Skip to Content

Instrukcja korzystania z Biblioteki

Serwisy:

Ukryty Internet | Wyszukiwarki specjalistyczne tekstów i źródeł naukowych | Translatory online | Encyklopedie i słowniki online

Translator:

Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Asian Journal of Agricultural Research

Coffee is the major traded commodity next to oil and thus plays a vital role in the economy of both developed and developing countries. Coffee guarantees a solid basis for promotion of economic development. Moreover, organic coffee is winning the interest of the premium market price across the world thereby increasing the economic return of coffee producers. Despite the market opportunities and better market price for organic coffee, there are several factors which drastically affect organic coffee production and profitability under small holder farmers. Therefore, the objective of this review study was to characterize the existing organic coffee systems; husbandry, post-harvest handling, certification and marketing systems followed by organic coffee producers focusing on Ethiopian case. The result of this review study revealed that a number of factors are constraining organic coffee systems. Demand for intensive and skill based management of organic coffee plantation, high cost of certification and market penetration related issues are the most challenging ones. These coupled with low economic development level with (capacity) of small-scale coffee producers aggravated the challenges the producer are facing. Based on the result of the current review study it can be concluded that, the organic coffee system can be improved through awareness creation training proper application of organic farming principles and practices forming and promoting cooperatives to minimize cost of certification and increase participation of small-scale organic coffee growers on the market decisions and market facilitation.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.170.180 2014/09/08 - 23:27

Sixty four sesame genotypes were evaluated in 8x8 simple lattice design at Dansha, in Western Tigray, in 2013/14. The objectives of the study were to estimate the extent of genetic variability and association between yield and related traits. Analysis of variance revealed that there was highly significant (p<0.01) difference among the sixty four genotypes for all the fourteen characters studied. Number of capsule per plant and seed yield per ha recorded high Genotypic Coefficients of Variation (GCV) and Phenotypic Coefficients of Variation (PCV). The highest heritability value was for days to 50% flowering. Traits like, number of capsule per plant and seed yield per ha had high Phenotypic Coefficients of Variation (PCV), Genotypic Coefficients of Variation (GCV), moderately high heritability (h2) and genetic advance as a percentage of mean (GAM). This indicates that these characters can be improved through selection than heritability estimates alone. Number of primary branches per plant showed positive significant phenotypic and genotypic correlation with grain yield. Genotypically, path coefficient analysis based on grain yield as a dependent variable revealed that plant height and number of primary branches per plant exerted positive direct effect on seed yield. These characters had also positive and significant correlation with seed yield and this indicates true relationship between these traits and see yield. Therefore, emphasis should be given for these characters of sesame improvement program in future.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.181.194 2014/09/08 - 23:27

Agriculture is a major contributor to Nigeria’s GDP and small-scale farmers play a dominant role in this contribution but their productivity and growth are hindered by limited access to credit facilities. The study focused on the rural farmers’ sources and use of credit facilities in Nsukka local government area of Enugu state, Nigeria. Data for the study were collected from sixty rural farmers through the use of interview schedule. Multistate sampling technique was used in selecting respondents for the study. Descriptive statistic was used to analyse data. Result of the study shows that 53.3% of the respondents had no access to credit, among those that had access to credit, majority got their credit through friends and relations (89.3%) and cooperative society (78.6%). The major constraint on credit access was few availability of credit institution in the area (M = 3.63) while the possible ways of improving farmers access to agricultural credit was making the interest rate low and affordable (M = 2.84). It was recommended that awareness should be created by extension agents in the rural area on various available credit sources and the existing farmers group can be strengthened while federal government revisit the mandate of Micro Finance Banks to be more responsive to the need to rural farmers in term of credit facility.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.195.203 2014/09/08 - 23:27

Vegetables play a popular food among consumer who needs the healthy food in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The quality and safety food was the main thing that is guarantee for vegetable products which sold in the markets. Nitrate is the one chemical that has reported contamination in vegetables. The level of nitrate content in vegetable products from hydroponic and conventional system will be interested. So, this study aimed to investigate the amounts of nitrate in vegetable products from hydroponic and conventional vegetable products which sold in markets around Chiang Mai city. The common vegetables were 3 cross-sectional sampling from retailer market in 2013 around Chiang Mai city, northern Thailand. All samples were prepared and measured the nitrate content using HPLC method. The mean nitrate concentrations in vegetable products from hydroponics and conventional system were compared. There was found that nitrate concentrations in lettuce hydroponics products were significantly higher than conventional in every season. Kale, flowering Chinese cabbage and Pak Choi contained very high nitrate contents with mean of nitrate concentrations higher than 3,000 mg kg-1 (fresh weight). In conclusion, the level of nitrate in both hydroponic and conventional lettuces samples from Chiang Mai city, northern Thailand in 2013 were lower than EU-MRL except conventional kale, flowering Chinese cabbage and Pak Choi samples have the high concentration but no MRL established yet. In comparison of type of markets show no significant difference of nitrate content in vegetable products so consumer can be bought less nitrate contamination in vegetable from all type of markets.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.204.210 2014/09/08 - 23:27

Garlic is a potential vegetable crop in Ethiopia in general and in Jimma area
in particular. However, there is no much information on the agronomic practice
especially on the role of nutrient application in improving the growth and development
of Garlic. This study was conducted to elucidate the role of nitrogen and phosphorous
nutrients on the growth performance of local garlic variety called Minjar Nech
Shinkurt. Four nitrogen doses (0, 50, 100 and 120 kg N ha-1) and
four phosphorus doses in the form of P2O5 (0, 60, 120
and 180 kg P2O5 ha-1) used to create different
level of growth parameters. The plots were arranged in Randomized Complete Block
Design (RCBD) with three replications. Growth parameters such as plant height,
leaf number per plant and leaf length were recorded and analyzed by using JMP
statistical software. The results of the study showed that application of 100
kg N ha-1 + 120 kg P2O5 ha-1and
100 kg N ha-1 + 130 kg P2O5 ha-1
significantly increased the growth of garlic than other treatments. The application
rate of 100 kg N ha-1 + 120 kg P2O5 ha-1
significantly enhanced plant height. This study further confirms the role
of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers in increasing growth in garlic production.
From the result of the study, application rate of 100 kg N ha-1 +
120 kg P2O5 ha-1 may be recommended for increasing
growth of garlic. Further study is being conducted to compare the role of chicken
manure, animal and green manure with the commercial chemical fertilizers on
the growth performance and yield of garlic.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.211.217 2014/09/08 - 23:27

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the most consumed food crop world-wide
next to wheat and rice and potato production is rapidly increasing in Africa.
Potato is a high potential food security crop in Ethiopia due to its high yield
potential and nutritional quality tuber, short growing period and wider adaptability.
Potato potentially grows in different corners of the country. In some parts
of the country, potato is grown as a field crop whereas, in some other part,
it is still grown as a garden crop. Despite the suitability of the agro-ecology
for high quantity and quality potato production in the country, there are several
constraints which drastically affect to the low production and productivity
of potato crop under smallholder farmers condition. Therefore, the objective
of this review study was to evaluate the current state of seed potato systems,
seed potato husbandry, seed potato quality, seed potato storage and sourcing
and marketing systems used by seed potato producers and potato utilization.
The result of this review study showed that a number of factors are constraining
the system. These consists lack of wide adaptive improved potato varieties,
unavailability of improved storage facilities, the high cost of improved seed
tuber, low price of produced tuber especially immediately during harvest are
the major one. Based on the review information, it can be concluded that availing
improved potato varieties, improved storage facility and creating better marketing
opportunity are crucial to improve the seed potato systems.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.122.135 2014/07/01 - 12:12

Downy mildew caused by Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Weston) Shaw is one of the most persistent diseases encountered by maize producers in the Philippines. Improved durable resistant host plant could provide an effective way of both increasing and stabilizing corn production in affected areas. An extensive research to study the genetics of downy mildew resistance in maize against the UPLB isolate pathogen using generation mean analysis and to locate QTL conferring resistance against P. philippinensis causing Philippine downy mildew were done. The genetics of resistance to P. philippinensis was studied in progenies derived from crosses between the resistant inbred P 345 and Nei 9008 and susceptible inbred Pi 17 and Pi 23. Plant generations used in this study were the PS (susceptible lines); PR (resistant lines); F1, F2, F3, BS and BR. Analysis of generation means indicates that additive-dominance gene effect plays an important role in all components of resistance in all crosses involving Nei 9008. On the other hand, additive-dominance with epistatic gene effect plays an important role for all components of resistance involving P 345. QTL conferring resistance against P. philippinensis was observed in a BC1F2 population developed from a cross between Pi 23 and P 345. QTL analysis of the different components of resistance showed that a total of twenty-seven regions distributed in nine chromosomes of the maize genome were associated in varying degrees with resistance to P. philippinensis. Four regions located in chromosomes 1, 5, 6 and 8 were associated with disease incidence and disease severity. Results suggest that it may be possible to incorporate QTLs of various components of resistance into the elite inbred line Pi 23 using marker aided selection.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.136.149 2014/07/01 - 12:12

Downy mildew caused by Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Weston) Shaw is one of the most persistent diseases encountered by maize producers in the Philippines. Improved durable resistant host plant could provide an effective way of both increasing and stabilizing corn production in affected areas. An extensive research to study the genetics of downy mildew resistance in maize against the UPLB isolate pathogen using generation mean analysis and to locate QTL conferring resistance against P. philippinensis causing Philippine downy mildew were done. The genetics of resistance to P. philippinensis was studied in progenies derived from crosses between the resistant inbred P 345 and Nei 9008 and susceptible inbred Pi 17 and Pi 23. Plant generations used in this study were the PS (susceptible lines); PR (resistant lines); F1, F2, F3, BS and BR. Analysis of generation means indicates that additive-dominance gene effect plays an important role in all components of resistance in all crosses involving Nei 9008. On the other hand, additive-dominance with epistatic gene effect plays an important role for all components of resistance involving P 345. QTL conferring resistance against P. philippinensis was observed in a BC1F2 population developed from a cross between Pi 23 and P 345. QTL analysis of the different components of resistance showed that a total of twenty-seven regions distributed in nine chromosomes of the maize genome were associated in varying degrees with resistance to P. philippinensis. Four regions located in chromosomes 1, 5, 6 and 8 were associated with disease incidence and disease severity. Results suggest that it may be possible to incorporate QTLs of various components of resistance into the elite inbred line Pi 23 using marker aided selection.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.136.149 2014/07/01 - 12:12

The activity was carried out to determine grafting technique supporting high
compatibility by studying aspects of the time and method of grafting and morphological,
histological and biochemical changes during early process of graft formation.
The results showed that the best grafting technique was the combination of the
2 months old rootstock with the top cleft or V-shaped grafting. The high grafting
compatibility was expressed by the high glucose content of plant leaves and
little gap of total sugar content between above and below graft union. Assessment
histologically demonstrated that tissue regenerated compatibility and rejoint
of vessels from wound tissues on graft union grew and developed as a normal
composite plant.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.150.163 2014/07/01 - 12:12

The activity was carried out to determine grafting technique supporting high
compatibility by studying aspects of the time and method of grafting and morphological,
histological and biochemical changes during early process of graft formation.
The results showed that the best grafting technique was the combination of the
2 months old rootstock with the top cleft or V-shaped grafting. The high grafting
compatibility was expressed by the high glucose content of plant leaves and
little gap of total sugar content between above and below graft union. Assessment
histologically demonstrated that tissue regenerated compatibility and rejoint
of vessels from wound tissues on graft union grew and developed as a normal
composite plant.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.150.163 2014/07/01 - 12:12

A laboratory experiment was conducted to observe the effect of Juglans regia
L. leaf extracts on germination and subsequent seedling growth of wheat (cv.
VL-907) and barley (cv. PRB-502) under West Himalayan agri-silvi system. Eleven
treatments comprised of distilled water 0 (Control), 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60,
70, 80, 90 and 100% concentration of leaf extracts were employed. The effect
of aqueous extracts was found inhibitive indicating a direct proportional relationship
with concentration dependent manner on seed germination and subsequent seedling
growth of wheat. Invariably, there was a decrease in root, shoot as well as
seedling length, fresh and dry weight of seedling and vigour index I and II
with increasing walnut leaf extracts concentration on wheat. However, barley
seed showed a considerable resistance against walnut leaf extract and no significant
reduction and trend was observed for seed germination and subsequent seedling
growth i.e., fresh and dry weight, vigour index I and II for different concentration
of leaf extracts.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.164.169 2014/07/01 - 12:12

A laboratory experiment was conducted to observe the effect of Juglans regia
L. leaf extracts on germination and subsequent seedling growth of wheat (cv.
VL-907) and barley (cv. PRB-502) under West Himalayan agri-silvi system. Eleven
treatments comprised of distilled water 0 (Control), 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60,
70, 80, 90 and 100% concentration of leaf extracts were employed. The effect
of aqueous extracts was found inhibitive indicating a direct proportional relationship
with concentration dependent manner on seed germination and subsequent seedling
growth of wheat. Invariably, there was a decrease in root, shoot as well as
seedling length, fresh and dry weight of seedling and vigour index I and II
with increasing walnut leaf extracts concentration on wheat. However, barley
seed showed a considerable resistance against walnut leaf extract and no significant
reduction and trend was observed for seed germination and subsequent seedling
growth i.e., fresh and dry weight, vigour index I and II for different concentration
of leaf extracts.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.164.169 2014/07/01 - 12:12

Rice fields are commonly characterized by flooding conditions and high percolation rate. Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient for rice yield and is required in large quantities. In this article, the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) 0509 version was used and was run using i-EPIC (interactive EPIC) interface, to validate this version and evaluate N losses in mineral rice soils. The results indicated that N losses of rice soil in terms of N loss in sediment, nitrate (NO3) loss via runoff, NO3 loss in subsurface and NO3 leaching. The results revealed that the northern region of Thailand had the maximum average of 9.58 kg ha-1 during the major rice season, followed by the central, eastern, western, northeastern and southern regions, respectively. In the second rice season, NO3 loss in the western region had the maximum average of 25.52 kg ha-1, followed by the northern, central, eastern, northeastern and southern regions, respectively. In terms of N pool (humus mineralization, slow humus N pool, passive humus N pool, total N pool) the eastern region had the maximum average of 4,475.33 kg ha-1 during the major rice season, followed by the central, southern, northern, northeastern and western regions, respectively. Whereas, the second rice season found that the eastern region had also the maximum average of 6,909.03 kg ha-1, followed by the central, southern, northern, northeastern and western regions, respectively. Furthermore, EPIC-simulated hydrology found that precipitation, runoff, percolation and soil temperature share a positive relationship with major rice yield.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.70.83 2014/04/12 - 15:10

Symbiotic association of rhizospherial organisms helps plants for better adaptability and acquisition of nutrients required for sustainable growth and productivity. Bacillus subtilis isolated from the root rhizosphere of salinity tolerant sugarcane variety, CoM 0265 was evaluated as PGPR using commercially grown cultivar of sugarcane, Co 86032 exposed to salinity stress under greenhouse conditions. Morphological parameters viz., root- shoot length, leaf number, chlorophyll, cations like Mn, Cu, Fe and K showed significant increase with the Bacillus inoculum. MDA, proline, reducing sugar, protein, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase content, minerals like Na and Zn showed an increase with saline stress, but supplementing Bacillus inoculum caused significant reduction in these components and protected plants from salinity stress. The results of the study put together suggest that this Bacillus isolate has potential to be used as bioinoculum in sugarcane cultivation and improve productivity.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.84.95 2014/04/12 - 15:10

Some of environmental impact assessment (EIA) objectives make available by Economic Valuation (EV) techniques like Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). EIA has not included EV techniques yet in Iran. Present study is the first attempt of using CVM as an EV technique in the EIA. We chose CVM because it can estimate all of values. It replaces with cost benefit analysis (CBA) in EIA procedure. Tehran-Shomal freeway is our study site. It has 121 km length which joins Tehran as Iran capital to Chalus as a tourism city in the north of Iran. Tehran-Shomal freeway also, is a part of the International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC) connects eastern Asia to Europe. As the NGOs and people are seriously concern about environmental degradation, the project has been faced a strict challenge and has not completed yet. The CVM can replace with CBA in the EIA procedure and a get a logic response for present challenge. Total WTP was US$ 77.23x106 after running a Logit model for supporting natural resources along Tehran-Shomal freeway. If we compare WTP with the cost of Tehran-Shomal freeway, we will find the completion of freeway construction has explanation from economic view point.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.96.104 2014/04/12 - 15:10

Aerobic rice is a new system of rice cultivation under limited water condition. Rice having a shallow root system is not a desired character for water stress condition. Therefore, a deep root system is needed for acquiring water and nutrition from the relatively wet deep soil layer to obtain a stable yield under aerobic conditions. In this context a pot experiment was conducted during Kharif, 2011 and 2012 at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, GKVK, Bengaluru to investigate the effect of integrated package of agrotechniques on rooting behaviour and yield of aerobic rice. The observations pertaining to root growth were recorded at panicle initiation stage and at maturity. The root growth parameters viz. root length, root number, root volume, root dry weight and shoot dry weight were significantly higher with the application of RDF+FYM+Biofertilizers+FeSO4+IWM practices (T8) as compared to all other treatments. The grain yield per plant and straw yield per plant also followed the similar trend.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.105.113 2014/04/12 - 15:10

Citrus tristerza virus (CTV) is one of the most destructive diseases
in citrus growing areas of Thailand. CTV coat protein gene (CTV-CP) of Thailand
MK-50 isolate which is cloned in pQE30 vector, cloned into pET160/GW/D-TOPO
vector (INVITROGEN) allowing fusion of the protein with N-terminal 6XHis tag
for easier protein purification and transformed into BL21 starTM
(DE3) expression E. coli strain. The expression was induced by 1 mM Isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside
(IPTG), followed by further growth for 4 h. A rabbit was immunized intradermally
with a mix of recombinant CTV Coat Protein (CTV-CP) and complete Freund’s
adjuvant as primary immunization and the remaining six immunization was done
with mix of incomplete Freund's adjuvants within two weeks interval. The animal
was bled prior to each immunization and the titer level was examined for binding
recombinant CTV-CP by the indirect ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent assay).
The collected serum was used to determine the titer as primary antibody. The
result indicated that the titer level was gradually increase and reach to pick
after third to sixth immunizations then lowered. The collected sera can able
to detect an antigen of 20 ng at 31, 250 fold dilution and the purified polyclonal
antibodies also can able to detect positive plant samples.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.114.121 2014/04/12 - 15:10

The estimated value of the world Edible Bird Nest (EBN) production business
is worth more than a staggering MYR 10 billion. Despite the huge demand for
EBN, the present supply is still less than 50% of the global demand. Numerous
factors are responsible for the success of this industry. Habitat and environmental
factors have significant impact on the productivity EBN production. The objective
of this study is to identify the right habitat and suitable environmental factors
that influence successful EBN production. The study will be conducted in two
phases. The inital part of the first phase is to identify the habitat and environmental
factors extracted through review of literature and supporting documents from
the stakeholders of the EBN industry. The last part of the first phase of the
study is by interviewing the stakeholders of the industry. The stakeholders
of the swiftlet industry are EBN producers, consultants of swiftlet houses,
associations of the EBN producers, the key personnel from the Federal and State
Department of Veterinary Services and the Local Government Authorities. For
the second phase of the study, experimental works will be conducted in 15 swiftlet
houses. Several environmental factors such as air and surface temperatures,
Relative Humidity (RH), air velocity and light intensity will be observed in
the swiftlet houses. The expected findings will reveal the right habitat and
the list of suitable and conducive envirommental factors that lead to productive
EBN production. It is envisaged that these findings would provide an invaluable
insight for stakeholders of the industry regarding the most appropriate habitat
and suitable environment for sucessful EBN production ventures.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.1.16 2014/03/06 - 23:05

Sweet Potato Weevil (SPW) (Cylas puncticollis) (B.) is a destructive
pest of sweet potato in Ethiopia. It causes severe damage to the tuber and infested
tuber further produce bitter taste becoming unsuitable for human consumption
and animal feed. This problem calls for C. puncticollis effective control
measure (s). An experiment was carried out with the aim to identify effective
control tools by integrating two cultural practices (Earthing-up and harvesting
time). Sweet potato variety, Awassa-83, a moderately resistant variety to C.
puncticollis was used for the study. Two factors: Earthing-up with four
levels (no, 1x, 2x, 3x and no earthing-up) and harvesting time with three levels
(prompt harvesting, one and two months delayed harvesting) making up 12 treatment
combinations were tested. These treatment combinations were laid-out in a Randomized
Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Marketable and unmarketable
yield (t ha-1), sweet potato damaged tubers, yield loss, percent
damage and weevil density were assessed. The result obtained indicated that
combination of three times earthing-up and prompt harvesting significantly reduced
number of damaged tubers (25 plot-1), SPW density (29.77 plot-1),
damage percentage (6.9% plot-1), unmarketable yield (0.56 t h-1)
and yield loss (8.68%). These demonstrate the effectiveness of frequent earthing-up
and prompt harvesting for management of SPW. Hence, integrated use of resistant
variety, prompt harvesting and three times earthing-up can be recommended for
the management of SPW in southern Ethiopia.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.17.29 2014/03/06 - 23:05

This study investigated effects of incubation period on Phosphorus (P) release from selected P-sources. The latter are reported to improve levels of P in highly weathered Chromic Acrisol, which has been under continuous cultivation. The study was based on screen-house which utilized Minjingu Mazao (MM) fertilizer, Cattle (CM) and Poultry (PM) manures. The MM fertilizer was applied at 0.258 g per 4 kg soil, equivalent to 40 kg P ha-1. Cattle manure and PM were incorporated in soils with and without MM at 10 g per 4 kg soil. The incubation went through 14, 28 and 42 days and P was analyzed after every incubation period. Results showed that incubating the soil with deionized water for 14 days adjusted P from 7.9 to 8.4 mg kg-1 soil. The MM, PM and CM increased P to 12.2, 15.9 and 17.9 mg kg-1, respectively. In addition, MM+CM, MM+PM increased P to 16.1 and 14.2 mg kg-1, respectively. Initially, P increased significantly (p <0.001) but later decreased substantially beyond 14 days. However, PM and CM gave relatively promising P values between 14 and 28 days as opposed to 42 days of incubation. It was concluded that incubating cattle manure and incorporating it with Minjingu Mazao fertilizer provides promising P quantities indicating high rates of P depletion in soils. Incubating soil with poultry manure and incorporating Minjingu Mazao fertilizer had slow release of P hence, might benefit a slow growing crop.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.30.41 2014/03/06 - 23:05

The current study evaluated the allelopathic potential of Alhagi graecorum
on germination and seedling growth of two common crop plants; bean (Vicia
faba) and corn (Zea mays). Water soluble allelochemicals were extracted
from the air dried-powdered shoots of A. graecorum at three different
concentrations (2.0, 4.0 and 6.0%, w/v). The germination experiment revealed
that seeds of both bean and corn have tolerance to the aqueous extract of A.
graecorum, where concentrations up to 6.0% had no significant effect on
percent of germination as compared with the untreated seeds. The results showed
that the lowest concentration (2.0%) of the aqueous extract stimulated elongation
of radicle and plumule as well as seedling biomass of both bean and corn, while
the highest concentration (6.0%) was inhibitory. In addition, the growth of
corn seedlings was retarded at the modest dose (4%) of the aqueous extract,
while that for bean seedlings was promoted at the same concentration. Similarly,
water soluble allelochemicals extracted from A. gaecorum shoots influenced
accumulation of soluble sugars and proteins in a concentration and species dependent
manner.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.42.50 2014/03/06 - 23:05

The study was conducted on traditional fishing nets and crafts that are used
by professional fishermen (including small, medium and large scale fishing)
at Hatiya in the district of Noakhali, Bangladesh. Primary data were collected
from local fishermen through Personal Interview (PI), Focus Group Discussion
(FGD) and observation; secondary data were collected from District Fisheries
Officer (DFO) and Upazila Fisheries Officer (UFO). The study reveals different
types of fishing nets including fixed purse nets, gill nets, dip nets and cast
net are used in the locality. The mesh size of the fixed purse nets vary in
0.1-2.5 inch (anterior end) and 0.2-0.5 inch (posterior end), gill nets vary
in 0.5-15 inch, dip nets vary in 0.1-0.2 inch and cast net 0.5-1 inch during
study. Generally these nets are lasting in 2-3 years. For nets preservation
no chemical or medicine are used, only the net is dried under the sun and put
it on a safe and dry place. The present study suggests that different types
of boats such as chandi, kosha, balam, tempu and dinghi nauka are being used
at Hatiya. Traditionally sundari, jarul, gamari, chaplas and garjan woods and
bamboos are used in boat making which are locally available and last for 5-10
years. Usually 90% of the boats are propelled by the engine and 10% of the boats
are propelled by the sail and row. Most of the boats have no license which reflects
lack of awareness and weak control by the regulatory agency.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.51.58 2014/03/06 - 23:05

Treated Distillery Effluent (TDE) generated through biomethanated distillery
effluent was applied to arable land for augmenting agricultural production.
The TDE contains considerable amount of organic matter and salt besides its
high plant nutrients content. With this background, an attempt was made. Field
experiments were conducted to study the long term effect of TDE and inorganic
fertilizers on soil properties and yield of sugarcane in sandy loam soil during
2010-2011 and 2011-2012. The main plot treatments viz., TDE was applied at the
rate of 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5.0 lakh litres ha-1 for treatments were
compared with control and the sub-plots viz., N, NP, NK, PK, NPK for fertilizer
treatments were compared with control (no fertilizer). The results revealed
that the application of TDE had significantly increased the cane yield and had
left significantly higher organic carbon, alkaline KMnO4-N, 0.5 M
NaHCO3-P and neutral normal ammonium acetate-K content (211, 21.6
and 414 kg ha-1) and exchangeable cations in the post harvest soil
after the crop uptake. The TDE applied @ 3.75 lakh L ha-1 along with
NP (106.3 t ha-1) has resulted in higher yield without any adverse
effect on soil properties.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.59.65 2014/03/06 - 23:05

Calopogonium mucunoides Desv. was subjected to varying concentrations
of crude oil equilibrated with water. Five treatments viz 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30%
were used in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates.
These treatments were applied once to two weeks old seedlings of C. mucunoides
using ring method and the plants were allowed to stand for eight weeks. The
effects of these treatments on plant height, leaf area and biomass of C.
mucunoides were studied. The total chlorophyll contents were also studied.
The study showed that 5% treatment gave the highest value for plant height and
biomass content while 10% treatment gave the highest value for leaf area and
chlorophyll content when compared to control (0%) respectively. It was observed
that as the concentration of the crude oil increases, there were corresponding
reduction in the plant height, leaf area, biomass and chlorophyll content. These
results implied that C. mucunoides can tolerate to some degree of crude
oil contamination and thus can be used for phytoremediation in crude oil contaminated
soil.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2014.66.69 2014/03/06 - 23:05

Lupin (Lupinus spp.), a pulse crop gained popularity throughout world as a protein-rich-healthy human and animal food. Lupinus luteus (yellow-Lupin), Lupinus albus (white-Lupin) and Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed-sweet-Lupin) varieties are commercially cultivated. Lupins are cultivated in many countries. Diverse climatic conditions with fertile soil provide a high possibility to introduce commercially-developed lupin varieties to Sri Lanka. With the primary objective of exploring possibilities of cultivating lupins in Sri Lanka and to select appropriate varieties and suitable Agro-Ecological Regions (AERs), a field experiment was conducted with ten commercially cultivated Lupinus varieties, L. albus (var. Kiev mutant), L. luteus (var. Wodjil, Pootalong), L. angustifolius (var. Ganguru, Tanjil, Walan, Belara, Donja, Kalya, Mandelup). Agro-morphological characters, time to flowering, number of seeds/plant, whole plant biomass were measured to assess growth and yield performance in AERs, Matale, Bandarawella and Nuwara Eliya for two consecutive years. Randomized complete block design was used with four replicates. Lupin varieties developed well in Nuwara Eliya and Bandarawella. Growth and yield performance of L. albus, L. luteus and L. angustifolius varied across AERs. Seedlings of lupin were better acclimatized to AERs, Nuwara Eliya and Bandarawella. Variation of temperatures in the range of 16 and 200°C was a crucial requirement for successful flowering and pod setting. Soil nutrients, soil organic matter as well as variation of soil pH were important factors for successful growth of lupins. Further field studies are recommended for a better understanding the impact of eco-climatic conditions on growth and yield performance of lupins in Sri Lanka.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2013.1.14 2013/05/17 - 21:17

As for estimating the suitability of napier grass for biomass use in southern
Kyushu, Japan, the objective of this study was to determine the most suitable
genotype of napier grass for dry matter production and quality (fiber content)
for biomass ethanol conversion in the year the plants were established. Six
genotypes of napier grass, a dwarf early-heading type, a dwarf late-heading
type, a hybrid of pearl millet with napier grass, a purple-foliage type and
normal varieties of Merkeron and Wruk wona, were examined for growth attributes,
dry matter yield, chemical composition and in vitro Dry Matter Digestibility
(IVDMD) at the University of Miyazaki in southern Kyushu, Japan in 2009. Dry
matter yield ranged from 13.4 to 33.5 Mg ha-1, with the highest yielder
being normal Wruk wona, followed by Merkeron. Hemicellulose and cellulose content
of both Leaf Blade (LB) and stem inclusive of leaf sheath (ST) did not differ
significantly among genotypes, except for cellulose content in ST which was
significantly higher for the dwarf early-heading type than for the other genotypes.
The dwarf late-heading type had significantly higher IVDMD in ST (65.8%) due
to lower acid detergent lignin and cellulose content in ST than the other genotypes.
Based on dry matter production, fiber (carbohydrate) content in the current
study and theoretical conversion efficiency from cellulose and hemicelluloses
of 0.29 and 0.23, respectively, Merkeron appears the most promising genotype
for biomass production, with theoretical ethanol production potential of 5850
L ha-1 year-1 in the year of establishment.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2013.15.25 2013/05/17 - 21:17

Productive efficiency is the index that measures production ability of a farm
and determines the difference of rice production in different production environments.
This study of glutinous rice production in different cropping systems measures
the efficiency of glutinous rice production in three different cropping systems
namely Rice monoculture (Rice-follow), Rice-sweet corn and Rice-peanut. Stochastic
Frontier Production Model was applied for technical efficiency measurement.
The data used were collected from farmer’s
grow RD6 Rice in Roi-Et province, 30 farmer households for each system, totaling
90 households. Purposive sampling is the method used in selecting the sample.
The results of the estimation of Cobb-Douglas Production Function show that
fertilizers and seeds are important factors affecting the change in the glutinous
rice production. As for the return to scale, it is found that glutinous rice
production exhibits decreasing returns to scale while the technical efficiency
level analysis of three different types of farmer has not significantly difference.
However, farmers who also grow rotating crops have higher agricultural net income
than mono-culture rice cultivation and the income proportion of the agricultural
sector affects the improvement of farm production efficiency in the rainfed
area. Hence, relevant organizations should encourage rotating crop cultivation
system to further improve income and living standard of farmers.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2013.26.34 2013/05/17 - 21:17

The occurrence of intermittent dryness in rain-dependent cultivation and soil surface crusting in alfisol are the major hindrances in enhancing groundnut productivity. Twenty nine peanut lines were field screened for drought tolerance at Dryland Agricultural Research Station, Chettinad. The Drought Susceptibility Index (DSI), Drought Tolerance Efficiency (DTE), Stress Tolerance Index (STI) for pod yield per plant and percent change of performance in yield attributes under moisture stress were considered as measures of drought tolerance. The intermittent dry spells delayed the flowering and maturity in groundnut. The soil moisture stress resulted in reduction of plant height, number of matured pods per plant and pod yield per plant. Genotypes recorded high pod yield per plant were ICGV 07240, ICGV 07241, ICGV 07245, ICGV 07247 and VRI (Gn) 7. But these genotypes were sensitive to drought as indicated by high DSI and less DTE. Drought tolerant peanut lines ICGV 07219, ICGV 07262 and ICGV 07268 have shown consistence in the pod yield performance with less DSI and high DTE. The identified genotypes can be evaluated in varied rain-fed environments to exploit their drought tolerance and yield potentials. The validated lines can be utilized as peanut cultivars for rain-fed or drought prone environments under changing climate.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2013.35.42 2013/05/17 - 21:17

As the world’s fossil fuel reseverves is shown to be out of oil supply in a few years from now, efforts to finding an alternative, environmentally friendly and sustainable sources of fuel have been heightened towards on-farm biodiesel production and industrial processing of bioethanol. Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) has been selected among other biodiesel feedstocks targeted for this on-farm biodiesel production with intensive production witnessed in India. In Kenya, however, smallholder farmers are found growing Jatropha despite the limited knowledge about its agro-ecological adaptability. The study hypothesis was that regions for biofuel production have not been properly identified in Kenya. Therefore, the objective of this research was to study the performance of Jatropha under different soil and climatic conditions within the smallholder farms in Kenya. A quantitative baseline survey was conducted from July to August, 2010 in 140 randomly selected farms in Lamu, Kibwezi, Nyando and Bondo districts of Kenya (35 per district). A qualitative in-depth study of 5 farms chosen randomly from each region was also done to verify the information obtained. Results showed that performance of Jatropha was positively linked to humid conditions, well distributed annual rainfall of 500-750 mm, moderately sandy to loam soils, neutral pH and good level of management. It was concluded that good crop management together with climatic and soil suitability are important for successful Jatropha production. Furthermore, it was evident that not all regions where Jatropha is promoted for production in Kenya, though, with suitable climate and soils, support the crop without proper crop management practices.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2013.43.50 2013/05/17 - 21:17

Rice varieties response to drought has been extensively studied and many lines have been released, but identifying new tolerant lines is still a challenge for scientists due to the complexity and the specificity of this constraint over environments. Three sets of field experiments were conducted between 2006 and 2008 at Africa Rice Center research station, Togoudo, Benin to evaluate the effect of drought on some traits of rice (Oryza sp.). Three genotype types including 202 interspecific lines, from a cross between WAB56-104 (O. sativa subsp. japonica) and CG14 (O. glaberrima), adapted to upland conditions, 60 chromosome segment substitution lines made for lowland conditions and 211 accessions of O. glaberrima Steud., were evaluated using a split plot design replicated twice or thrice and an alpha lattice design with four blocks. There was a consistent negative effect of drought on plant height and grain yield across genotypes’ drought-tolerance levels and across genotype/types. Plant height and grain yield were more reduced for sensitive genotypes than for moderately tolerant and tolerant genotypes. Flowering and maturity were consistently delayed across genotype types and tolerance levels. Mean delays of 6.5, 21.8 and 9.4 days were observed for start, 50 and 100% flowering, respectively. Maturity was also delayed, with consistency across genotype types. However, no clear picture of drought effect on flowering and maturity was observed in terms of differences among drought-tolerance levels. The effects of drought on the number of tillers and on leaf temperature were not consistent. Plant height and grain yield showed the clearest differences between genotype-tolerance levels. Genotypes 151-3-8, 104-3-5, 116-2-4, 117-2-6, MPL-15-3, MPL-202-3, SENL-21-2, SENL-10-1, SENL-17-2, SENL-26-3, TOG5691, TOG6679 and TOG5591 yielded higher than the parents and checks.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2012.144.157 2012/08/31 - 23:55

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of N fertilization on methane oxidizing bacteria that lead to changes in the microbial communities in rice agroecosystems. Variation in MOB population size due to rice varieties of three different soil type bare, bulk and rhizosphere was investigated in rainfed rice NDR-97 (Narendra-97), Pant Dhan-12 and Vanaprabha. The growth variables (shoot biomass and root biomass) were higher in fertilized plots than unfertilized plots. The ammonium-N, nitrate-N was higher in fertilized plot than unfertilized plots. There were significant differences in MOB population size during the study (p<0.05). The highest MOB bacterial population was found in rhizospheric soils. So that, MOB bacterial population range between 19.2x106 to 70.54x106 cells g-1 dry across soil type of varieties and treatment. N-fertilization reduces population size of MOB. Thus the result suggests that MOB population size were varied by different soil type and soil fertilization. This study showed significant impact of N-fertilization on MOB population.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2012.158.170 2012/08/31 - 23:55

This study investigated the etiology of mango fruit anthracnose, its effect on yield and market values in humid Southern Nigeria. The result of the investigation revealed that 96 out of 231 fungal isolates recovered from symptomatic mango parts were Colletotrichum gloeosporioides based on their whitish orange colony, hyaline; single-celled and cylindrical appearance and pathogenicity test. In addition, 60% of mango trees surveyed were infected with anthracnose and over 34% of fruits produced on those trees were found severely infected. Trees treated with fungicide during fruiting retained mean fruit of 57.65 (38.41% above mean in control) while untreated trees retained least mean fruits of 18.35 (55.94% lower than mean in control). A significant reduction in the price of mango was found associated with anthracnose-infected fruits. From the result of the investigation, it was evident that Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was responsible for anthracnose disease in mango and was prevalent in all the study areas. Furthermore, the result revealed that the disease was the cause of mango yield loss and of rendering marketable fruits worthless in Southwestern, Nigeria.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2012.171.179 2012/08/31 - 23:55

An efficient plant regeneration protocol for indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. MR219 was established by means of Shoot Apical Meristem (SAM) obtained from 4-day old germinating seedlings. The effect of liquid and solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium towards the primary establishment of meristem tissue as well as effects of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) on shoots and root formation was investigated. Primary shoot induction was most effectively promoted by liquid MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg L-1 Kinetin (KIN) with 83% of explant survival and 0.88 explant vigor. Overall, liquid MS medium produced significantly higher percentage of explant survival and vigor compared to solid MS medium. Best treatment for shoot multiplication was solid MS medium supplemented with a combination of 1.5 mg L-1 KIN and 0.05 mg L-1 Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) with an average of 8.8 shoots, followed by solid MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L-1 KIN with an average of 7.6 shoots. However, shoots produced in MS medium supplemented with a combination of 1.5 mg L-1 KIN and 0.05 mg L-1 IAA was in concomitant with root formation. In this combination, plantlets produced had an average of 5.4 roots. Complete plantlets that were successfully transferred to soil and grown in the greenhouse were able to grow as healthy plants. This optimized protocol regenerated whole rice plantlets without any intervening callus formation. The highly efficient protocol suggested in this study can serve as an alternative to conventional propagation methods for large-scale plant regeneration throughout the year.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2012.180.187 2012/08/31 - 23:55

Studies were carried out in Ghana, to determine seed quality of Bambara groundnut, using two cultivars; Jabajaba (cream-seeded) and Chichele Balgu (red-seeded), under three soil moisture regimes of 30-40, 50-60 and ≥70%. Soil moisture significantly (LSD 5%) affected seed size, protein and tannin contents of Bambara groundnut. Tannin content was lower at ≥70% soil moisture than at 50-60% soil moisture but highest at 30-40% soil moisture. The 50-60% soil moisture favored good seed size and protein content than at 30-40 and ≥70% soil moisture regimes. The 30-40% soil moisture did not favor good quality seed development of Bambara groundnut cultivars. At each moisture regime, cream-seeded cultivar (Jabajaba) recorded lower seed sizes, higher protein and lower tannin contents than red-seeded cultivar (Chichele Balgu). Selecting cultivars with high protein and low tannin contents and growing them under optimum conditions that favor 50-60% soil moisture regime will improve seed quality of Bambara groundnut.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2012.188.193 2012/08/31 - 23:55

Phyllanthus buxifolius is an herbal plant, which is known to have antilipidemic and anticholesterolemic effects. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of leaf powder P. buxifolius supplementation in broiler feed on intracellular lipid accumulation, serum leptin and meat cholesterol levels. Sixty broiler chickens aged at 22 days were divided into two treatment groups. The first group was fed commercial feed without powdered leaves of P. buxifolius (control) and another group was fed commercial feed with 5% powdered leaves of P. buxifolius. The results showed that the accumulation of intracellular lipids, serum leptin levels, fat and cholesterol of meat and abdominal fat weight of chickens fed 5% powdered leaf P. buxifolius in feed were significantly lower than those fed the control diet. It can be concluded that administration of 5% powdered leaf P. buxifolius in broiler feed capable of lowering intracellular accumulation of lipids, serum leptin levels, fat and cholesterol of meat and abdominal fat weight.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2012.106.117 2012/07/04 - 17:05

The aim of this study was to characterize and to estimate the extent of genetic variation of morphological attributes of Ethiopian sesame landraces (Sesamum indicum L.). An experiment was conducted in 2010 at Humera and Dansha, Ethiopia. Eighty one germplasm accessions were grown in a lattice design with 2 replications. Data on 17 traits were collected and analyzed. Differences among the accessions were significant for all of the traits at each location and pooled over location. The accessions were grouped into six clusters of different sizes. Cumulative effects of a number of characters dictated differentiation of the accessions into clusters. There was no definite relationship between geographic and genetic diversity as overlapping was encountered in clustering pattern among accessions from different parts of the country. Accessions from different regions might have similar genetic background and those from the same origin might also have different genetic diversity. Therefore, geographic diversity should not necessarily be used as an index of genetic diversity and parental selection should be based on a systematic study of genetic diversity in a specific population. Genetic distances among most of the clusters were significant that crosses between parents selected out of them are expected to generate desirable genetic recombination. Selection should also consider the special advantages of each cluster and each accession within a cluster. Future germplasm collection, conservation and breeding efforts should focus not only on inter-regional diversity but also on intra-regional diversity.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2012.118.128 2012/07/04 - 17:05

Although the African Locust bean (Parkia filicoide) tree is widely distributed in Northern Nigeria, its application as an alternative replacement of conventional plant protein source in poultry feeds has not gained significant prominence. This study evaluates the inclusion level of fermented African locust bean seeds in broiler diets. One hundred and twenty Lohman broilers day old chicks were randomly divided into six experimental groups of two replicates each were used in a 9 weeks feeding trial to evaluate percentage of nutrients retained and serum indices of broilers. Dietary treatments were as follows: T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 representing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement of groundnut cake replacement with fermented African locust bean seeds and 100% unfermented African locust beans. Treatment effects was significant (p<0.05) in the percentage of nitrogen, lipids, total ash, calcium and phosphorus retained. Crude fibre retention was not significantly (p>0.05) affected by experimental treatment. Treatment effect was significant (p<0.05) with fermented African locust bean seeds based groups giving better nitrogen, lipids and phosphorus retention with T5 showing best values. Nitrogen retention is positively (p<0.05) correlated with total serum protein, cholesterol, Hb/PCV and feed treatment (p<0.01); while crude fibre retention is negatively (p<0.05) correlated with all serum indices and treatment. Percentage retention of lipids is positively (p<0.05) correlated with total serum protein and cholesterol and so also with Hb/PCV and FALB inclusion at (p<0.01). Digestible ash is negatively (p<0.01) correlated with total serum protein and also negatively (p<0.01) correlated other serum indices and fermented African locust bean seeds inclusion at (p<0.05). Fermentation of African locust beans improved nutrient retention at both Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) and portal system and availability for tissue synthesis.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2012.129.136 2012/07/04 - 17:05

Effects of NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer on some growth indices of pumpkin, Cucurbita moschata (Duch. ex Lam.) Duch. ex Poir. were studied. Eight treatments viz; 0, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 kg of NPK fertilizer per hectare (kg ha-1) were used in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. These treatments were applied once to two week-old seedlings of C. moschata using ring method. The effects of these treatments on Leaf Area (LA), stem diameter (STD) and number of leaves (NL) were monitored weekly while fresh weight and dry weight were determined after 6 weeks. Soil Organic Matter (OM), Organic Carbon (OC), ash content, pH and nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Na and Mg) levels were also monitored at 0, 2 and 6 weeks. The study showed that NPK fertilizer increased the LA, STD, NL and nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Na and Mg) contents of the soil. The highest leaf area, stem diameter, fresh weight and dry weight were obtained from NPK treatment at 300 kg ha-1 while 350 kg ha-1 rate gave the highest number of leaves. Two weeks after treatment, the concentrations of N, Ca, Mg, OM and OC content in the soil were highly increased by the 400 kg ha-1 treatment but the 500 kg ha-1 rate gave the highest concentrations of K and Na. The study after six weeks showed that 450 kg ha-1 rate gave the highest concentrations of Ca, Mg and K in the soil whereas 500 kg ha-1 rate gave the highest concentrations of P, Na and ash content. The 350 kg ha-1 gave the highest N, OM and OC content. At p<0.05, there were significant difference among treatments. The use of NPK fertilizer at an application range between 400 and 450 kg NPK ha-1 is therefore recommended for growing of C. moschata and improvement of the soil nutrients level.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2012.137.143 2012/07/04 - 17:05

Globally, agriculture is widely accepted as one of the sectors at most risk
from climate change challenges. Due to impacts of increased temperatures, reduced
rainfall and increased frequency of variation in extreme events especially in
the tropics. Agriculture is central to the food security and economic growth
of developing nations, providing the main source of livelihood for the world’s
poor. Climate change will impact significantly on food security. It will affect
food production and availability, the stability of food supplies, access to
food and food utilization. However, the poorest farmers are the most vulnerable
and the most challenged to the impacts of climate change. Africa is the region
with greatest risk of increased hunger and threatened livelihoods due to climate
change. This study briefly reviews the potential impact of climate change on
food security in reducing by half the proportion of people suffering from hunger
by 2015.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2012.52.59 2012/05/14 - 19:48

Thirteen faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes were assessed under greenhouse and field conditions in 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons, using morphological and molecular characterization methods for resistance to chocolate spot diseases caused by Botrytis fabae A significant variation among the tested genotypes and their reaction to the disease was found under greenhouse condition. Sakha 1, 2 and Nubaria 1 were resistant, indicating by the lowest disease severity. Whereas, Giza 40, line 375 and Cairo 25 where susceptible. Other faba bean genotypes were moderately susceptible. RT-PCR analysis using chit 1 and 2 primers amplified fragment of chitinase gene (900 bp) in six faba bean genotype upon infection with the pathogen 48 h after inoculation. This fragment detected only in the resistance cultivars Sakha 1, 2 and Nubaria 1 and some moderate resistance genotype including Giza 3, line 24 H and line 36. At the same time no signal was detected in other infected genotypes or healthy ones. Field results of testing genotype against chocolate spot diseases often do not correspond completely with greenhouse results since the environment is less controlled and possibly natural infection could introduced unwanted pathogen(s) or other factors. The estimates of heritability in broad sense ranged from 0.90-0.99, high values of heritability were obtained for seed yield/plant (0.99), followed by plant dry weight, plant height, seeds pod-1 across the two seasons. However, No relationship was found between resistance of genotypes against B. fabae and their morphological characterizes under field conditions.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2012.60.72 2012/05/14 - 19:48