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Asian Journal of Biological Sciences

Scirpus grossus L. is a principal rhizomatous weed in the rice fields, drainage and irrigation canals, river banks, abandoned rice fields and wasteland in Malaysia. This study describes the spatio-temporal growth patterns of aerial plant on fertilized and unfertilized paddy soils. The fertilizer application resulted in more robust aerial plant growth of S. grossus with gross population of 97.08 ramets m-2 compared with 83.67 ramets m-2 in unfertilized plots 24 weeks after planting of the mother plant. Mean ramets mortality was significantly higher in unfertilized plots than the fertilized plots. Flowering set in earlier among ramets in fertilized paddy soils with 49.56 ramets m-2 vis-a-vis the unfertilized soil registering ca. 47.79 ramets m-2, 24 weeks after transplanting of the mother plant. The results showed that S. grossus started to flower at weeks 8 under 5 cm and 9th week under 0 cm and highest inflorescence number were recorded at 5 cm water depth. Fertilizer applications did not register any significant difference in mean plant height, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence measurements and inflorescence production vis-a-vis those devoid of fertilizer application. However, there was a clear reduction in the chlorophyll content when the plants were grown under 20 cm of water in the presence of fertilizers. The time-and space-mediated clonal growth of S. grossus did not register any significant preferential directionality and dispersion of aerial plants irrespective of fertilizer regimes and water depths but rather displaying opportunistic resource capture by aerial and sub-terranean modules. 2014/09/12 - 04:29

Field experiment was conducted with an objectives to estimate losses caused to sweetpotato due
to Cylas puncticollis damage and devise integrated management options for the pest in eastern
Ethiopia. The study was conducted at Haramaya University in eastern Ethiopia during the rainy season (June-Nov.) of 2011. The experiment was laid-out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications in a factorial arrangement. The factors were; three levels of cropping systems (sole sweetpotato (as control), sweetpotato intercropped with maize and sweetpotato intercropped with haricot bean), three levels of earthing-up (1x, 2x and 3x) and two levels of harvesting periods (prompt and 1 month delayed harvesting). Data collected were number of damaged and health storage roots, weight of healthy and damaged roots and yield of maize and haricot bean. These data were analyzed using SAS version 9.2 and means were separated using Least Significant Differences (LSD). Results of the studies suggested that the three way interaction effect was highly significant (p<0.01). Sweetpotato intercropping with maize, three times earthing-up and prompt harvesting has reduced percentage weight loss from 68.28 to 8.46% and yield loss from 70 to 22.26%. The highest (1.53) Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) was obtained from sweetpotato-haricot bean intercropping followed by sweetpotato-maize (1.28) cropping system. Similarly, cost-benefit analysis showed sweetpotato intercropped with haricot bean resulted in high economic profit than sweetpotato intercropped with maize and monoculture. Therefore, integrated use of the three cultural practices favorably reduced weevil’s impact on sweetpotato and resulted with higher economic benefit. Hence, sweetpotato farmers are advised to use these eco-friendly economical tools in area where C. puncticollis is economically important insect pests of sweetpotato. 2014/09/12 - 04:29

The constituents and bacterial population of an oilfield wastewater and tissues of Clarias gariepinus exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of the oilfield wastewater were investigated. Some physicochemical parameters, total heterotrophic and petroleum degrading bacterial counts of the wastewater and tissues were determined using standard methods. The mean values of physicochemical parameters obtained were: Temperature 25.93±6.7°C, pH 7.73±0.31, turbidity 40.33±1.53 NTU, salinity 6584±137 mg L-1, conductivity 15200±1058.68 μS cm-1, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) 8436.33±501.68 mg L-1, Total Suspended Solids (TSS) 4.67±0.58 mg L-1, chloride 4033.37±208.17 mg L-1, alkalinity 1296.33±2168 mg L-1, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 1.83±0.38 mg L-1, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) 1.3±0.7 mg L-1 and Total hydrocarbon (THC) 40.54±50 mg L-1. The values for TDS, salinity, conductivity and alkalinity were greater than FEPA limits while BOD and DO values were lower. Values of other constituents were within the acceptable limits of FEPA. Mean total heterotrophic counts and petroleum degraders in the oilfield wastewater were 1.59±0.57x108 CFU mL-1 and 42.1±17.4%, respectively. Bacterial counts for the tissues of Clarias ranged from 0.04±0.01x106 to 0.29±0.001x106 CFU g-1 for the skin, 2.49±0.35x106 to 4.15±0.13x106 CFU g-1 for the gills and 1.22±0.00x106 to 3.15±0.24x106 CFU g-1 for the intestine. The gills had higher bacterial counts. The bacteria isolated included Alcaligenes, Bacillus spp., Chromobacterium, Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Proteus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest occurring bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (80%), followed by E. coli (55%) and Enterobacter spp. (50%) while the least was Chromobacterium (5%) that occurred only in the oilfield wastewater. All bacteria except E. coli and Chromobacterium were isolated from the wastewater and C. gariepinus, respectively. The high levels of physicochemical constituents and very low DO of the oilfield wastewater is a hazard to fish if discharged into water bodies. The presence of potential pathogens such as Bacillus, E. coli and Staphylococcus among others can lead to bacterial diseases of fish, economic loss and public health hazards. The proper treatment of oilfield wastewater prior to discharge into the recipient water body is advocated as to reduce ecotoxicological problems. 2014/09/12 - 04:29

The present study is aimed at evaluating the hepatoprotective effect of Bridelia retusa bark extracts by paracetamol-induced liver damage in swiss albino mice. The degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as Serum Glutamate Oxalate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and total protein. Further the effect of extract was assayed by using Lipid Peroxidation (LPO), Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalases (CAT) were estimated. The Phytochemical investigation of butanol extract showed presence gallic acid and catechin. Treatment with Bridelia retusa bark extract showed significant reduction in values of SGOT, SGPT, ALP and total bilirubin almost comparable to the Silymarin. The hepatoprotection confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver tissue from the result it can be concluded that Bridelia retusa possesses hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol-induced liver damage in mice may be due to presence of gallic acid and catechin. 2014/09/12 - 04:29

Aquaculture is a fast-growing food production sector. However, intensification of aquaculture has led to increasing use of various drugs and chemicals, detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. The present study was carried out to know the existing situation of different aquaculture drugs used in fish and shellfish health management in aquaculture activities. Data was collected through questionnaire interview, personal contact, market survey and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) like Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with fish and shellfish hatchery owners, nursery and culture farmers and retailers of aqua medicine and representatives of pharmaceutical companies. A range of chemicals including antibiotics were found existing in the market. Fish health management and disease treatment were the major areas where majority of such chemicals have been used. Other uses included pond preparation and management, growth promotion and improvement of water quality to enhance pond productivity. Commonly found traditional and new chemicals in health management included geotox, green zeolite, zeolite, zeocare, lime, mega zeo, bio aqua, gastrap, aquanone, zeo-fresh, zeo prime are used for the pond preparation and water quality management. Bio-ox, best oxygen, oxygen plus, oxyflow, oxygold, oxygrow, oxylife, oxymax, oxymore and oxyplus are the available chemicals for increasing oxygen concentration in pond or gher. Acimox(vet) Powder, Bactitab, Chlorsteclin, Cotrim-Vet, Fish cure, Orgacycline-15%, Otetra vet power 50, Oxin WS, Oxysentin 20%, Ranamox, Renamycin and Sulfatrim were antibiotics widely used in the study area. The present study also identified the problems associated with the use of aquaculture drugs which included lack of knowledge regarding use of chemicals, appropriate dose, method of application and indiscriminate use of chemicals in southwestern Bangladesh. 2014/09/12 - 04:29

A comparative study on the varietal preference and developmental behaviour
of C. maculatus on thirteen different soybean varieties has been done
and results revealed that all the genotypes were highly preferred by C. maculatus
for egg laying except harasoya which was with intermediate surface texture.
On the basis of developmental behaviour among all the genotypes, bragg was totally
resistant, Pb-1, shivalik, JS-9305, JS-9560 and harasoya were found relatively
resistant while other varieties, JS-335, Him soya, P9-2-2, P2-2, Pk-472, P13-4
and Palam soya were found susceptible to C. maculatus. 2014/09/12 - 04:29

Extracts of roots and leaves of Centella asiatica (Linnaeus) Urban were used to evaluate their antimalarial effect against Plasmodium berghei in vivo in a typical 4 day test. Alcohol soluble extracts were administered orally in experimental mice along with placebo controls. On day 4 parasitaemia in control group of mice was 21.54±1.75% while in mice treated with roots and leaves extracts showed 5.73±1.14% and 11.89±1.25% infection, respectively. 2014/09/12 - 04:29

The plant hormone ethylene has become the focus of plant biology over the last
100 years. It is a gaseous plant hormone that is responsible for fruit ripening,
growth inhibition, leaf abscission, aging and a wide range of other plant processes.
Extensive reviews of ethylene biosynthesis have been described by researchers
and the effects of ethylene in plants are well established. Most studies on
fruit ripening and ethylene biosynthesis have been confined to climacteric fruits
such as apple (Malus domestica), tomato (Lycoperscion esculentum), avocado
(Persea gratissima), banana (Musa acuminata) and to a lesser extent
in paw-paw (Carica papaya), kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa) and
breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis). Ethylene is also at the centre of postharvest
technology acting as a key in the extension of shelf life and fruit quality
during storage. In this review, the use of postharvest technology is examined
to preserve the quality and shelf life of produce through the removal/inhibition
of ethylene from storage systems and describe systems that primarily employ
ethylene inhibition/removal as its core. 2014/08/15 - 15:49

This study reviews the role of ethylene oxide in biological systems and the
progress made within this study area since the earliest identification of this
gas. Current study and review articles provide vast information on the toxicity
of ethylene oxide and the potential health risks that are associated with its
use. While a few sections in this study are dedicated to the effects of ethylene
oxide, a majority of the material will be confined to the gas and its role in
plant biological systems. 2014/08/15 - 15:49

The explorations of avifauna of Chandertal wetland sanctuary revealed the presence
of 41 birds species belonging to 35 genera, 12 families, 7 orders of class Aves.
Family Passeridae represented by 6 species, Fringilidae by 5 species and Corvidae,
Phasianidae and Accipitridae has 4 species each. Family Columbidae has 3 species
but families like Musciapidae, Falconidae, Scolopacidae, Charadriidae, Upupidae
and Anatidae each represented by single species. There are 20 avian species
found in sanctuary which are listed in Schedule IV of the Wildlife Protection
Act, 1972. 2014/08/15 - 15:49

Acinetobacter baumannii is a significant opportunistic pathogen which causes severe infections related to catheters and ventilator. Adhesive Virulence Factors (VFs) are effective in Acinetobacter baumannii adherence and pathogenicity. The aim of this study is to evaluate frequency of adhesive virulence factors in carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii. In total, 104 Acinetobacter baumannii were collected from teaching hospitals of Kermanshah, Iran during March 2011-2013. All the isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Carbapenemase-producing isolates were identified, DNA of isolates were extracted by boiling and were investigated for the presence of adhesive virulence factors by PCR. Among 50 carbapenemase-producing isolates, frequency of fimH and csgA genes obtained 30(60%) and 27(54%), respectively. The 20(40%) isolates carried both of fimH and csgA but 13(26%) carried non of these two genes. None of these isolates presented genes codifying for other different adhesive virulence factors include fimbriae Dr (afa/draBC), fimbriae S (sfa/focDE), fimbriae P (pap), capsule (kpsMT) and fibronecting receptor (fnb). Adhesive virulence factors are responsible for pathogenesis of bacteria. As adhesive VFs, fimbriae type I (fimH) and curli fiber (csgA) are participated in adherence and biofilm formation and give bacteria, the ability to be hidden of host immune system and then causing infections more than 50% prevalence of fimH and csgA genes among 7 adhesive VFs studied in this study shows, that may cause significant relationship between the presence of fimH and csgA genes and A. baumannii infections. 2014/08/15 - 15:49

Biohydrogen is a clean and environmental friendly renewable energy source.
It only produces water after combustion. Anaerobic fermentation process is one
of the best suitable technique for the biohydrogen production from industrial
wastes. In this study with the consortium of biohydrogen producing bacteria
B1 and B4 at the pH 5 and temperature 70°C, the effect of different concentration
of ferrous and nitrate ions in the production of biohydrogen from dairy effluent
was analyzed. Maximum biohydrogen production at the concentration of 100 mg
L-1 of ferrous ion during 24 h HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time) was
55 mL with HPR (Hydrogen Production Rate) of 5.729 mL L-1 h-1
and during 48 h HRT 85 mL of biohydrogen was produced with the HPR of 4.427
mL L-1 h-1. This process has been found to be an efficient
method for the treatment of effluent in different pollution parameters after
this fermentative biohydrogen production. 2014/08/15 - 15:49

The objective of this study was to determine if morphine and lacosamide alter ATPase activity or calcium levels in the brain of rats with insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Wistar rats received insulin and morphine or lacosamide (both at 10 mg kg-1) for 5 consecutive days. Blood glucose was measured and after sacrifice, their brains were extracted to measure ATPase activity and calcium levels in cortex, hemispheres and cerebellum/medulla oblongata regions. Glucose decreased significantly in animals treated with morphine and lacosamide. ATPase activity decreased significantly in hemispheres of animals received insulin alone or combined with lacosamide or morphine, but increased in cerebellum/medulla oblongata region. Calcium increased in hemispheres and cerebellum/medulla oblongata of animals with morphine and insulin alone. The Vmax decreased significantly in hemispheres of animals with morphine and lacosamide in the presence of insulin. The results indicated that morphine and lacosamide alter ATPase activity and calcium levels in rat’s brain with insulin-induced hypoglycemia. 2014/08/15 - 15:49

In silico docking techniques are being at this instant have great investigation
utensil for molecular analysis. The principle binding situate of this protein
would be BRCT considered for expression and regulation of BRCA1. The BRCA1 C
Terminus (BRCT) domain is a family of evolutionarily related proteins. The present
study focus on docking and toxicity scrutiny of well descriptive peptides and
the results suggested that Z Dock score suggested higher score with peptide
p-ACC1 and ATRIP peptide and the toxicity examination were carried out using
ToxinPred on line tool suggested that ATRIP peptide has lesser toxicity controversy
with peptide p-ACC1 has greater toxicity. Further concluded ATRIP and p-ACC1
suggested for further studies. 2014/08/15 - 15:49

The antibacterial activities of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) were studied with respect to gram-negative E. coli by measuring the growth curves of bacteria. Bacterial cells were treated with Cu nanoparticles powder and the growth rates were investigated under varying concentrations of Cu nanoparticles and incubation times. E. coli was shown to be substantially inhibited by copper nanoparticles. These results suggest that Cu- NPs could be used as an effective antibacterial material. The analysis of Kruskal-Wallis test of microbiological data showed that the microbiological bacterial death differ between the different NPs concentration (p<0.05). Cu-NPs showed anti bacterial activity against E. coli. 2014/08/15 - 15:49

Nematophagous fungi are important biocontrol agents of nematode pests. Two
genes encoding a secreted serine proteinase (PrDI) and a carboxylesterase (CaDI),
respectively, were cloned and characterized by phylogeny and structural comparison.
The genes presented the enhanced expression when Dactylellina cionpaga was
cultured on water agar containing Caenorhabditis elegans in contrast
to that without the nematodes. Ser225, Glu358 and His470 consisted of the active
site of CaDI according to the alignment. The comparison of the structure and
its active sites of CaDI with other lipases and carboxylesterases indicated
that the protein was more similar to the carboxylesterase and lipases of fungal
pathogen of pests, might be butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase and
probably catalyzed the long-chain carboxylester. The catalytic region of PrDI
was identified by docking of the heptapeptide inhibitor Pro-Ala-Pro-Phe-Ala-Ser-Ala.
Comparison of the substrate-binding sites of PrDI with those of PR1, Ver112
and VCP1, the serine proteinases from nematophagous fungi and entomopathogenic
fungus, showed that the catalytic regions among these serine proteinases were
conserved but diverse. 2014/06/26 - 09:39

The biodiversity study was executed to reveal the microalgal population in
the Gundur Lake located in the southern part of Tiruchirappalli in Tamil Nadu,
India. The samples were collected from the six chosen sites in the lake as algal
mats and plankton samples during March 2014. In total, 81 species were reported
which includes 35 species belongs to Chlorophyta, 9 species belongs to Bacillariophyta
and 37 species belongs to Cyanophyta. Eight microalgal genera such as Pediastrum,
Cosmarium rhophalodia, Microcystis, Chroococcus, Oscillatoria,
Scytonema and Gloeotrichia were found predominant in the lake.
Physicochemical parameters of the water samples were also analysed to evaluate
the algal diversity. The suitable trophic condition and eutrophic nature of
the lake favoured the algal dominance and bloom formation. 2014/06/26 - 09:39

An investigation on the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Nigella
sativa seeds was carried out. The methanolic extract from the dried sample
of Nigella sativa seeds was prepared and examined for its phytochemical
composition. The sample exhibited noticeable scavenging effects in DPPH free
radical scavenging assay. It has also been evaluated the effect of methanolic
extract of Nigella sativa seed on HepG2, MCF-7 and VERO cells proliferation
using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide)
assay. After 72 h incubation, HepG2 and MCF-7 cell proliferation was inhibited
upto 50% by the methanolic extract. The phytochemical constituent appears to
be responsible at least in part, for the observed antioxidant activity of the
methanolic extract. The greater reducing activity of the extract reflected the
generally greater phenolic content of the Nigella sativa. The DNA fragmenting
pattern of the Nigella sativa seed extract was identified using DNA fragmentation
assay. The number of DNA fragments were increased with the concentration of
the seed extract. The results suggest that the Nigella sativa seeds could
be a potential source of natural antioxidant. 2014/06/26 - 09:39

Extracts of tuber, leaves and fruits from Arisaema jacquemontii Bl.
(Himalayan or Jacquemont’s cobra
lily) were evaluated for their antimalarial properties against Plasmodium
berghei (NK-65) maintained in white Swiss mice, Mus musculus (BALB/c).
Peter’s 4 day test was employed
and animals were administered to ethanol prepared extracts of plant parts orally.
Extracts significantly inhibited multiplication of Plasmodium berghei.
Tuber extract inhibited about 70% propagation of parasite followed by leaves
and fruit while no parasite was seen in the smears of chloroquine treated mice. 2014/06/26 - 09:39

The global epidemic of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most serious public
health problems in the world and Blood transfusion is one of the most important
transmission pathways of HBV. The present study was conducted to determine the
prevalence of Hepatitis B in blood donor in Iran. This study was constructed
based on the computerized literature database. English and non-English Articles
were searched in PubMed database, ISI Web of Science, Iranmedex, Magiran, Google
Scholar, SID, Scientific Journal of Iran Blood Transfusion Organization (SJIBTO)
and Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) from 1996 to 2008. Infection rates
and 95% CI calculated by random affect model. Statistical analyses were performed
using STATA 10.0, R Ver. 2.3 and ArcGIS 3.2a was used for map construction.
Thirty papers from 83 studies involving 23671296 patients met our inclusion
criteria. The prevalence of HBV infection in blood donors was 0.7% (CI 95: 0.5-0.8%).
The highest rate of prevalence of hepatitis B in blood donors were found in
Gilan,-Mazandaran,-Golestan and Semnan provinces with 1.1% (CI 95:0.6-1.6%).
Prevalence of hepatitis B in blood donors from 1996-2008 is decreased, therefore
national vaccination of hepatitis B after 1993, awareness programs and screening
of bloods transfusion has led this fact. 2014/05/23 - 19:56

The explorations of the avifauna of Prashar lake and its surrounding area in
Mandi district revealed the presence of 95 species of birds belonging to 74
genera spread over 30 families and 11 orders. Of these, 16 species of birds were purely
resident and rest 79 showed seasonal local or long range migrations.
Of the 79 seasonal local or long range migrants, 39 species were local migrants,
15 were summer visitors, 8 were winter visitors, and 14 species showed summer
and 3 species showed winter influx. Analyses of data on relative abundance showed
that of the 95 species, 29 (31%) were very common, 45 (47%) common, 19 (20%)
uncommon and 2 (2%) rare in Prashar area of Mandi district. Moreover, a majority
of the birds (43 species) were insectivorous in nature followed by Graminivorous
(14 species), Omnivorous (13 species), Frugivorous (10 species), Scavengers
(seen species), aquatic animal eaters (4 species) and vegetable matter eaters
and Carnivorous (2 species each). The study further showed that there are two
endangered species of birds viz., Egyptian Vulture and Cheer Pheasant in Prashar
area. 2014/05/23 - 19:56

ASLNP wetlands are important feeding sites of lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor). It is located in the Great Rift Valley. Flamingos constitute the major content of the bulk of lakes. However, studies to determine food preferences of flamingoes in Ethiopia using crop content analyses are lacking. The analysis of diets examined during 2011-13 at two major feeding sites of Lakes Abijata and Chitu. Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) and Cyanophyceae (blue green algae) constituted the main diet of lesser flamingos in Lake Abijata. Nine diatom genera were identified in the crop contents of the bird. Diatoms had the highest percentage abundance (90.1-95.5%). These were followed by sand particles and detritus (3.9-9.16%) and Cyanophytes (0.23-0.87%) and Navicula was always the most common genus and accounted for 94.17 % of the average total algal density. The analysis of diet from the two flamingos in Lake Chitu had clearly shown that only one species Arthrospira fusiformis was dominating. There were insignificant variations on morphometric features of birds within and between lake birds. The distribution and abundance of flamingos are related to food supply. Thus, changes in the numbers of flamingos at a particular lake during the year and between years may reflect fluctuations in the availability of food supply. Lesser flamingos are specialized feeding on diatoms in Lake Abijata and Spirulina, in Lake Chitu. Presently, there is no effective protection of flamingo feeding areas or enforcement of laws protecting the bird. 2014/05/23 - 19:56

Thirteen species of mammals belonging to 13 genera, 12 families and 6 orders
have been recorded from Prashar and surrounding area. Five species belonged
to order Carnivora followed by Primates, Artiodactyla and Rodentia (2 species
each), Insectivora and Chiroptera (one species each). Families Cercopithecidae
and Mustellidae supported a maximum of two species each and other namely Soricidae,
Vespertilionidae, Canidae, Ursidae, Felidae, Cervidae, Bovidae, Scuiridae and
Muridae were represented by one species each. It has been reported that 11 of
the 13 species have been placed under different schedules of the Wildlife (Protection)
Act, 1972. Of these, one species namely Panthera pardus has been placed
under Schedule-I of the WLP Act. Semnopithecus ajax has been categorised
as endangered, Ursus thibetanus placed under vulnerable categoryand Panthera
pardus and Naemorhedus goral declared as near threatened by IUCN. 2014/05/23 - 19:56

Different parts of Picrorhiza kurrooa (Kutki) were used to evaluate
their antimalarial effect against Plasmodium berghei in vivo in a typical
4 day test. Experimental groups of mice were administered with ethanol extracts
of roots and leaves of Picrorhiza kurrooa. On day 4 parasitaemia in control
group of mice was 23.15±1.66 whereas, groups treated with roots and leaves
extract of P. kurrooa resulted in inhibition of malaria parasite significantly
and parasitaemia being 4.14±1.70 and 11.4±1.66, respectively.
The effect of root extract was more pronounced compared to leaves. 2014/05/23 - 19:56

The disease mastitis caused by different microorganisms can lead to significant yield losses of milk and its quality. The detection of disease at subclinical stage is much more effective to prevent the occurrence of the disease than the detection of the disease at later stages. For determining the prevalence of Staphylococcus sp. causing Subclinical Mastitis (SCM) in dairy cows in Chittagong, a Southern district of Bangladesh, milk samples were collected from 4 different dairy farms under Chittagong City Corporation. After initial screening by California mastitis test to identify milk samples infected with SCM pathogens, Staphylococcus sp. were isolated and identified by culturing CMT-positive milk samples on selective Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) medium which was followed by biochemical characterization. PCR was employed to detect S. aureus from Staphylococcus isolates using species-specific primers. Culture Sensitivity (CS) test was done to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus isolates against 8 commercially available antibiotic discs (ampicillin, amoxycillin, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamycin, doxycycline hydrochloride and oxytetracycline). To develop plasmid profiles, further extraction of plasmids from Staphylococcus isolates were performed. The results of this research showed that the prevalence of SCM was 74.49%. The 26.71% of milk samples were infected with Staphylococcus sp., 11.64% were contaminated with coagulase positive Staphylococcus and 15.07% with coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Molecular study using PCR revealed that the prevalence of S. aureus causing SCM was 5.48%. CS test of Staphylococcus isolates showed that a high percentage (88.89%) of Staphylococcus isolates were resistant to oxytetracycline while most (94.44%) of the Staphylococcus isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Plasmid profile analysis revealed that 72.22% of Staphylococcus isolates carried 1 or more plasmids, while further analyses indicate that the multi drug resistance properties may or may not be associated with their presence. 2014/04/16 - 17:52

Herbs contain large amount of antioxidant such as secondary metabolites, which
plays an important role in absorbing and neutralizing free radicals. A new Sesquiterpene,
Isolongifolene is present in Murraya koenigii leaves. Murraya koenigii
is a herbal species used in traditional medicine in Eastern Asia. Many diseases
are associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. In this study,
antioxidant activity of Isolongifolene was evaluated in a series of in vitro
assay involving free radicals and EC50 values were determined. The
EC50 value for in vitro antioxidant assays namely DPPH, ABTS,
hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, super oxide radical scavenging,
FRAP,TRAP and Reducing Power, were 77.34, 40.9, 16.27, 238.3, 25.01, 16.79,
1.311, 6.701, 0.418 μg mL-1, respectively. Isolongifolene showed
EC50 with minimum concentration and more effective in scavenging
activities. Hence, based on the results we suggest that Isolongifolene compound
can be recommended as a potent antioxidant to the patients suffering from various
oxidative degenerative diseases like cancer. 2014/04/16 - 17:52

A study has been conducted to evaluate the total flavonoids and phenolics contents of ten genotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus seeds as these compounds are natural antioxidants, disease preventing, anti-ageing and health promoting. All genotypes were distinct in shape, size and colour and their total flavonoids and phenolics contents also varied significantly. Genotype Triloki (K-198) contained the highest (1.67±0.00 quercetin equivalents) and Him-1 contained the lowest (0.29±0.01 mg g-1 quercetin equivalents) amount of total flavonoids. In case of total phenolics, genotype Him-1 had the highest (2.48±0.02 mg g-1 gallic acid equivalents) and PLB 14-1 had the lowest (0.66±0.02 mg g-1 gallic acid equivalents) amount of total phenolics contents. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) also indicated the significant differences between total flavonoids and phenolics contents of all genotypes. The study therefore, revealed that consumption of a particular genotype of P. vulgaris seeds can promote the health and demote the ageing by its disease preventing potential of some natural antioxidants compounds present in cotyledons. 2014/04/16 - 17:52

Dwindling supplies of petroleum and growing environmental concerns over its
use has led to increasing interest in developing biomass as a feedstock for
liquid fuels. In particular, bioethanol produced from biomass represents a promising
alternative fuel or gasoline extender. Bioethanol is used in vehicles either
as a sole fuel or blended with gasoline. As an oxygenated compound, ethanol
provides additional oxygen in combustion and hence obtains better combustion
efficiency. The main environmental advantages of fuel ethanol are its sustainability
in using a renewable resource as a feedstock, thus promoting independence of
fossil fuel and maintaining the level of greenhouse gas. Bioethanol can be produced
from carbohydrate containing substrates by the process of fermentation. Many
microorganisms like bacteria, fungi and yeast involved in bioethanol production.
Present study deals with bioethanol production from rotten fruits with inoculation
of bacteria isolated from respective fruits. Rotten fruits serve as potential
feedstock for bioethanol production due to high sugar content and cost effective
substrate. Results indicate that among 5 fruits rotten sapota (Manilkara
zapota) produced highest amount of bioethanol 9.40% on 5th day of incubation.
Bioethanol can solve the problem of pollution and considered as fuel for future. 2014/04/16 - 17:52

The possibility of using other legumes in the family Fabaceae and the application of seed sprouting process for moin moin production were investigated in the study. The seeds of red kidney bean, pigeon pea and cowpea (control) were collected, sorted and the wholesome seeds were selected for the study. The seeds were divided into two portions and a portion was soaked in water at loading ratio of 1:4, seed: Water, steeped for 12 h and allowed to sprout at ambient condition for 72 h. The bean sprouts were dried in a dryer at an initial temperature of 60°C for 2 h and finished at 80°C to approximate moisture of 10%, dehulled and milled into flour. The second portion (non sprouted seeds) was also dehulled and dried to 10% moisture and milled into flour and finally stored in air tight containers. The resultant flours were evaluated for proximate, functional and sensory attributes using standard analytical methods and the values obtained were compared statistically. The sprouted flours performed better in protein content than the non sprouted, with the sprouted cowpea (CPS) having the highest, 23.4% which did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from sprouted red kidney beans, 23.3% while the non sprouted pigeon pea (PPR) had the least protein, 20.4%. Sprouted seeds scored higher than non sprouted in foam capacity and stability, oil and water absorption capacities while non sprouted flours were better in gelation capacity and bulk density. On the overall assessment of the steamed paste, the moin-moin from red kidney beans was preferred by the panelists. 2014/02/10 - 13:28

In this experiment healthy and dry seeds of sesame (Sesamum indicum
L.), varieties of Abasena and Kelafo 74, were treated with sodium azide at ascending
mutagen concentrations of 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05% targeted at determining
the effects of the chemical mutagen to promote genetic variability in terms
of the quantitative traits parameters of sesame. Highly significant differences
(p<0.01) were noticed in the varieties and treatments with respect to the
traits under consideration (germination percentage, root length,shoot length,
plant height, days to flowering, days to maturity, internodes length, capsule
length, No. of capsules plant-1, No. of seeds pod-1, hundred
seed weight). Similarly Treatment and variety interactions were also highly
significant (p<0.01) with respect to all traits. The variety Abasena exhibited
better performance in comparison to Kelafo 74. Therefore, sodium azide could
be utilized to induce genetic variability for the improvement of sesame and
it is more effective. Since the produced mutants from first generation are not
adequate for studying the genetic stability these traits should be investigated
for the desired traits in subsequent generations and in the field conditions. 2014/02/10 - 13:28

It is important to use a simple protocol for Bacterial Ghosts (BGs) preparation.
Recently, a new protocol has been introduced based on simple chemical compounds
to prepare the BGs. The protocol has been given the name “Sponge-like”
(SL). The used microbial strain was E. coli BL21 (CDE3) pLysS (Promega).
Experimental Design (ED) has been used to optimize the preparation conditions.
In general, to map the best conditions for BGs preparation, several steps have
been followed and lead to a long protocol. There is a need for reducing the
protocol steps. In this study and based on that strains within the same species
are similar and aiming to introduce a simple BGs protocol, another E. coli
recombinant strain, the E. coli JM109 (Promega) has been used. The optimum
conditions obtained from the SL protocol were used. However, the MIC and the
Minimum Growth Concentration (MGC) were determined. Light and electron microscope
as well as the protein and the DNA contents were used to evaluate the BGs quality
(BGQ). This study establishes a simpler protocol given the name “Sponge
Like Reduced Protocol “SLRP”. The protocol proves to be suitable for
BGs preparation from strains within the same species and could be used for native
or recombinant antigens preparation. 2014/02/10 - 13:28

Extracts from Cissampelos pareira (CPE) and Stephania glabra
(SGE) is used to treat pain and swelling in the tribal areas of Himalayan region
of India. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of ethanolic extract of
the CPE and SGE were studied. The results so obtained were compared with untreated
control as well as standard diclofenac and Indomethacin treated groups in a
rat model. The tested dose of CPE and SGE were screened for carrageenan induced
hind paw edema and by using hot plate method for anti-inflammation and analgesic
action. Both CPE and SGE (200 mg kg-1 p.o.) significantly (p<0.001)
reduced the carrageenan induced hind paw edema and analgesia. The comparison
of results of other groups with control group were found to be significant (p<0.001)
except CPE vs SGE after 1 and 3 h. After 5 h CPE vs SGE showed significant (p<0.05)
results. The analgesic action was tested after 30, 60, 120 and 180 min. CPE
and SGE showed significant (p<0.001) result with control group after 60,
120 and 180 min. Both CPE and SGE were found to be insignificant with standard
group after 60 and 180 min. After 120 min SGE showed significant (p<0.001)
results with standard group. SGE was found to be insignificant in comparison
with CPE. Moreover, CPE and SGE showed the significant (p<0.001) anti-inflammatory
and analgesic effect as it reduced the elevated paw edema and analgesia. Hence,
the efficacy profiles indicate that CPE and SGE are safe alternate for analgesia
and inflammation. 2014/02/10 - 13:28

Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a unique type of soft alginate. But,
being an opportunistic pathogen, its alginate production is one of the missed
biotechnological products. Few Pseudomonades, other than P. aeruginosa,
are able to produce alginate. The safest ones those isolated from plant source.
In this study, Pseudomonades like strain that was isolated from plant
source, showed the ability to produce alginate. Its alginate was produced under
static cultivation condition. Alginate produced from P. aeruginosa ATCC
9027 was used as a control and underwent the same conditions. The net amount
of the produced alginate from the new Pseudomonades like isolate was
3 g L-1, which is less by 33.3% than that produced by P. aeruginosa.
FT-IR and DSC were used to evaluate the yielded alginates. The FT-IR and DSC
results showed that the alginate extracted from the new isolate is almost compared
to that produced by P. aeruginosa. This study showed the ability to produce
alginate using safe strain of Psedomonades bacteria. 2014/02/10 - 13:28

Despite their ecological and cultural significance, the mountain grasslands of Kashmir Himalaya remain poorly studied. In this context, this study classifies the vegetation of high altitude grasslands of Gurez valley, Kashmir, with a focus on the influence of various environmental factors on the distribution of different vegetation groups. It also highlights the variation in the species distribution along an altitudinal gradient. Field data collected at 35 sites across three grasslands during 2008-2010 was analysed through TWINSPAN (Two way indicator of species analysis) and DCA (Detrended Correspondence Analysis). TWINSPAN classified the abundance data into nineteen plant associations that were confirmed by the application of DCA, albeit with some overlap. These associations could be clustered for three major vegetation groups that were closely linked to altitude and human disturbance. The highly disturbed plant associations were at lower altitudes and were less diverse as against the least disturbed higher elevated types that were largely stable but had a restricted distribution. In contrast, the mid-elevational plant associations showed a high internal variation and had many locally dominant species. The data generated will be helpful in providing an insight into the trends in vegetation dynamics, conservation status of various plant species besides being crucial to our understanding of biological diversity of this region as a whole. 2013/07/20 - 08:16

Oil sludge generated during exploration and processing of crude oil could pose a serious threat to plants and animals if allowed to accumulate in the environment. In this study biodegradation of crude oil sludge using municipal waste as bulking agent was carried out. Soil samples were weighed 10 kg into vessels and polluted with 1 kg (10% pollution) and 0.5 kg (5% pollution) crude oil sludge. Municipal waste were added to the polluted soil samples as bulking agent at varying quantities ranging from 0.2 to 1 kg. The vessels containing soil with 10% crude oil sludge pollution were labeled A1-A6 and those with 5% crude oil pollution were labeled B1-B6, with A6 and B6 as control (crude oil polluted soil with no municipal waste added). The biodegradation process was allowed for 20 weeks. Total bacterial counts increased at week 5 and decreased as the biodegradation proceeded with less bacterial counts in the controls (A6 and B6). pH levels during the biodegradation period ranged between 6.7 and 7.6 for all samples. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) reduction ranged between 88 and 97% for samples A1-A5 and B1-B5 and 31 and 41% for samples A6 and B6, respectively. This research therefore shows that municipal waste can be used to enhance the biodegradation of crude oil sludge. 2013/07/20 - 08:16

An improved protocol was developed for the micropropagation of Plumbago zeylanica L. from nodal explants. The best response of shoot induction was observed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 thidiazuron (TDZ) and 1.0 mg L-1 Kinetin (KN). The regenerated shoots rooted best on half strength Murashige and Skoog basal medium containing 1.0 mg L-1 indole-3-butyricacid (IBA). In vitro propagated plants were transferred to soil with 90% survival rate. The in vitro obtained plants did not show any detectable morphological variation compared to the normal plants. This system will help in the mass production of Plumbago zeylanica and other medicinally important plants. 2013/07/20 - 08:16

Odontogenic lesions have different and controversial behavior from same lesions
in other sites of body. These controversies insist the need of further studies
about the nature and behavior of these lesions. The aim of the present study
was to investigate the stromal and epithelial expression of CD10 in different
odontogenic lesions. In this study 80 odontogenic lesions were evaluated: 29
Unicystic Ameloblastoma (UA) (consists of 5 mural , 24 luminal and intraluminal
type) , 11 solid ameloblastoma (SA) , 20 odontogenic keratocysts(OKC) and 20
dentigerous cysts were reviewed by IHC for CD10 staining. Ameloblastoma demonstrated
higher number of epithelial CD10 positive cells (9.9±2.1) than UA (4.5±1.4)
and dentigerous cysts (2.05±1.5). There was no significant difference
in the CD10 expression between OKCs (8.7±2.2) and solid ameloblastomas
but significant difference was seen between OKC and UA. Stromal expression of
CD10 was seen in 90.9% of solid ameloblastoma and mean percentage of stromal
CD10 expression was 14.8±5.5. Cd10 stromal expression showed a statistically
significant difference between different groups except SA and OKCs. In conclusion
the results of this study propose that high expression rate of CD10 might be
one of the reasons for aggressive behavior of ameloblastoma and high recurrence
rate of OKC and reinforce the classification of OKC as an odontogenic tumor. 2013/07/20 - 08:16

Diabetes mellitus (DM) in many cases is found to be associated with disordered
thyroid function. In this study 140 healthy non-diabetic subjects and 140 diabetic
subjects were investigated for Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), total triidothyronine
(T3), total thyroxin (T4), free triidothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4)
and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Out of 140 diabetic subjects studied,
70% had euthyroidism (normal), 18.6% had hypothyroidism and 11.4% had hyperthyroidism.
Serum T3, T4 and FT3 levels were low, TSH and FT4 levels were high in diabetic
subjects whereas, in non-diabetic subjects all these levels were normal. All
the diabetic subjects had high fasting blood sugar levels (10.82±2.72).
Statically no significant differences were observed in serum T4 (p = 0.791)
and BMI (p = 0.477) levels between non-diabetic and diabetic subjects. Fasting
blood sugar was found to be significantly correlated with TSH, FT3 levels and
others parameter were not that much significant. In this study, 30% diabetic
patients were found to abnormal thyroid hormone levels. The prevalence of thyroid
disorder was higher in women (17.1%) than in men (12.9%), while hyperthyroidism
were higher in males (13.3%) than in females (10%) and hypothyroidism was higher
in females (20%) than in males (16.7%). 2013/07/20 - 08:16

The aqueous leaf extract of Erythrina senegalensis (ES) was evaluated for its protective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury. A 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 b.wt. of the ES leaf extract was administered to different groups of rats for 7 days prior to the CCl4 administration. A significant (p<0.05) decrease was observed in both the groups pretreated with 200 and 400 mg kg-1 b.wt. of the leaf extract on the levels of the enzymes and non enzyme markers of tissue damage, lipid peroxidation and relative organ weights and this is shown to be dose dependant when compared to rats that were given CCl4 only. These results showed that ES possess hepatoprotective principle (s) that was (were) able to prevent the toxicity of CCl4 against the liver of rats. 2013/07/20 - 08:16

Cysticercosis is a common disease in developing countries, occurs when man is infested by the larvae of Taenia solium, acting as an intermediate host instead of definitive. The affected sites include cerebral tissue, ocular organs and muscles. Oral cysticercosis is a rare event and it represents a difficulty in clinical diagnosis. Diagnosis is usually made on microscopic examination. Following is a case report of a 50 years old male, who reported to our centre with a swelling in the inner aspect of angle of mouth, which was diagnosed as cysticercosis on histopathology. 2013/07/20 - 08:16