 b.wt. ferric hydroxide poly maltose (IP) and curcumin (100 mg kg-1 b.wt.) as one daily oral dose until the sacrificed day. Blood samples for serum separation and liver tissue specimens were collected three times, after three, four and five weeks from the onset of the experimental. Serum iron profile (Iron, Total iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC), transferrin (Tf) and transferrin saturation% (TS%)}, ferritin, albumin, total protein, total cholesterol and triacylglycerols levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were determined. Moreover, iron, L-malondialdehyde (L-MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO) and total nucleic acid (TNA) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the liver were also determined. The obtained results revealed that, IOL resulted in significant increase in serum iron, TIBC, Tf, TS% and ferritin levels and AST and ALT activities and also increased liver iron, L-MDA and NO levels. Meanwhile, it decreased serum UIBC, albumin and total protein and liver GSH, TNA levels and GPx, CAT and SOD activities, compared those of the control group. Administration of curcumin to IOL rats significantly decreased serum iron, TIBC, Tf, TS%, ferritin levels, AST and ALT activities and liver iron, L-MDA and NO levels, with significant increases in serum UIBC, albumin, total protein and total cholesterol levels and in liver GSH, CAT and SOD activities compared with the IOL group. The results of this study may demonstrate the antioxidant potential of curcumin against iron overload induced hepatic oxidative stress in rats. 2014/04/17 - 19:13

Dietary intake is a strong modifiable index for Metabolic Risk Factors (MRF) for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Poor dietary intake has been shown among Ghanaian university students but little is known about how that is related to MRF. This study examined dietary patterns and MRF among KNUST students. Data were collected from 66 randomly selected undergraduate students (31 males and 35 females) from 18-27 years old. Dietary intake was assessed using an 81 item food frequency questionnaire and patterns of dietary intake by K-means cluster analysis. The dietary patterns (clusters) were related to metabolic risk components including fasting blood lipids, fasting blood sugar, blood pressure and waist circumference. In this population, 34.3% of females and 9.7% males had low HDL; 22.9% females and 9.7% males had high LDL; and 11.4% females and 6.5% males had high total cholesterol. Three unique dietary (clusters) patterns were identified, termed: “broad”, “convenience” and “ordinary”. The “broad” cluster, characterised by a varied dietary intake of most food groups and good intake of fruits and vegetables was associated with more physically active (41.9%) participants than the others. The “ordinary” cluster, characterized by whole grains, meat and dairy products but low intake of fruits and vegetables, had more participants who drank alcohol (38.9%) and ate out (32.9%). The “convenience”, characterised by very little to no fruits and vegetables intake, frequent skipping of breakfast (46.2%) and high beverage consumption was associated with higher serum triglyceride (p = 0.021) and total cholesterol (p = 0.005) among male participants. Between the three, the broad cluster seemed the best regarding types and frequencies of foods consumed and association with MRFs whereas the convenience cluster seemed the worst. In conclusion, our findings showed significant prevalence of MRF for CVDs in this young population and distinct dietary patterns, which were associated with these risk factors. 2014/04/17 - 19:13

The association of low calcium intake with high serum PTH concentrations, increased
bone resorption and low bone mass has been studied extensively in elderly women
but studies examined the association among young women of childbearing age are
scanty. The present study was designed to evaluate the dietary intake of calcium
and its association with intact parathyroid hormone (S-iPTH) in young female
garment factory worker with hypovitaminosis D. A total of 198 apparently healthy
subjects (aged 18-36 years) were randomly selected. Anthropometric and background
information was collected. Three days dietary records were used to estimate
habitual calcium intake. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD)
and S-iPTH were measured. The dietary calcium intake was uniformly low. About
60% of subjects failed to meet the lowest level (400 mg day-1) of
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) of calcium for Indian adult women. S-iPTH
showed a significant inverse relationship with dietary calcium intake (r = -0.60,
p<0.001). We observed that dietary calcium intake and S-25OHD together explained
46% of the variation in S-iPTH and 39% of the total variability in S-iPTH was
explained by the variation in dietary calcium intake alone. Low calcium intake
could reduce the bone accretion and may increase the risk of hyperparathyroidism,
osteoporosis and fracture burden in these subjects. 2013/09/24 - 17:09

The aim of this research was to study the fast food habits of the hostlers in relation to their consumption and awareness and to study the role of their parents and advertisement. Food is considered an important representation of all ethnic groups. Although, the trend change and its impact exits on whole society, whether it belongs to lower middle class and/or elite class. But beside this thing till today there is no proper definition of the fast food. Hostel life is entirely different from the in-home especially in terms of eating habit. So, by keeping this view in mind the study was conducted in Lovely Professional University hostels to know about the consumption and awareness of the hostlers about the fast food eating pattern. The study emphasizes on the ambiguity in the knowledge, awareness and prudent consumption behavior amongst the university hostlers. It provides converging evidence of a direct causal link between food advertising, parent’s role and behavioral pattern of the hostlers about the fast food consumption. The study was conducted during the October-November 2011 in the Lovely Professional University hostels. At present 18,000 students residing in the university hostels as information obtained from the university authority from which 10.06% of the total samples i.e., 1811 were targeted and non-parametric test (chi-square) was applied to check the goodness of fit, at 95% level of significance. The survey provides converging evidence of a direct causal link between food advertising, parent’s role and behavioral pattern of the hostlers about the fast food consumption. Understanding hostlers eating attitude and behavior is important in terms of their health which clearly demarks that the adoption of fast food culture among university hostlers in Lovely Professional University is common. The study signifies the direct ambiguity in the knowledge, awareness and prudent consumption behavior amongst the university hostlers. 2013/04/09 - 23:51

Nutritional status and eating practices varies among urban and rural area because there are differences in environment and socioeconomic status. This cross-sectional study was aimed to compare and investigate the relationship between the nutritional status and eating practices among children aged 4-6 years old in urban and rural area in Selangor, Malaysia. 142 children from urban (n = 100) and rural (n = 42) participated in this study. The nutritional status of the subjects were evaluated by assessing their anthropometry values which were weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI) and later compared with standard growth chart. The diet intake of the subjects were obtained using 3 days diet record and later compared with Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI). The t-test showed, there was a significant differences for weight for age and height for age among children from urban and rural area (p<0.05). Prevalence of wasting was higher among rural children (31%) than urban children (22%). Two-way ANOVA test showed that there were significant differences in nutrient intake between children from urban and rural area (p<0.05) with calorie intake among rural children higher (23%) than RNI, higher protein intake among urban (114%) and rural (165%) than RNI, calcium intake were lowered than RNI for urban (35%) and rural (17%). There was also a positive relationship between children’ BMI with fast food intake (r = 0.274, p<0.05) and eating out (r = 0.207, p<0.05). As a conclusion, rural children had higher prevalence of undernutrition compared to the urban children but the prevalence of obesity were same in both areas. 2012/05/18 - 17:33

This study attempted to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors, self esteem and academic achievement among lower secondary school students. Cross sectional study was conducted among 274 respondents aged 13 to 15 years old. A questionnaire comprising sociodemographic items, Eating Behavior Patterns Questionnaire (EBPQ), Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and exam result were taken. Significant relationship were found between low fat eating behavior with academic achievement with (p = 0.008). There was no significant association between meal skipping, emotional, snacking and convenience eating behavior and self esteem toward academic achievement with (p = 0.412) (p = 0.243) (0.05) and (p = 0.812), respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that student with low fat eating behavior is less likely to have low academic achievement. In conclusion, further research need to be done in order to explained in detail on these issues. 2012/05/18 - 17:33

Currently, childhood obesity has been growing at an alarming rate and it is a common nutritional problem among children in developed countries as well as in developing countries. It has become one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. This study attempts to determine the relationship between dietary pattern and Body Mass Index among primary school children. This is a cross-sectional study involving 204 students aged seven to ten years old from Sekolah Kebangsaan Abdul Samat, Kapar, Selangor. Anthropometric data including height and weight were obtained. Data was obtained by interview using of questionnaire. The prevalence of children being overweight (28.9%) and obesity (12.7%) was high. The finding revealed that types of diet were significantly associated with body mass index. Breakfast consumption and number of meals per day did not show any association with the children’s BMI. In conclusion, body mass index of school children in this study showed to have association with types of diet intakes but showed no association with number of meals per day and breakfast consumption. 2012/05/18 - 17:33

Paediatric nutrition is of growing concern in many countries with regards to the escalating number of childhood obesity. This study endeavours to (i) Determine how parental style is related to healthy eating habits in children, (ii) Establish any relationship between the sociodemographic status of the parents and healthy eating and to (iii) Collect views following school canteen Regulation 2009 in Mauritius. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Mauritius, whereby questionnaires were distributed to mothers of children aged 2-11 years (n = 289). Information collected were mother`s demographic background, monitoring, disciplining, controlling styles and a specific food frequency was also included. Data was analysed using Chi-Square test and Factor Analysis. Monitoring and disciplining styles were found to be significantly (p<0.05) related to healthy eating. Demographic variables enquired were found to be significantly (p<0.05) associated to healthy eating. Parents with high income were reported to be better off to provide a healthy nutrition to their ward. Children found to be eating healthily were those whose mothers were aged above 30 years and working as professionals. Moreover, urban dwellers were found to have a healthier eating activity compared to rural one. Most parents were satisfied with the new canteen regulation but mothers reported that their wards still buy junk foods from school neighbouring shops. Hence, results from the present study can be exploited as baseline data to address the nutrition education of Mauritian’s children. 2012/05/18 - 17:33

This study attempts to determine the association of gestational weight gain and the effect on pregnancy outcome defined by their Body Mass Index (BMI) among pregnant women. Retrospective study involved 436 singleton pregnancy women who delivered in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) from 1st January to 31st December 2010. The subjects were stratified into four BMI group according to World Health Organization (WHO) (underweight <18.5 kg m-2, normal: 18.5-24.9 kg m-2, overweight: 25-30 kg m-2 and obese: 30 kg m-2). Each of BMI group then, classified into 3 categories of Gestational Weight Gain (GWG) (lower increment, normal and high increment). This classifying of GWG group was done according to the US Institute of Medicine (IOM), 2009 guidelines. Pregnancy outcome been analyzed according to the GWG during pregnancy for each BMI group and calculated the crude OR from simple logistic regression modules. 15.1, 40.1, 28.7 and 16.1% of the subjects were underweight, normal BMI, overweight and obese, respectively. In normal BMI women, gestational age outcome and neonatal outcome were significantly associated with inadequate weight gain during pregnancy (p = 0.046 and p = 0.002). Among low GWG of normal BMI women, the crude OR for premature birth and low birth weight were 2.872 and 4.976 (95% CI = 1.009-8.170 and 1.316-18.815), respectively compared with normal GWG. This study shows that normal BMI with lower GWG may result in adverse outcome. In addition, inadequate weight gain during pregnancy can result in significant complication. 2012/05/18 - 17:33

University students tend to have poor eating practices and this is related to nutritional status. This cross-sectional study was done to assess nutritional status and eating practices among university student. A total of 200 students (45 males and 55% females) with the mean aged 20 years old from four Malaysian universities in Selangor participated in this study. Participants completed a set of questionnaire and multiple pass 24 h diet recall. Weight, height and waist circumference of participants were measured. Energy and nutrient intake was described in relation to the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) for Malaysians. 16.7% male students and 20.9% female students were underweight while 17.8% of male student and 10% of female students were overweight. The mean energy intakes among male students were higher compared to female students (male: 1938.5 kcal, female: 1681.84 kcal). There was a significant difference in energy intake, protein and fat intake in regards to gender. More than half of the participants did not meet the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) for energy, protein (female only), calcium and iron (female only). Male students tend to skip breakfast compared to female student with the percentage of 65.6 and 52.8%, respectively. Most students consume fruits (male: 65.6, female: 58.3%) and vegetables (male: 45.6, female: 44.5%) in 1-4 times a week. It is about 33.3% of male students and 29.1% of female students consume fast food several times a week. Present findings suggest the need for intervention that focus on increasing personal valuation of health and nutrition. 2012/03/21 - 05:40

There is an alarming increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity. This study examines the joint association of cardiovascular fitness and nutritional intake with obesity in Filipino pre-adolescents. Grade four to six students from an elementary school in Manila were included. Data were obtained from August 2009 to March 2010. Outcome measures were body mass index, cardiovascular fitness using 20 m multistage shuttle run and 24 h dietary food recall utilizing a face to face interview. For males, the odds of being overweight compared to having normal weight were significantly elevated in those who had low cardiovascular fitness and high caloric intake. Comparing those who were obese with those with normal body mass index, the odds of being obese were very high for those who had low cardiovascular fitness and low caloric intake. However, the odds of being obese increased even more when males had low cardiovascular fitness and high total caloric intake. For females, the odds of being overweight and obese was significantly higher for those with high caloric intake and low physical fitness compared to those with high physical fitness, low total caloric intake. The findings emphasize the importance of increasing cardiovascular fitness through involvement in moderate to vigorous physical activity and improving dietary patterns in order to reduce the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. 2012/03/21 - 05:40

Hypertension is a major public health problem in both the developed and the developing world and it is mostly associated among individuals, who indulge in unhealthy lifestyles and certain dietary habits. The study was a cross-sectional, involving 320 male miners in the Obuasi municipality. The study was conducted to generate data on the relationship between lifestyle variables, blood pressure and dietary habits of male adult miners. Cluster and simple random sampling techniques were used to select the respondents from their residential areas. Chi-square test was used to test for significance between lifestyle variables (alcohol intake, smoking and physical activity), blood pressure and dietary habits in male adult miners. The results indicated that about 41.6% of the respondents were hypertensive while the prevalence of smoking, alcohol intake and less than 8 h of sleep a day were 42.5, 66.9 and 59.7%, respectively. Less than half of the respondents (32.8 and 12.8%) participated in brisk walking and aerobic exercise, respectively. Physical activity level, alcohol intake and smoking did not indicate statistical association with blood pressure (p>0.05). 2012/03/21 - 05:40

The influence of dietary intake in body composition had not been fully established among elderly people. Previous studies had revealed a controversial association between energy, protein, carbohydrate and lipid consumption with body mass index and body composition. The present study intended to evaluate a possible relationship between antropometric data, body composition and dietary intake in elderly people from a daily care institution. Thirty four individuals sixty five or more years old participated in this cross sectional research. Anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, waist and muscular circumference were obtained and body fat mass was calculated by Brozek formula. Food consumption assessment was conducted through a daily weighting method. Daily lipid intake was significantly associated with weight, muscular and waist circumference as well as body mass index (p<0.05). However there was not found any association between body fat mass and daily lipid intake (p>0.05) which possible suggest that lipid consumption do not affect body fat mass gain neither body fat mass had seem to be associated with daily food intake (p>0.05). 2012/03/21 - 05:40

Tea (from the plant Camellia sinensis) is the most popular beverage next to water, consumed by over two-thirds of the world’s population. About three billion kilograms of tea are produced and consumed yearly. Regular intake of tea is associated with an improved antioxidant status in vivo conditions that may contribute to the lowering risk of certain types of cancer, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, stroke, reduced mutagenicity and inflammation, protection against neurodegenerative diseases and increasing insulin sensitivity. Tea may contain alkaloids (caffeine), flavonoids (catechins), phenolic acids (gallic acid, coumaric acid, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid) and volatile oils (essences). Animal studies have strongly supported the idea of tea being an efficient suppressor of oxidative stress in diabetic animals but human studies have faced inconsistency. 2012/02/14 - 12:33

The family Cucurbitaceae includes a large group of plants which are medicinally valuable. It is a family of about 130 genera and about 800 species. Seeds or fruit parts of some cucurbits are reported to possess purgatives, emetics and antihelmintics properties due to the secondary metabolite cucurbitacin content. A number of compounds of this group have been investigated for their cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular effects. Cucurbitacins constitute a group of diverse triterpenoid substances which are well known for their bitterness and toxicity. They are highly oxygenated, tetracyclic triterpenes containing a cucurbitane skeleton characterized. The cucurbitacins are arbitrarily divided into twelve categories, incorporating cucurbitacins A-T. A lot of work has been done by the researchers throughout the world on various plants of the family Cucurbitaceae. Some of the important plants that have been extensively studied are Momordica charantia, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita andreana, Cucurbita ficifolia, Cucumis sativus, Cucumis melo, Citrullus colocynthis, Luffa echinata, Trichosanthes kirilowii, Lagenaria siceraria, Benincasa hispida etc. 2012/02/14 - 12:33

Cigarette smoking is the one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity involving respiratory and cardiovascular illness in developing and developed countries. Smoking has been strongly implicated as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer and atherosclerosis. In this study we deal with the multiple therapeutic benefits of Tocotrienols dissolved in palm oil. Various parameters, such as blood carbonmonoxide saturation, blood nicotine and various lipid profiles, total antioxidant power, conjugated diene formation, malondialdehyde content and ex vivo and Cu++ mediated in vitro LDL oxidation, in addition to body weight were taken to consideration and were analyzed after 4 week administration of tocotrienols (6 mg mL-1) to smoke exposed rats useful in the prevention and treatment of tobacco-induced dyslipidemia/hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. As a conclusion, daily use of dietary tocotrienols will be efficacious, cost effective and a good source of vitamin-E. 2012/02/14 - 12:33

The food nutrition label provides the nutrition information that helps consumers on food choices and used to give us information so that customer can choose between foods. This study was aimed to determine the association between knowledge, attitude and practices on food label use and to determine the factors that influence the use of food labels during making food purchasing decision among university students. A cross-sectional study of undergraduate students at UiTM Puncak Alam in the Kuala Selangor district of Malaysia was conducted in June until July 2011. Three hundred twenty nine students (n = 329) volunteered to complete a Food Label Use Questionnaire (FLUQ) which included question about sociodemographics, level of knowledge about food and nutrition, attitude and practices related to using food labels and factors affecting the use of food labelling. Hypothesis testing was completed using Independent t-test, Pearson chi-square and descriptive analysis in which the statistical significant level was set at α = 0.05. The results show that, only 21.6% of the students “often” use the food label during food purchasing decision. These study shows that the practices by read the nutrition information were significantly associated with the use of food label (p<0.05). The important aspect during buying food product was expiry date (98.5%), taste (95.7%), price (92.4%) and nutrient content (90.5%) were significantly associated with the use of food label. The students attitude which is do not know how to use nutritional information label (p = 0.028) and label was not attractive (p = 0.037) were significantly associated on food label use. 2011/12/03 - 13:17

Dancers are prone to have high risk of eating disorder, obsess to be physically thin and generally will have body image distortion. This research has studied the prevalence of risk of eating disorder among dancers, comparison of the body composition between dancers and control subjects and to examine the relationship between eating attitude, body image concern, body composition and dieting behaviour. A set of self-administered questionnaires that consist of Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26), Body Attitude Test (BAT) and Dieting Behaviour were conducted on 23 dancers and 50 lean subjects. Measurement on weight, height, mid upper arm circumference and skinfold thickness of triceps, abdomen, suprailiac and thigh was taken. The result showed dancers have high prevalence of risk of eating disorder (21.74%) compared to control subjects (12.00%). There were also significant mean differences in percentage of fats and percentage of lean body weight, when p<0.05. In addition, there were significant positive strong correlation between eating attitude and body image concern (p = 0.002, r = 0.606) as well as correlation between dieting behaviour and body image concern (p = 0.012, r = 0.515). Moreover, the relationship between BMI and dieting behaviour showed positive strong correlation when p = 0.002 and r = 0.614 where dancers choosed to use diet pills (p = 0.001), vomit and taken laxatives (p = 0.016) for dieting. In conclusion, dancers were very concern about body figure, appearnce and fear of gaining weight which can lead to unhealthy dieting habits. 2011/12/03 - 13:17

Evaluating the proximate composition of food fish is the most important aspect in fish nutrition. The present study was carried out to determine the flesh quality of Scomberoides lysan, S. tol and S. commersonianus fish species which correspond to different grade of inclination of the Sri Lankan consumers. Major nutrient compositions of raw muscle like protein, lipid, moisture, carbohydrate and ash were estimated. Proximate compositions were varied among the species. The highest moisture content was present in S. lysan (75.67%) and the lowest in S. commersonianus (72.57%). The ash content estimated in S. lysan, S. tol and S. commersonianus were 1.42, 1.49 and 1.6%, respectively. Carbohydrate was present in very low level (<0.3%) in all fish species. Protein content was estimated as 19.47±0.16%, 18.99±0.51% and 21.68±0.65% in S. lysan, S. tol and S. commersonianus respectively. Lipid content for S. lysan, S. tol and S. commersonianus was recorded as 0.89±0.005%, 0.594±0.113% and 1.00±0.12%, respectively. The results revealed that the highest protein content, lipid and ash content were recorded in S. commersonianus (21.68, 1.00 and 1.6%, respectively) whereas the lowest lipid content was reported in S. tol (0.59%). Marked significant differences (p<0.05) were observed among Scomberoides fish species for the mean moisture, protein, lipid, carbohydrate and ash contents. From the results S. commersonianus can be suggested as an ideal dietetic food among the three fish analyzed. 2011/12/03 - 13:17

Mustard oil, traditional edible oil used in India and Bangladesh for centuries, has been associated with lower risk of metabolic disorders. The present study was performed to evaluate the potential antiobesity effect of mustard oil by analyzing the changes in body weight, visceral adipose mass and serum biochemicals in dietary obesity in wistar rats. Wistar rats were fed normal chow diet, lard based high fat diet, mustard oil based high fat diet or lard plus mustard oil based high fat diet for 10 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured regularly during the experimental period. Total fat in fecal excretions were measured in the 8th week while as core body temperature (an index of thermogenesis) and oral glucose tolerance test were measured in 10th week of the experiment. At the end of experiment various visceral adipose tissues were weighed and serum glucose and lipids measured. Lard based high fat diet animals gained more body weight, had higher glucose and lipid levels compared to NC animals indicating induction of obesity. However, body weight gain and visceral adipose tissue mass of lard plus mustard oil based high fat diet animals were lower than that of lard based high fat diet animals and that of the mustard oil based high fat diet were the lowest. Furthermore, both mustard oil based high fat diet and lard plus mustard oil based high fat diet animals were associated with increased thermogenesis, decreased serum glucose and lipid levels and improved glucose tolerance compared to lard based high fat diet obese animals. These results suggest that mustard oil has potential antiobesity effect by regulating body weight gain, adipose tissue mass and lipid and glucose metabolism. 2011/07/27 - 22:59 2011/07/27 - 22:59

This study attempts to determine interrelationship between nutritional status and quality of life among leukemic children. Cross sectional study involved 34 children aged 5-15 years old. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical data were obtained. A Multiple Pass 24-h Diet Recall for nutritional assessment was attained. Quality of Life (QoL) is measured using Cancer Module PedsQL. The findings revealed that leukemic children have normal development like healthy children of the same age. Majority of them had normal percentiles of height-for-age and weight-for-age with 91.2 and 97.1%, respectively and only 5.9% were stunted. Indicators of protein-energy malnutrition showed that triceps skinfold 64.7%, MUAC 73.5% and arm muscle area 73.5% were in normal percentiles. Where else, for biochemical assessment, most of them have normal albumin and total protein level, 91.8 and 79.4%, respectively but 55.9% have low hemoglobin level. There were significant difference between QoL with socioeconomic status and time of diagnose. QoL was positively correlated with weight and body mass index but negatively correlated with total protein and albumin. In conclusion, it is learned that weight, BMI, total protein and albumin were not a predictor of QoL among leukemic children. 2011/07/27 - 22:59

The effect of the ingestion of large amounts of MSG administered with diets on different brain regions was investigated. Animals were divided into two groups of six mice each. The control group was fed with water and diet only while the experimental group was placed on water and a diet containing 30% (w/w) MSG for 14 weeks. Internationally acceptable procedures were used for all the parameters analyzed in this study. Following MSG administration, there were increases (p<0.01) in the total brain weight as well as the brain weight to body weight ratio with a reduction (p<0.01) in body weight. The weights of both the cerebrum and the cerebellum were increased (p<0.05). Lipid Peroxidation (LP) was increased (p<0.05) in the cerebrum, reduced in the brain stem and remained unchanged in the cerebellum. Catalase (CAT) activity in both the brain stem and the cerebrum was increased (p<0.05) but the cerebellum was unaffected. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity and Glutathione (GSH) level were reduced (p<0.05) in the cerebellum but the antioxidants were not affected in the cerebrum and the brain stem. The results of the present study suggest that the ingestion of large amounts of MSG with diet causes an increase in the weight of cerebrum with simultaneous increase in LP and reduction in CAT activity. 2011/07/27 - 22:59

Unhealthy lifestyle and eating habits have been associated with the increasing prevalence of diet-related non- communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disorders and hypertension. The study was a cross-sectional involving 320 underground male miners in the Obuasi municipality. The research was conducted to generate data on the associations between characteristics of underground miners, their nutrition and blood pressure. Cluster and simple random sampling techniques were used to select the respondents from their residential areas. Independent sample t-test and Spearman’s correlation (2 tailed) were used to test the significance of associations between selected continuous variables, while Chi-square test was used to test for significance between categorical variables. Logistic regression was used to determine the extent to which significant variables predicted high blood pressure. Results indicated that apart from vehicle ownership (p = 0.02) and length of working underground (p<0.001). All other socio-economic variables did not indicate any significant association with blood pressure. About 41.6% of the respondents were hypertensive. The prevalence of obesity and overweight cases combined were 62.1%. Potassium intake correlated significantly and positively with systolic (r = 0.11, p = 0.04) and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.13, p = 0.02). The risk of developing hypertension increased with age, with persons within the age categories of 30 -39 years, 40- 49 years and 50 -59 years had odds ratios of 2.55 (95% CI: 1.12-5.81), 3.34 (95% CI: 1.45-7.68) and 7.56 (95% CI: 2.91-19.84), respectively. Nutrient intake and blood pressure monitoring must be part of the day-to-day programmes of the underground male miners. 2011/03/25 - 08:30

Celery, Chicory leaves and Barley grains are valuable in weight loss diets and regulate lipid metabolism. They may reduce risk of fatty liver. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with celery, chicory and barley powder on liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats fed cholesterol enriched diet. In this study used four groups of rats fed 3% cholesterol were supplemented diet to induce hypercholesterolemia and one group was fed on cholesterol free basal diet. The dry powder of celery leaves, chicory leaves and barley grains was separately added to the basal diet at 10% concentration or in combination of three plants at 15% for four weeks. Biochemical analyses of serum liver enzymes and blood lipids as well as histopathological examination of liver were performed. Feeding of diet supplemented lowered the elevated serum level of liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats. While, feeding plant combination of celery, chicory and barley at 15% concentration (5% from each) was more effective in decreased the elevating of liver enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP), lowered blood lipids. The histopathological lesions seen in the livers of hypercholesterolemic rats were ameliorated by feeding this plant mixture. This study recommends that dietary intake of plant mixture concentration can be beneficial to patients suffering from hypercholesterolemia and liver diseases. 2011/03/25 - 08:30

Glycemic Index (GI) and Insulin (as measured by C-peptide) responses of Ladies Finger (Abelmoschus esculentus) and Pointed Gourd (Trichosanthes dioica) from Bangladeshi origin were investigated to help in creating a better food exchange table for diabetic patients. Based on serving size in the Bangladeshi society, the GL of those two food items have also been calculated. Ten diabetic subjects, under a cross-over design, consumed equi-carbohydrate amount (25 g of total carbohydrate) of the vegetables and white bread (WB, as reference food), with a run in period of seven days between the consecutive items. The serum levels of glucose were estimated at 0, 0', 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min, respectively, NEFA and c-peptide levels were at 0 and 180, min only. GI and GL were calculated by standard formula. Both Ladies Finger (LF) and Pointed Gourd (PG) showed significantly lower serum glucose value than that of WB. The GI of LF and PG were 56±20 and 76±24, respectively. Both LF and PG showed significantly lower serum c-peptide and serum NEFA response as compared to WB at 180 min (p<0.01). The GL of LF and PG were 5 and 6, respectively. In contrast to the general belief that vegetables are rich in dietary fiber and thus necessarily have low glycemic index, the present data shows relatively medium and high glycemic index of LF and PG, respectively. Presence of bioactive natural agents in these vegetables, resulting in the suppression of insulin secretion/action or having stimulatory effect on insulin antagonists, need to be investigated. 2011/03/25 - 08:30

Flours of 10 cassava varieties: TME778, TMS/1646, TMS00/0355, 01/0103, TMS94/0330, TMS91934, TMS/0338, TMS91/1730, NR87/184 and TMS92/0057 were screened for their nutritional composition, antioxidant activities, functional properties and microbial loads. TMS91934 had the highest starch composition among the 10 varieties while TMS94/0330 had the least (17.81±1.38). The loose bulk density of TMS01/0103 was higher than that of other varieties (0.308±0.03) (p<0.05) with TMS91934 having the least (0.147±0.025) while TMS001/0355 had higher packed bulk density (0.449±0.06) and moisture content (68.77±0.84) among other varieties studied with TME778 having the least packed bulk density (0.324±0.02) and moisture content (57.38±0.59). The percentage dry matter contents of the cassava varieties ranged from 30.4 to 46.23 with TME778 having the highest dry matter content (42.57±0.66) and TMS001/0355 having the least (31.24±0.84). The cassava varieties were found to possess antioxidant activities as evaluated by the phenolic composition of methanolic extracts of the flours and reducing power tests. Phytochemical analysis of the flours indicated that they contained significant quantities of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins with their cyanogenic glucoside content lower than LD50 values for man. All flours of the 10 cassava varieties had good viable and fungal counts in addition. The results obtained indicate the biosafety in the consumption of these cassava varieties with antioxidant potentials whose shelf life could be extended if packaged well and stored. In addition, they’re quite suitable as drug binder and disintegrant in pharmaceuticals. 2011/03/25 - 08:30

Thermal treatment of food is done in the food industry for preservation purposes. Food preservation prevents deteriorative reactions, extends a food’s shelf life and assures its safety. Thermal processing has most of the characteristics of an ideal food preservation method. However, in some foods the high thermotolerance of certain enzymes and microorganisms, mainly bacterial spores, entails the application of extreme heat treatments, which changes the nutritional, phytochemical and organoleptic food properties. Therefore, alternatives to thermal processing as the main means of inactivating pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms are being developed by researchers. The present review focuses on the effect of some non thermal processing technologies on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of some vegetables. 2011/02/06 - 02:43

The effect of oral administration of two different composite diets prepared from maize, groundnut and soybean on some anthropometric, haematological and biochemical indices of albino rats was investigated. In this study, the material balance method under steady state conditions was employed to prepare a composite diet of one part of groundnut to eight parts of soybean to sixteen parts of maize. Ninety rats divided into three groups (A, B and C) of thirty rats each were used. Group A was placed on maize diet alone (diet 3) which serves as control, whereas groups B and C were placed on the composite diets (diets 1and 2) containing soybean flours (‘Anidaso’ and ‘Salintuya’) respectively with groundnut cake and fermented maize. The length, weight, total protein, serum albumin, haemoglobin and white blood cell were measured at week zero (0) and every two (2) weeks for 10 weeks. The results revealed that rats fed on the composite diets had normal growth (Length: 35-40 cm; Weight: 190-230 g), acceptable biochemical (Total Protein: 75-80 g L-1; Serum albumin: 45-50 g L-1) and haematological (Haemoglobin: 12.5-14.0 g dL-1; White blood cell: 6.0-6.5x109 L-1) indices, whereas the control rats showed the reverse (Length: 35-37 cm; Weight: 180-185 g; Total Protein: 65-72 g L-1; Serum albumin: 35-43 g L-1, Haemoglobin: 10.5-12.0 g dL-1; White blood cell: 7.0-8.0x109 L-1) with p< 0.5. The composite diets can therefore be used as a weaning food to improve the nutritional and health status of growing infants in Ghana. 2011/02/06 - 02:43

The aim of this study was to examine the nutritional content and antioxidant potential of three date fruit varieties (Phoenix dactylifera L.) native to Libya, namely, Bekraray, Deglet-nour and Khathori. The fruits were collected from three districts of Libya covering the northern, southern and eastern areas, respectively. The fruits were pitted and the flesh was extracted at 60°C for 6 h. The antioxidant activity of the extract was measured using 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and iron (3) reduction (FRAP) assay. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC) of the date was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. The results showed that the nutritional content of dates varied by source. The flesh of Bekraray dates contained high percentage of carbohydrates (76.97%), vitamin C (8.50 mg 100 g) and potassium (6043.2 mg kg-1) whereas, Deglet-nour variety demonstrated the high percentage of total sugar (73.25%), vitamin A (10.50 μ/100 g) and vitamin E (12.98 mg kg-1). On the other hand, Khathori variety showed high percentage of vitamin B2, magnesium, calcium, sodium and ferum with concentrations of 824.98, 660.74, 614.21, 485.86 and 20.29 mg kg-1, respectively. The Bekraray dates exhibited a significantly high concentration of TPC (p<0.05) from those of the two other varieties. The antioxidant activity correlated positively with the TPC of the extracts. The Bekraray also showed high FRAP value and free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) among the studied date varieties and the values corresponded to 13.46±0.11 μmol (Fe)/g and 78.9%, respectively. These results suggest that Libyan dates varieties have a high nutritional value and possess beneficial antioxidant properties. Bekraray date was found to be superior than Deglet-nour and Khathori variety. 2011/02/06 - 02:43

Nigeria is still considered one of the countries with the highest prevalence of protein energy malnutrition. Cassava is a staple food in many parts of Nigeria and it is processed into different forms in different parts of the country, among the commonest of which is gari, which is often consumed by many people without being supplemented explaining partly the prevalent malnutrition. In this study, we investigated the possible effects of gari-based kwashiorkorigenic diet on the renal function which is central to maintenance of homeostasis. We used 24 weanly albino rats divided into two groups. One group was fed with Low Protein Diet (LPD) while the other was fed with normal Commercially Produced Diet (CPD), for 8 weeks. The results showed significant negative effects on both the growth, as shown by the body weight and the kidney size and function in the rats fed with the gari-based low protein diet. The percentage weight change (% + SD) and relative kidney weight for CPD and LPD groups were +340.95+2.63 and 0.51+0.02; -2.03+0.49 and 1.03+0.07, respectively. The Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) (mg dL-1), serum creatinine (mg dL-1) and the BUN/creatinine ratio were found to be 19.1+0.84, 0.81+ 0.11 and 24.47+1.18 in the CPD group but 93.42+6.68, 1.92+0.04 and 24.47+1.18 in the LPD group. Similarly, blood pH tended towards acidity in the test group, 6.80+0.04 compared with the control, 7.40+0.03. Therefore, we concluded that during chronic protein-energy malnutrition due to consumption of poorly supplemented gari-based diet, certain renal functions are compromised. 2011/02/06 - 02:43