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Asian Journal of Biochemistry

Cellular level of enzyme activity can serve as reliable biomarker in the event
of environmental/chemical insults. The present study sought to investigate time-dependent
alterations of erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase (Ery-GST) activity of non-malarious
guinea pigs (Cavia tschudii) administered with pyrimethamine/sulphadoxine
and artemether/lumefantrine combination therapies. Eighteen guinea pigs were
allotted into three groups of six (n = 6), composed of the control (C1) and
two test groups T1; pyrimethamine/sulphadoxine treated group and T2; artemether/lumefantrine
treated group. Accordingly, single dose intra-peritoneal injection of pyrimethamine
= 3.7 mg/sulphadoxine 0.7 mg mixture and artemether = 0.3 mg/lumefantrine =
1.8 mg mixture per kg of body weight (b.wt.) were administered to the guinea
pigs. The animals were fasted for 16 h prior-treatment and blood samples were
drawn at time intervals of 3, 6, 9 and 24 h and measured for GST activity using
spectrophotometric methods. Ery-GST activity of group C1 (C1GST)
within 0 h≤t≤24 h was fairly constant and did not exhibit significant
alterations (p>0.05), whereas the Ery-GST activity profile of the test groups
(T1 and T2) were biphasic. Ery-GST activity of group T1 (T1GST) varied
within the range of 5.04±0.98-5.60±0.59 IU/gHb with peak enzyme
activity at t = 0 h. At t = 9 h, T2GST activity was not significantly
different (p>0.05) from T1GST activity. The Ery-GST activity profile
indicated perturbation of erythrocyte physiochemistry, which could be of relevance
from toxicological and therapeutic standpoints. 2014/08/30 - 14:21

Recent studies have defined the role of trace elements such as iron, calcium, zinc and copper in the formation of gallstones and deficiencies of serum iron and serum calcium can lead to increased risk of gallstone disease. The present study was planned to analyse the exact role of serum iron and calcium in the pathogenesis of gallstone disease and to assess the relationship of biliary cholesterol supersaturation with levels of serum iron and calcium. Total 100 patients suffering from cholelithiasis were included in the study and were divided into following groups based on their serum iron and calcium levels; group A included patients with normal serum iron (the controls), group B included patients with iron deficiency (the cases), group A1 included patients with normal serum calcium (the controls) and group B1 included patients with calcium deficiency (the cases). The 5 mL of blood sample was drawn intravenously before cholecystectomy, serum was analysed for the parameters like serum iron, calcium, cholesterol and biliary cholesterol (lipid extract from bile). Bile cholesterol levels were raised in group B and group B1 (the cases) as compared to group A and group A1 (the controls). Low serum iron, causes defective hepatic cholesterol metabolism and more stasis of bile because of decreased motility of gallbladder and leads to increased precipitation of cholesterol and hence gallstone formation. Also, deficiency of both iron and calcium is associated with increased chances of super-saturation of bile in gallbladder followed by increase in incidence of gallstone formation. 2014/08/30 - 14:21

This study investigated anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of aqueous stem bark extract (ASE) of Acacia albida Delile. in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Animals were randomly divided into seven groups of five animals each: Normal Control (NC), normal treated with 500 mg kg-1 b.w. ASE, Diabetic Control (DC), diabetics treated with 125 mg kg-1 b.w. ASE (DLD), 250 mg kg-1 b.w. ASE (DMD), 500 mg kg-1 b.w. ASE (DHD) and 0.08 mg kg-1 b.w. glibenclimide (DGL). Results showed that, Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) of DC significantly (p<0.05) increased by 15.35%. Treatment with extract or glibenclimide significantly (p<0.05) caused a reduction on FBG compared in dose-dependent pattern. DHD recorded highest decrease (57.55%) compared to DGL (60.33%). DC also showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in serum HDL cholesterol and increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol in the rats. Treatment with ASE of Acacia albida was able to prevent these effects significantly (p<0.05) compared to DC. Other diabetic-induced abnormalities ameliorated were serum markers of liver damage, food and fluid intakes, body weight changes and Packed Cell Volume (PCV). Conclusively, ASE of Acacia albida possessed anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects in alloxan induced diabetic rats. 2014/08/08 - 06:55

The leading cause of liver cancer is viral infection with hepatitis B and C virus. Liver cancer usually forms inflammation and cirrhosis caused by these viruses. The aim of the study was to investigate anti-liver cancer potential of Acanthus ilicifolius. Powdered leave material was extracted with ethanol and evaluated their anticancer potential on hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). Treatment with ethanolic extract of A. ilicofolius (AIEE) posses significant changes in cytotoxicity, apoptosis and caspase 3 expressions in HepG2 cells. The results indicated 100 μg mL-1 of AIEE reduced the viability of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, elevated lactase dehydrogenase and observed condensed chromatin, crooked vesicle shaped membrane in apoptotic nuclei and dead cells appeared bright orange. The expression of caspase 3 was decreased. This study demonstrates the A. ilicofolius have a potent anticancer source. Further analytical studies will be exploring the active constituents in holy mangrove. 2014/08/08 - 06:55

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) affects a significant proportion of population and
if untreated timely leads to high mortality due to pulmonary embolism. Though
color Doppler ultrasonography is the gold standard for diagnosis but non availability
of experienced radiologist especially at night has led to alternative investigation
for diagnosis of DVT. Plasma D-dimer levels which measure the degradation products
of cross linked fibrin, are a valuable diagnostic test for the exclusion of
deep venous thrombosis. D-dimer levels were analyzed in fifty patients suspected
of deep vein thrombosis clinically and compared the results with color Doppler
ultrasonography. A value of 250 ng mL-1 was chosen as cut off. For
the purposes of analysis, results were expressed as either negative (<250
ng mL-1) or positive (≥250 ng mL-1). Patients were
classified as low, moderate or high pretest probability for DVT as per Well ’s
scoring system. D-dimer assay had a sensitivity of 97.3% (CI 85.8-99.9%), a
specificity of 38.5% (CI 13.9-68.4%), a positive predictive value of 81.8% (CI
67.3-91.8%) and a negative predictive value of 83.3% (CI 35.9-99.6%). In patients
with a low or moderate pretest probability of DVT, the negative predictive value
of this assay was 100% and this test can safely exclude the DVT in these patients.
Thus in patients having low and moderate pretest probability automated latex
D-dimer test can safely exclude DVT. 2014/08/08 - 06:55

The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial, radical scavenging
and chemical composition of aerial parts of Cassia auriculata. Three
hundred grams of powdered material of C. auriculata extracted with methanol
(CAMEt), C-18 silica gel based column chromatography was used to purify CAMEt
using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions. Antimicrobial, DPPH radical
scavenging effect of all the three fractions was determined and active fraction
was characterized by GC-MS. The yield and colour of each fractions collected
from column chromatography viz., fraction 1-3 (n-hexane: yellow) was 2.45 mg,
(ethyl acetate: light orange) 1.78 mg and (methanol: light green) 5.25 mg, respectively.
Fraction 3 recorded maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. by fraction 3 antifungal
and radical scavenging activity than compared to fractions. GC-MS results indicated
21 chemical constituents included alkanes, alcohol, esters and hydrocarbons.
The major peak represented 1, 2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid and Di-(2-ethylhexyl)
phthalate at 11.42% referred to NIST library. Further studies will be found
in the mechanism of potential methanol fraction. 2014/08/08 - 06:55

Damages of liver, kidney and serum proteins with apoptosis of these tissues
in guinea pigs fed on carbonated soft drink was reported earlier. The present
study establish the fact that if antioxidant supplementation is made along with
carbonated soft drink such damages could be prevented. Vitamin C is a potent
antioxidant and guinea pigs cannot synthesise ascorbic acid like mice. Excess
sugar in carbonated soft drink increases production of destructive free radicals
in animal. Ascorbic acid was supplemented orally in a measured dose along with
carbonated soft drink, also in a measured volume to guinea pigs during the experimental
period. Though oxyblot assay, fluorescence activated cell sorting assay and
other biochemical findings, this paper reports that oxidative damages of the
tissues along with apoptosis under the condition of carbonated soft drink feeding
to guinea pigs could be prevented with supplementation of ascorbic acid. 2014/05/29 - 07:16

The Phoenix dactylifera (date palm) is one of the member of the genus Phoenix, widely cultivated for its edible fruit. Date seeds, considered as waste product, are either discarded or used as fodder for domestic farm animals and potentiality to use as source of antioxidant and biodiesel production. Methanolic extract of four cultivars of date seeds (Haiany, Ramly, Sewy and Amhat) showed pronounced antioxidant activity against 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method ranged between 93.53% (in Haiany) and 88.37% (in Amhat) compared to the natural antioxidant vitamin C (91.45%) and the same trends were observed with 2,2'- azino-bis (ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS•+). The antioxidant substances (total phenolic compounds and total carotenoids) as well as oil contents (%) were determined in the date seed cultivars under investigation. Transesterification of the date seed oils (ranged 4.48 and 3.31%) and the characteristics of the produced biodiesel were performed as; color, iodine value, acid value, saponification value, higher heating value and cetane number. The date seed oils were analyzed using gas chromatography for their fatty acid composition. Saturated fatty acids (C8:0 to C18:0 and C20:0) represent the highest percentage in Amhat (79.517%) and Haiany (68.135%), while Ramly has the least saturated fatty acid content (20.986%). Oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acids represent the only unsaturated fatty acids in date seed oils. The highest percentage was recorded in Ramly cultivar (20.99% of oleic acid+3.65% of linoleic acid) while the other cultivars have very low relative contents (0.093-3.65%). Infrared spectrum of the methyl ester of date seed oil showed the absence of hydroxyl peak which can be correlated to the transesterification process, in addition to the presence of the ester groups at bands, 1745, 1165, 1107 nm. From the results it was clear that, there are strong potential for date seed oil to be used as a source of biodiesel, as well as in pharmaceutical applications as new sources for antioxidant substances (Phenolic and Carotenoids). 2014/05/13 - 16:11

Dengue fever is one of the most threatening epidemics of this era and there
is no targeted vaccine and therapy. The present study was designed to elucidate
the natural compounds as therapeutic targets for dengue virus. In this study,
it is proposed that target approach for dengue drug discovery based on natural
ligands obtained from plant extract of C. papaya. Nonstructural proteins
were retrieved from the protein data bank and natural compounds were drawn using
drawing tool, before docking. All of them were subjected to drug and absorption
distribution metabolism toxicity analysis which shows satisfying results which
leads to docking studies. Series of 8 compounds have been screened and docked
for binding energy prediction and on the basis of lowest binding energy, the
potential ligands like 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 9-Octadecyne and 9, 12, 15-Octadecatrienoic
acid, (Z, Z, Z) are recommended for further studies. 2014/05/13 - 16:11

One of the most important polymorphism in p53 gene occurs in codon 73 of exon 4. Individuals who have Arg/Arg allele may have an increase risk for progress of cancer. The present study was aimed to develop a rapid, inexpensive and simple high resolution melting curve analysis method to distinguish different genotype of codon 72 p53. This study was performed on 167 patients with four common cancers in Kurdistan. High resolution melt analysis of PCR products revealed different allele of codon 72 p53 gene. Genotyping by high resolution melt analysis was verified by DNA sequencing. The samples were categorized as Arg/Arg (31%), Arg/Pro (44%) and Pro/Pro (25%) in four cancer types. Patients with colorectal cancer had the highest frequency of Arg/Arg polymorphism (65%). High resolution melting analysis was completely compatible with sequencing results. The results indicate individuals with Arg/Arg allele of codon 72 p53 gene have an increased risk for development of cancer in Kurd ethnicity. In addition high resolution melting analysis is useful for rapid differentiation of p53 alleles and can be used for diagnostic purposes directly from clinical samples, as well as epidemiological studies. 2014/05/13 - 16:11

The immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A (CsA) has been successfully used in several diseases with immunological basis and in transplant patients. Nephrotoxicity is the main secondary effect of CsA treatment. The present study was designed to investigate the possible protective effect of dietary fish oil (F.O.) on CsA-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Eighty male rats were divided into four equal groups. Group 1: Rats received no drugs and served as control, Group 2: Normal rats were treated with (dietary fish oil) omega-3 fatty acids 270 mg kg-1 b.wt. oral dose daily, Group 3: Rats treated with CsA (25 mg kg-1 b.wt., orally for 21 days) to induce nephrotoxicity, Groups 4: Rats received dietary fish oil for 21 days before, 21 days concurrently during CsA administration and 21 days later after nephrotoxicity induction. Blood samples for serum separation and kidney tissue specimens were collected three times at weekly interval from the last dose of CsA administration. Serum glucose, total Protein, albumin, lipid profile (total cholesterol, triacylglycerols and phospholipids), renal function tests (urea, uric acid and creatinine), electrolytes (sodium and potassium), inorganic phosphorus and haptoglobin levels, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) activities were determined. Moreover, kidney tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), total antioxidant capacity (TAO) levels, antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) activities were also determined. The results revealed that, CsA-induced nephrotoxicity caused significant increase in serum glucose, renal functions tests, haptoglobin, lipid profiles and serum marker enzymes (LDH and GGT) with significant decrease in serum total protein, albumin and electrolytes concentrations which were reversed upon treatment with dietary fish oil. Also, CsA administration induced significant elevation in lipid peroxidation (MDA) along with significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities, non enzymatic antioxidant, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide level in the rat kidney. Meanwhile, Dietary fish oil administration improved renal function, by bringing about a significant decrease in peroxidative levels and increase in antioxidant status. These results indicate the renoprotective potential and usefulness of dietary fish oil, as an excellent source of antioxidants, in modulating CsA-induced nephrotoxicity. 2014/04/12 - 03:27

Pathogenesis of several chronic liver diseases has been attributed to overwhelmed antioxidant protective system against Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). The present study ascertained the capacity of short-term administration of ethanolic extract of Allium sativa to neutralize ROS and ameliorate hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemia was induced in rats by single intra-peritoneal injection of CCl4 (dosage = 2.0 mL kg-1), followed by treatment with ethanolic extract of A. sativa (dosage: 200 and 400 mg kg-1) at a regular interval of 16 h for 64 h. Blood samples were drawn from the rats at t = 0 and t = 76 h, i.e., 12 h after the end of 64 h treatment with CCl4 per A. sativa extract treatment, to ascertain hepatic function and Serum Lipid Profile (SLP). In addition, liver post mitochondrial supernatant (PMS) fraction was measured for oxidative stress indicators: Lipid peroxidation (LPOx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH). On the average, short-term administration of ethanolic extract of A. sativa caused reduction of SLP in the following magnitude: Total cholesterol (TC) = 19.48, triacylglycerol (TAG) = 48.59, VLDL-C = 48.57, LDL-C = 19.49 and increase in HDL-C = 32.43%. Also, improvement in oxidative stress indicators gave SOD = 10.20, GPx = 30.92, CAT = 18.18, LPOx = 35.92% and GSH = 51.09%. Although the administration of A. sativa extract to the rats did not restore full therapeutic benefits within the experimental time (t = 76 h), the capacity of the plant extract to ameliorate oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia in the animals was fairly at par with the standard hepatic drug-hepaticum. 2014/04/12 - 03:27

Wedelia chinensis is a deciduous tree traditionally considered as cardio tonic but has not been proven scientifically. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the cardio-protective effect of W.chinensis on isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rat. The experimental albino rats were divided into four groups. The hydro-ethanolic extract of W.chinensis was orally administered to group 3 and 4 rats for 28 days. Isoproterenol (20 mg/100 g) subcutaneously injected twice at an interval of 24 h to the group 3 rats on 29 and 30th day. At the end, rats were sacrificed and collected serum and heart samples for biochemical and histopathological studies. Significant (p<0.05) results were observed on protein, urea, creatinine, serum lipid profile, cardiac marker enzymes and antioxidants in group 3 rats nearer to normal. Histopathological observation clearly showed the cardioprotective action of the study plant. Further studies will identify the bioactive molecule responsible for the cardioprotective activity. 2014/04/12 - 03:27

Plant phenolics have been recognized largely as beneficial antioxidants that can scavenge harmful active oxygen species. In plant systems, phytophenolics can act as antioxidants. Alpha asarone is one of the phytochemical constituent of essential oil of Acorus calamus and bark of Guatteria gaumeri which exhibits many biological activities. In the present study antioxidant activity of alpha asarone was evaluated using scavenging assays of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion radicals, chelating ability of ferrous ion, reducing power and inhibition capability of Fe (II)-induced lipid peroxidation. Alpha asarone exhibited strongest antioxidant activities in scavenging DPPH radicals and highest reducing power. Alpha asarone also exhibited best performance in chelating metal ion and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The results obtained revealed that alpha asarone possess higher antioxidant activity. 2014/04/12 - 03:27

Fifteen genotypes of chickpea control and Rhizobium inoculated were investigated for protein content and genetic divergence based on seed protein profile using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Protein content of desi type was relatively higher than kabuli type. Protein content fifteen genotypes ranged from 18.76-23.58% in control, Rhizobium inoculated 19.83-24.54%. Desi and Kabuli genotype of chickpea Rhizobium inoculated gave some unique band in comparison to control genotype of chickpea. Desi genotypes gave some unique band in comparison to Kabuli genotypes of chickpea. Highest number of protein band found in PUSA 362, KWR 108 and followed by H82-2 and Phule G 5 whereas minimum number of protein bands were found in L550. It is clear from the result obtained that the chickpea genotype having highest number of protein band having highest quantity of protein. Maximum bands are of medium molecular weight followed by highest molecular weight and low molecular weight. Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of seed storage protein can economically be used to assess, genetic variation and relation in genotypes. Thus, specific bands of seed storage protein profile may be used as markers for identification of the mutants/genotypes. The research results about the biochemical characteristics of desi chickpea varieties are expected to provide guidelines for the researchers confronted with the need to use such typical food seeds in India as well as in the rest of the world. 2014/04/12 - 03:27

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is the most common complication of long-standing
diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to investigate the fatty
acids composition abnormalities of sciatic nerve in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced
Diabetic Neuropathy (DNP) in male rats. Six groups of 20 rats were studied.
Group I (control group): Received no drugs, Group II (diabetic group) A single
dose of Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg kg-1 i.p.) was used for the induction
of diabetes in rats, Group III (normal α-lipoic acid-treated group), Group
IV (diabetic alpha-lipoic acid-treated group), Group V (diabetic insulin-treated
group), Group VI (diabetic alpha-lipoic acid and insulin-treated group). Eight
weeks after diabetes induction therapeutic treatment with alpha-lipoic acid
(54 mg kg-1 b.wt. i.p daily) and insulin (2 U s.c daily) were given
either alone or in combination and continued for six weeks. Equivalent volumes
of saline were given subcutaneously to the rats in the other diabetic and non
diabetic control groups. Blood samples and sciatic nerve tissues were collected
from all animal groups two times at 4 and 6 weeks from the onset of treatment
which begin after eight weeks of Diabetic Neuropathy (DNP) induction for determination
of serum glucose and sciatic nerve triacylglycerols, non Esterified Fatty Acids
(NEFA) and membrane fatty acids composition of sciatic nerve. The obtained results
revealed that, a significant increase in serum glucose and sciatic nerve NEFA
concentrations with marked decrease in triacylglycerols and fatty acids composition
percentage including palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid and arachidic
acid were observed in sciatic nerve of STZ-induced DNP in rats. Administration
of α-lipoic acid with insulin significantly lowered serum glucose and sciatic
nerve NEFA concentrations as well as several fatty acids contents including
myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, cis-vaccenic, linoleic, alpha linolenic,
arachidic and godoleic acid with increase in margaric, stearic and eicosadienoic
acid percentage in addition to triacylglycerols level in sciatic nerve. The
results suggest that, treatment with α-lipoic acid combined with insulin
administrations could ameliorate the altered myelin of sciatic nerve lipids
induced by diabetes and attenuate the changed fatty acid composition membrane
in sciatic nerve and improved the metabolic control of diabetic neuropathy.
The results indicated that the beneficial effect of α-lipoic acid treatment
in diabetic neuropathy. 2014/03/06 - 12:47

Bamboo is the world’s fast growing and widely used lignocellulosic versatile
material. Like other biological materials, bamboo is susceptible to environmental
degradation such as moisture, heat, rain, insects etc. as well as dimensional
variation when exposed to natural environmental conditions although, with the
use of appropriate treatments, the shelf-life of these materials can be prolonged.
Chemical modification of split bamboo with a bulk Monomer like Methyl Methacrylate
(MMA) or butyl methacrylate (BMA) in the presence of a dithioligand was studied.
Polymerisation of MMA and BMA was possible by heat treatment as the catalyst.
The dimensional stability efficiency of the treated sample in terms of Anti-shrink
Efficiency (ASE%) was improved compared to untreated samples, as were the mechanical
strength properties modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity. The efficacy
of the preservative chemicals for the treatment of bamboo samples was evaluated
in ground contact against termite and fungus and found to be improved on treatment.
The penetration of the preservative chemicals and deterioration of the bamboo
samples after burial test was evident from Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM).
From the thermal analysis data of the treated and untreated samples, it was
observed that the percentage of weight loss decreases in treated samples compared
to untreated sample. The interaction of the bamboo component and chemicals was
confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. 2014/03/06 - 12:47

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of camel milk
on activities and gene expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes in rats intoxicated
with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Therefore, twenty four rats were
used in the current study. Rats were divided into four groups, the first and
second groups were received water and camel's milk, respectively whereas rats
of both third and fourth groups were injected with CCl4 and received
water and camel's milk, respectively. After 5 weeks, liver tissues were collected
for biochemical analysis of the activities and gene expression of antioxidant
enzymes. Rats supplemented with camel milk alone showed no significant difference
in all examined parameters compared to control rats. Liver damage and oxidative
stress were evident in untreated CCl4 intoxicated rats as indicated
by significant elevation of hepatic enzymes, significant elevation in thiobarbituric
acid reactive substance (TBARS), significant reduction in reduced glutathione
level (GSH), significant reduction in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide
dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S transferase
(GST) and finally significant down-regulation of antioxidant enzymes gene expression
compare to control. Administration of camel milk along with CCl4
caused amelioration in CCl4-induced effects compare to the untreated
CCl4 intoxicated rats via up-regulation of antioxidant enzyme gene
expression, activation of the expressed genes and increasing the availability
of GSH. Conclusively, camel milk exerted its protective effect against CCl4
induced hepatic toxicity by modulating the extent of lipid peroxidation and
augmenting antioxidant defense system at activity and gene expression levels. 2014/03/06 - 12:47

Purpose of this research was to elucidate the protein profiles of the seminal
plasma in various categories of male infertility, to scrutinize their correlation
with seminal parameters. Oligoasthenospermia (N = 15), asthenospermaia (N =
17), azoospermia (N = 12), normospermia (N = 27), oligospermia (N = 12) and
fertile (control subjects, N = 10) were collected. The samples were diluted
by tris-egg yolk extender and were frozen. Plasma was separated from semen by
centrifugation, underwent SDS Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).
The mean values with its standard error of semen parameters of fresh sample
were shown significant difference (p<0.0001) when compared to the post-thaw
samples. Of the various fractionations, the protein with molecular weight 44.6
kDa shows high significant and positive correlation (p<0.01) with sperm concentration
of freshly evaluated semen samples and low level significant (p<0.00001)
with the frozen samples. Sperm motility was positively correlated (p<0.029)
with the protein molecular weight 56.6 kDa in the freeze thawed semen samples.
This reality could sustain the implication that seminal plasma proteins act
on the sperm physiology and morphology and it found to act on strange ways.
Supplementary studies are essential to define the mechanism of different proteins
involved in the fertilization and their correlation. 2014/03/06 - 12:47

Sumatriptan is a novel and highly effective drug against migraine and cluster
headache attacks. This antimigraine drug is known to exert its effect through
the modulation of serotonin (5-HT) mediated neurotransmission. 5-HT1B
receptors in rats and 5-HT1D receptors in humans have been thought
to be likely targets of sumatriptan. In the present study the effect of varying
dose and duration of sumatriptan on the density of 5-HT1B receptors
in the rat cerebellum were studied to understand its mechanism of action. Sprague
Dawley rats were administered with different doses of sumatriptan (0.2-16 mg
kg-1 b.wt. i.p.) for seven days and 2, 4 and 8 mg kg-1
of sumatriptan for 7, 14 and 21 days. The radioligand binding assays were performed
in cerebellar membranes using [3H]5-HT. Treatment with different
doses of sumatriptan for seven days showed a significant (p<0.0001) downregulation
of 5-HT1B receptors in a dose dependent manner. A significant decrease
in the density of 5-HT1B receptors was observed with 0.2 mg (45%),
0.5 mg (72%) and 1 mg (70%) of sumatriptan treatment, with a significant decrease
(p<0.001) in Kd values. No further decrease in either the density
or in the Kd values was observed with increasing doses of Sumatriptan
from 2 to 16 mg kg-1 b.wt. The magnitude of decrease in the receptor
density was more significant with a lower dose (2 mg) of sumatriptan for a prolonged
period of exposure (21 days). However, such change was not observed with higher
doses (4 and 8 mg kg-1). Furthermore, sumatriptan showed a higher
affinity for 5-HT1B receptors with a Ki value of 9.4±0.9
nM, when compared to other agonists and antagonists. Taken together, these findings
suggest that desensitization of 5-HT1B receptor is dose and time
dependent, which may be an important factor underlying the mechanism of action
of sumatriptan as an antimigraine drug. 2014/03/06 - 12:47

In the current study, we investigated the protective role of Spirulina fusiformis
against bromobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage in rats. Bromobenzene
is a commonly used industrial solvent which causes hepatic and renal necrosis.
Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats by oral administration of bromobenzene (10
mmol kg-1) and the protective effect of Spirulina fusiformis
was evaluated by assessing changes in levels of the renal functional markers
(Urea, uric acid and creatinine), glutathione, antioxidants and lipid peroxidation.
Antioxidant status was found to be decreased whereas lipid peroxidation (0.32±0.06)
increased depicting oxidative stress and histopathological examination of the
tissue showed tubular necrosis due to the administration of bromobenzene. Pre-administration
of Spirulina fusiformis to bromobenzene treated rats caused significant
(p<0.05) restoration in the levels of renal functional markers, antioxidants,
lipid peroxidation (0.93±0.10) and histological architecture in rats.
The nephroprotective role of Spirulina fusiformis against bromobenzene-induced
toxicity in rats can be attributed to its antioxidant effects and its free radical
scavenging properties. 2014/03/06 - 12:47

Fermentable sugars are important prerequisite for ethanol production. These sugars
are insufficient for production of the required amount of ethanol for Nigeria
consumption in spite availability of raw materials. This study is aimed at producing
fermentable sugars by pretreatment and hydrolysis of cassava peels using Aspergillus
niger and their crude enzymes (amylase, cellulase and pectinase), as well
as comparing the reducing sugar yield. Cassava peels were pretreated by soaking
and a combination of soaking and boiling at varying time. Hydrolysis of pretreated
cassava peels with Aspergillus niger and crude enzymes were carried out
for 5 and 15 days, respectively. The result showed that pretreatment by soaking
and boiling for up to 120 min removed the highest amount of cyanide and increased
amount of carbohydrate produced but reduced the fibre content (37.04±0.01
mg g-1, 71.42±0.02 and 10.38±0.42%). Hydrolysis using
Aspergillus niger yielded up to 95.44±0.11 mg g-1 reducing
sugar while hydrolysis using enzymes yielded up to 72.38±0.06 mg g-1
reducing sugar. The study revealed the potentials of cassava peels in reducing
sugar production. Soaking and boiling of cassava peels for 120 min removed more
cyanide and yielded high carbohydrate needed for reducing sugar production. Microbial
cells are better tools that could be used for hydrolysis of carbohydrate to reducing
sugars than their enzymatic products. 2014/03/06 - 12:47

Hepatotoxins constitute a serious health concern in both rural and urban population
globally. Despite advances in medical research, the discovery of an ideal hepatoprotective
agent remains a challenge. The present research sought to evaluate the hepatoprotective
activity of the crude methanol extract of Crinum jagus bulb as a step
towards further detailed study to isolate the bioactive principles. Wistar rats
were pre-challenged individually with a high dose of acetaminophen (paracetamol,
2000 mg kg-1) per os to induce hepatic damage prior to treatment.
The control group was given distilled water (10 mL kg-1, p.o.) while
one out of the other experimental rat groups was either treated with silymarin
(50 mg kg-1, p.o.) or with a dose of C. jagus bulb extract
(75, 150 and 300 mg kg-1). Pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time,
the mean relative liver weight of individual rats, biochemical assay and histopathological
lesions in the liver of the separate rat groups were assessed and compared to
determine the extent of hepatic damage. The prolonged paracetamol-induced pentobarbitone
sleeping time in untreated, control rats (145.2±1.4 min) was most remarkably
reduced to 122.5±2.1 and 109.5±0.4 min in rats which were treated
orally with 150 and 300 mg kg-1 of the extract respectively. The
acetaminophen-mediated decrease in the mean relative liver weight of intoxicated
rats was relatively reversed with 150 and 300 mg kg-1 of the extract.
C. jagus bulb extract also demonstrated significant (p<0.05) potency
at 150 and 300 mg kg-1 in reducing acetaminophen-induced increase
in the rat serum transaminases (AST, ALT and ALP) and total bilirubin but with
elevation in total serum protein values. Histopathology revealed that 2000 mg
kg-1 of paracetamol induced severe necrosis of hepatocytes in untreated
control rats. Treatment of the acetaminophen-challenged rats with silymarin
(50 mg kg-1, p.o.) and C. jagus bulb extract (150 and 300
mg kg-1, p.o.) gave a better protection with regeneration of hepatocytes
relative to the untreated control. Crinum jagus bulb extract seemed to
have multiplicity of effects in regenerating parenchymal cells, hepatic microsomal
enzymes with high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The bulb of
C. jagus could be a potential source of potent hepatoprotective agents. 2012/10/11 - 21:26

The present study evaluates the efficiency of conversion of CLNA (conjugated
linolenic acids; α-eleostearic acid) of Ricinodendron heudelotii
to CLA (conjugated linoleic acids; rumenic acid) in the liver, small bowel and
serum of male rats using ultraviolet spectrometry (UV) and Gas Chromatography
(GC) techniques. One milliliter of oil was orally administrated to 30 rats during
24 h. The spectra of R. heudelotii oil, linoleic acid, rumenic acid and
α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA) were determined. The concentrations of
α-ESA and CLA were determined after 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h of oral administration
of oil in liver, small bowel and serum. Linoleic acid has a peak at 215 nm and
rumenic acid at 232 nm. Spectra of standard α-eleostearic acid and R.
heudelotii oil were bunk with a characteristic peak at 270 nm. In the serum,
we did not find any trace of fatty acid with either UV or GC. UV and GC methods
showed that α-ESA was gradually converted in rumenic acid in the liver
and small bowel. The liver had a faster and higher enzyme activity than the
small bowel. These results showed that the conversion of CLNA to CLA in rats
using UV spectrometry is the most method to use. 2012/10/11 - 21:26

Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy in women and its metastatic state
represent the second most common cause of mortality. Inhibition of angiogenesis
is considered to be an important strategy for cancer therapy. The currently
available antiangiogenic agents that are used for treatment of breast cancer
have serious side effects limiting their chronic use. Therefore, the current
study was designed to investigate and compare the antiangiogenic effects of
natural food sources; cinnamon, green and black tea on experimentally induced
breast cancer in rats using 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Animals were
randomly divided into eight groups of seven animals each: four healthy groups
and four breast cancer groups induced by a single dose of (20 mg kg-1)
of DMBA dissolved in 1.0 mL corn oil. Both healthy and breast cancer groups
were treated aqueous extract of cinnamon, black and green tea (100 mg kg-1
b.wt. in 1.0 mL distilled water), given for 45 successive days intragastrically.
Serum levels of some angiogenic stimulators and inhibitors were estimated using
ELISA assays. The results showed significant increases in the serum levels of
VEGF, sVEGFR-1 and bFGF in untreated breast cancer group when compared with
untreated healthy rats. Also, there was a significant decrease in the serum
levels of VEGF, sVEGFR-1 and bFGF in the treated groups with plants extracts
when compared with breast cancer control group. The results of the present study
suggested that extracts of these plants have antiangiogenic protective activities
and supports the hypothesis that these plants help in the prevention of breast
cancer. 2012/10/11 - 21:26

Liposomes are often used as a carrier to improve the therapeutic activity and
safety of drugs. The lipid composition of liposomes plays an important role
in determining the behavior of liposomes in phases. In this study, the phospholipid
and alkylresorcinol content in crude acetone extracts of seeds of Canna indica
L., Cucumis melo L. and Prunus armeniaca L. was analyzed in
order to assess the applicability in liposome delivery vesicles. The crude extracts
were used to form liposomes and their stability and resistance to oxidative
degradation was evaluated by spectroscopy. The liposomes formed from these extracts
were stable compared to control Phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes and had a
lower percentage of aggregation as a function of time, as measured by the Optical
Density (OD) at 400 nm (6.1-26.6% for extract liposomes and 43% for PC liposomes).
Lipid peroxidation measured by the Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA) method after 28
days incubation at room temperature was much lower for extract liposomes compared
to PC liposomes. Interactions of the extract liposomes with human white blood
cells resulted in a reduction of the free radical (O2-)
formation by 38-65% compared to PC liposomes. 2012/10/11 - 21:26

Controversies surround the use of cannabis and there have been discrepancies
in the results of various studies on cannabis carried out on animals and on
human beings. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicological, metabolic,
reproductive and neurochemical effects of chronic cannabis use among some male
users in Lagos, Nigeria. Twenty male chronic cannabis smokers with ages between
20-35 years and average duration of cannabis use of 5 years were recruited along
with ten male age matched controls that were not using cannabis. Blood samples
were collected from all the subjects for the analyses of plasma dopamine, norepinephrine,
Prolactin (PRL), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
and testosterone levels. Random blood sugar, plasma cholesterol, High Density
Lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides,
total plasma protein, serum Alanine Transaminase (ALT) and Aspartate Aminotransferase
(AST) were also estimated. The results showed that smokers had significantly
higher levels of dopamine, norepinephrine and testosterone. There was also significantly
higher levels of serum ALT and AST in the smokers’
group. However, the other reproductive hormones and the metabolic parameters
checked were all not significantly different between the two groups. We concluded
that chronic cannabis use is associated with increased catecholamine neurotransmitters
and increased testosterone and liver toxicity while there are no effects on
PRL and gonadotropins as well as metabolism. 2012/10/11 - 21:26

The body weight losses and serum biochemical indices are considered as major
signs of diabetes mellitus. The aim of present research was to investigate possible
changes in serum biochemical indices and live body weight in German shepherd
dogs, as a laboratory model for diabetes studies. In this research, ten German
shepherd dogs has been used for analysis; 5 of which was considered as experimental
groups and 5 was considered as control group. The examinations were conducted
to guarantee their health and absence of diabetes with Intra-venous Glucose
Tolerance Test (IVGTT) has been approved. Alloxan monohydrate with 100 mg kg-1
in was injected intravenously for experimental group. After weighting, the blood
samples were taken from control and diabetic dogs following diabetes induction.
Next, biochemical measures of serum measures include glucose, total cholesterol,
triglyceride, creatinine, total protein concentrations, Alanine Transaminase
(ALT), Aspartate Transaminase (AST) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activity
were determined. Based on statistical analysis, regardless to dramatic increases
in glucose level, ALT and AST activities are increased in diabetic groups (p<0.05)
and observed increase in serum ALP activity was very significant (p<0.01).
The body weight of control group had almost constant trend during experiment,
but diabetic dogs had considerable weigh losses especially after second IVGGT
and following diabetes induction. It can be concluded that the weight losing
of diabetic individual may be largely Independent from serum total cholesterol
or triglyceride concentrations and is related to protein metabolism, because
of lack of glucose source for energy obtaining. Further studies with completive
biochemical profile of plasma are needed to clarifying discussed correlations. 2012/10/11 - 21:26

Botanical insecticides have been recommended by most of the Biointensive Integrated Pest Management (BIPM) Practitioners throughout the world. However, the target organs for such botanicals are imperative. Here, the toxicological effects of Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) (Fabaceae) and Acalypha indica (Linn.) (Euphorbiaceae) crude extract on the mortality, reproductive organs macromolecules, mineral level in alimentary canal and detoxication enzyme level in the fat body and intestine of Dysdercus cingulatus (Fab.) (Pyrrhocoridae) was studied. Crude extract of A. indica caused more mortality than T. purpurea. Cotton leaves and seed were altered the impact of these botanicals pesticidal property. For instance, the LC50 value was higher when the pest was fed with aqueous extract treated cotton seeds than on cotton leaves. Detoxication enzymes like Aspartate Aminotransferase (AAT) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) level was high in intestine than the fat body whether the insect fed with cotton leaves or cotton seeds. AAT level was enhanced by the T. purpurea extract than A. indica extract. The Na+ level high in cotton seed fed pest whereas K+ level and Ca++ level were high in cotton leaves fed animals. A. indica sprayed cotton seed induce the Na+ and K+ level in the alimentary canal. Ca++ level decreased by A. indica and T. purpurea extracts sprayed cotton seed and leaves fed pest. Treatment of T. purpurea and A. indica altered both total glucose and protein level of D. cingulatus ovary and tests. It seems that the detrimental effect of the botanical crude extract can be due to both the modulating nature of the extracts and the biochemical alteration in the respective system, alimentary canal and fat body of the D. cingulatus can be a potent candidate in integrated pest management programmes for controlling such pests. 2012/05/18 - 18:05

In this study extracellular protease was purified with ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. The purity was checked with MALDI-TOF and SDS-PAGE. Confirmation of protease was done with zymogram. The molecular weight of the protease was found to be 36 kDa. MALDI-TOF analysis of the protein showed the Molecular weight confirmation of the studied protease. Further the enzyme was characterized for its maximal activity with different pH, temperature, salt concentration and inhibitors. The maximal activity was found at pH 7.0, 40°C, 1.5 M salt concentration and found to be serine protease. 2012/05/18 - 18:05

Aromatic and medicinal plants are widespread throughout world. Essential oils obtained from different aromatic and medicinal plants parts have been shown antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antioxidant properties. The experiment was started in season 2010-2011. In this study we studied the chemical compositions of essential oils of Lavandula officinalis and Melissa officinalis and also tested antibacterial and anticandidal activities of essential oils. The essential oils of Lavandula officinalis and Melissa officinalis collected in Iran were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts and analysed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometry system (GC/MS) for their chemical composition. The main constituents of leave oils were α-pinene, Camphor, Menthol, 1,8-Cineole, β-pinene, linalool, thymol and carvacrol. This experiment indicated that the bacterial strains were sensitive to studied essential oils and also showed very effective bactericidal activity with the strongest inhibition zone. Among the eight of tested essential oil components, thymol, carvacrol and menthol showed the highest antibacterial activities than previous components and streptomycin while, β-Pinene and linalool showed lower antibacterial activity than streptomycin (p = 0.05). Essential oils of Lavandula officinalis and Melissa officinalis possess great antibacterial potential and could be used as natural preservatives and fungicides. 2012/05/18 - 18:05

The metal ion response profile and thermal stability of extracellular laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1, which is widely cultivated in Ghana, were investigated to provide information essential for the establishment of laccase-based applications in the country. P. ostreatus (Jacq. ex. fr) Kummer strain EM-1 was cultivated on a mixture of Triplochiton scleroxylon (wawa) sawdust, rice bran and lime. Extracellular laccase was isolated from spent sawdust four to six days after the appearance of mushroom pinheads and subjected to ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration using Sephadex G-75. Laccase activity was assayed spectrophotometrically at 468 nm using 2,6-dimethoxyphenol in Mcilvaine’s citrate-phosphate buffer, pH 5.0. Two metal ions, Cu2+ and Mn2+, stimulated P. ostreatus strain EM-1 laccase activity. Cu2+ caused a maximal stimulatory effect of 324.4%, while Mn2+ exerted a more moderate stimulatory effect of 180.5%. Magnesium ions had no effect on the activity of the enzyme. Activity decreased by 77.4% after 20 min of incubation at 50°C. During seven days of storage at either 4 or -20°C, laccase activity decreased by 87.7-88.8%. This rate of deactivation was reduced to 28.1-32.8% over the same period when 20 mM CuSO4 was added to the enzyme prior to storage. The findings suggest that P. ostreatus strain EM-1 laccase would not be a suitable biocatalyst for high temperature processes. Furthermore, copper and to a lesser extent, manganese can be used as stimulatory additives during P. ostreatus strain EM-1 laccase-catalyzed processes at ambient temperature and for short-term storage of the enzyme. 2012/05/18 - 18:05

Hypothyroidism and Diabetes mellitus are among the most common endocrine disorders in India. Oxidative stress has been proposed to be one of the causative factors associated with insulin resistance. In our previous study, we reported the presence of oxidative stress in hypothyroidism. However, the link between oxidative stress and the status of insulin resistance in hypothyroidism has not been addressed yet especially among the Indians. We recruited sixty seven untreated hypothyroid patients consecutively from the out patient department and analyzed their homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and oxidative stress parameters. Oxidative stress parameters and HOMA-IR were significantly higher compared to euthyroid controls. The severity of disease, body mass index and altered lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin and MDA levels were significantly associated with insulin resistance. However, only glycated hemoglobin and MDA levels were found to be independent predictors of HOMA-IR in these patients. Increased OS could be one of the mechanisms for mild insulin resistance as reported in our study in untreated hypothyroid patients. 2012/05/18 - 18:05

Short postharvest vase life is one of the most important problems on the cut flowers. The study was conducted to investigate the effect of salicylic acid at different concentrations on carnation flower longevity, Aminocyclopropanecarboxylate oxidase (ACC-oxidase, ACO) activity and SOD activity vase solution of cut flowers carnation in laboratory condition. The treatments were distilled water, salicylic acid (0,1.5, 2.5, 3.5 mM) and glutamine (0, 2 and 4 mM). Results show that salicylic acid 2.5 mM followed by glutamine 4 mM is more effective than salicylic acid 1.5, 3.5 and 4.5 mM alone in improving the vase life of cut carnation flowers. The percent of wilting was minimized as a result of using this combined treatment. However, the percent of wilting increased with the increase in concentrations of salicylic acid. 2.5 mM salicylic acid+4 mM glutamine retarded the chlorophyll as well as carbohydrate degradation during the postharvest life. The results showed that salicylic acid and glutamine in preservative mixture increased the SOD activity of cut flowers and reduced ACC-xidase activity, free proline accumulation, number of bacterial on vase solution, as compared to control. 2012/05/18 - 18:05

Apple texture can deteriorate during cold storage, resulting in softness and mealiness. The experiment was started in season 2010-2011. In order to study the effectiveness of salicylic acid, calcium nitrate and essential oils treatments on postharvest quality and storage behavior of “Granny Smith” cultivar of apple. Fruit weight losses, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, pH; titratable acidity, total soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio and ethylene production were measured at 20, 80 and 140th days of postharvest life. Apples were dipped in concentrations, 2.5 mM salicylic acid (1%) of calcium nitrate and mentha essential oils solutions (150 ppm) 10 min and stored 0-2°C in a cold store for 20 weeks period. One percent Calcium nitrate and 2.5 mM salicylic acid did affect quality parameters of the fruit compared to control treatment (p = 0.05). Mentha essential oils solutions (150 ppm) did not affect quality parameters of the fruit compared to control treatment (p = 0.05). Results indicated the potential improvement of shelf life of apple by salicylic acid and calcium nitrate pre-treatment of the fruit, did further improve product quality. 2012/05/18 - 18:05

To understand the factors that induce floral senescence in gerbera, this study has investigated the effects of various chemical agents on flower senescence. The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of different concentrations of silicon, acetylsalicylic acid and glutamine on keeping quality and vase life of gerbera cut flowers. The vase were placed in chambers at 19°C, relative humidity about 70% and 14th photoperiod that was maintained using fluorescent lamps (light intensity of 15 μmol m-2 sec-1) at the top of the corolla. The recorded traits included Vase life, total chlorophyll content (SPAD reading), anthocyanin leakage, malondialdehyde content, ACC-Oxidase activity and water absorption. The experiments show that: 3 mM silicon had no significant influence but 1 and 2 mM silicon caused an increase on vase life. The results showed that silicon, acetylsalicylic acid and glutamine treatments increased cut-flower water absorption, fresh weight and vase life, while decreasing MDA content, ACC-oxidase activity and membrane premeability together with total delay of senescence and peroxidation of lipids. 2012/05/18 - 18:05

In the present study, effect of exogenous application of salicylic acid (1.5 and 3 mM ) and malic acid (100 and 150 mg L-1) on components of essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis was evaluated. All SA and MA treatments enhanced limonene, 1.8-cineole, α-pinene, camphene and camphor, while terpinen-4-ol, sabinene, verbenol, germacrene-D, bornyl acetate, myrcene, α-phelandrene, α-terpinolene and β-caryophyllene decreased. The study demonstrated that SA and MA can be change secondary metabolites in Rosmarinus officinalis. 2012/05/18 - 18:05

The nutritionists’ interest in leaf vegetables including Hibiscus sabdariffa stems from their rich contents of essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals which are needed for normal metabolic activities of the body. Vegetables are also good sources of dietary fibres that are important for bowel movement. However, the presence of some inherent anti nutrients and toxic substances in vegetables has been a major obstacle in harnessing the full nutritional benefits. It is against this background that this research was conducted to determine the effect of some processing methods on the antinutrients (soluble and total oxalates), toxic substances (cyanide and nitrate) and some micronutrients which include vitamin C, β-carotene (provitamin A) and mineral elements (Fe, Mg, Zn, Na and K) in Hibiscus sabdariffa. The processing methods include boiling (vegetable leaves were boiled in distilled water for 5 and 10 min) and sun drying. Results obtained showed that the cyanide, nitrate and soluble contents in fresh vegetable sample are within the tolerable level and they can be well tolerated in the meals. However, the total oxalate content in the vegetable is high enough to induce oxalate toxicosis. All the processing methods significantly (p<0.05) reduced the antinutrients and toxic substances in Hibiscus sabdariffa except that the reduction in soluble and total oxalate with sun drying was not significant (p>0.05). Boiling methods reduced these toxic substances significantly (p<0.05) more than sun drying. The antinutrients and toxic substances generally decreased with boiling time. These post-harvest treatments also reduced vitamin C content significantly (p<0.05) in Hibiscus sabdariffa. Boiling method retained more of the vitamin compared to sun drying. β-carotene levels increased in the boiled vegetable leaves, while its content was reduced in sundried leaves. However, boiling beyond 5 min led to significant (p<0.05) reduction of β-carotene levels in the vegetable. Mineral elements (Fe, Cu, Mg, Na and K) decreased significantly (p<0.05) with boiling in Hibiscus sabdariffa; however sun drying had no significant effect on the mineral contents. The result concludes that moderate boiling significantly reduces the levels of antinutrients and toxic substances while still conserve some micronutrients in amounts sufficient to meet our dietary requirements. 2012/03/08 - 06:28

The present study was designed to explore the possible cholesterol lowering effect of Sibu Olive (SO) supplementation on cholesterol level and atherosclerosis inhibitory effect in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. A total of five groups (n = 7); NC (normal diet), PC (normal diet+0.5% cholesterol), HS (hypercholestrolemic diet+10 mg kg day-1 simvastatin), HF (hypercholsterolemic diet+5% fullfat SO) and HD group (hypercholesterolemic diet+5% defatted SO) were established. Body weight and lipid profile analysis [total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)] were compared to PC. There was rise in body weight changes (1.75-2.24 kg) of the animals. The HD group showed significant reduction in total cholesterol (96.3%) and LDL-C (26.5%) together with increment in HDL-C (46.8%) relative to PC. Furthermore, the atherosclerotic plaque formation in HD group diminished by 79.4% compared to PC. The possible cholesterol lowering effect was contributed by the presence of polyphenols such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanidins and anthocyanin of the SO fruit. Hence, these findings are beneficial as it provide alternative means to treat hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. 2012/03/08 - 06:28

The subterranean caves represent one of the most suitable examples of extremities in ecosystem and the microbes abiding in such environments represent truly extremophiles in nature. In the present study, Micrococcus bacterial strains were isolated from various depths of the Kotumsar cave (India) and further 12 strains of 3 specific species (M. luteus, M. radiodurans and M. agilis) have been selected for further studies. The protein profiles by SDS-PAGE technique were estimated for each strain and the effect of subterranean depth on the characterization of protein profiles have been tried to establish by the linear regression method. The strains isolated from the deeper zones of the cave exhibits more number of protein bands, carrying higher molecular weights. Statistical analysis also support the same i.e., the strains isolated from the deeper zones of the cave revealed much protein as compared to the strains isolated from the anterior zones. The chances of developing extremozymes (biocatalysts) in the strains, isolated from the deeper zones could not be denied. Further, the result obtained from this study also suggests redrawing the evolutionary tree of studied bacterial strains. 2012/03/08 - 06:28