Skip to Content

Instrukcja korzystania z Biblioteki

Serwisy:

Ukryty Internet | Wyszukiwarki specjalistyczne tekstów i źródeł naukowych | Translatory online | Encyklopedie i słowniki online

Translator:

Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

American Journal of Economics and Business Administration

  • The study aimed at investigating the impact of the antecedent factors on the performance of exporting companies in Malaysia through the mediating influence of marketing mix adaptation. In order to provide deep and rich investigation, the impact of the antecedent factors on the marketing mix adaptation was examined. A questionnaire was used as the instrument of the study and the data collection procedures included self-administered questionnaires and emailed ones. The questionnaires were sent to 780 firms and 401 valid questionnaires were returned making the response rate 51.4%. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for the purposes of descriptive statistics on the demographic characteristics of the subjects and exploratory factor analysis, while Partial Least Square (PLS) was used to determine the interactions between the various constructs for ascertaining the various structured equation models. The findings revealed that some of the antecedent factors have a significant impact on the marketing mix adaptation strategies while others seem not to have this significant impact. The study concluded with some recommendations that can be of a great use to the Malaysian exporting firms while making decisions about their exporting activities.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2014.89.99 2014/08/30 - 09:49
  • Deregulation of the telecommunications industry has led to a phenomenal growth in mobile phone service subscription in Jamaica with penetration rate reaching more than 100% within a decade of the start of deregulation. Consumers have benefited with significant cuts in rates for mobile phone service following the entry of new service providers. This study models the competition among old and new service providers as a game of entry deterrence in which the entrant is of two types, a low-cost or a high-cost entrant. The entrant knows its type but the incumbent does not. However, the incumbent knows the probability that nature assigns to a particular type of entrant. Four scenarios are examined as candidates for equilibrium. In the first scenario, our model shows that the incumbent can ensure that a new entrant stays out by setting price too low. In scenario two, regardless of the action of the incumbent, the low-cost entrant will always enter the market and the incumbent will cooperate. For scenario three, the incumbent’s action to fight an entrant will only make the high-cost entrant to stay out if price is set too low or cost is too high. In the final scenario, the entrant will always enter regardless of its type and the incumbent will have no other choice than to cooperate. In the case of the Jamaica mobile phone market, our model suggests that the only Bayesian Nash equilibrium is a separating equilibrium in which the incumbent fights entry and the low-cost entrant enters the market. In equilibrium, the price war between old and new companies will persist until all economic profits have been eroded, potentially setting the stage for a return to monopoly. However, even under a monopoly, the low rates for service will persist as the incumbent has a strong incentive to keep prices low to deter any potential new entrants. Based on our model results, we conclude that incumbent mobile phone service providers in Jamaica will continue to institute a price war and a new provider will enter the market only if it has superior technology or a strong financial base.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2014.81.88 2014/08/27 - 12:32
  • This study investigated the effects of consumers’ trust and attitude toward online shopping. Attitude is referred to as a positive or negative evaluation of people, activities, ideas, objects, event, or just about anything in the environment. Different facets of the e-shopping behavior of consumers have been investigated in previous literature. These facets can generally be divided into three namely, behavioral intention, actual behavior and attitude toward behavior. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of consumers’ trust and attitude toward online shopping. A quantitative research design was adopted to collect data. Multiple regression analysis method was used to conduct this study. The findings of the study will contribute to both theory and practice. The results of this study have important contributions and implications for practitioners and policy-makers. This study contributed to the field of consumers’ trust and attitude relationship with online shopping in the context of developing countries. It is contended that the examination of the effects of consumers’ trust and attitude toward online shopping is more significant than the examination of a direct relationship, which is quite obvious.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2014.58.71 2014/07/12 - 15:49
  • The pressure due to the changes in supplying energy and its price in the international community is in such an extent that it encourages industrialized and developing countries in seeking self-sufficiency in energy production. As one of the leading in countries South East Asia Nations (ASEAN), Malaysia has taken planning and specific investment for the Solar Industry into consideration, besides paying attention to a variety of new and renewable energies. Given the diversity of processes in working on the development of Solar Industry, the World Bank has, through a comprehensive report, provided prescription with regard to the success of Malaysia in this industry. This paper presents an analysis of the study conducted by the World Bank. However, it shows that despite the detailed and comprehensive analysis of the value chain in the solar industry globally, assumptions and methods the World Bank about the solar industry in Malaysia suffers from several shortcomings and errors which can result in the lack of reliability and validity in its concluding remarks. Encouraging Malaysia to moving towards downstream industries for achieving more added value decrease the security of future investments in this industry in Malaysia also will raise the price of the final products and create crisis in the industry in the event of imbalance.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2014.72.80 2014/07/12 - 15:49
  • This aim of this article is to identify unusual strategic-management matters in times of crisis. The research scope is strategic management processes, the characteristics of the processes and methods of strategic crisis management. The study reports research on the contemporary state of strategic crisis-management problems and provides an analysis of some theoretical and methodological principles. The analysis includes a classification of the main problems which must be solved for efficient, strategic, crisis management. The article indicates strategic and tactical management methods used by corporations and raises questions about the functional distribution of strategic management within relevant authorities; it makes practical recommendations for the functional realization of strategic management goals at all stages of a crisis; it identifies the responsible supervisory entities and the main results of strategic management. The range of problems of the subsystems of strategic management in a crisis period is researched; a basic set of strategic competences of the management authorities is found; and the functional distribution of strategic management in crisis conditions is shown. The suggested mechanism for strategic management in crisis situations is the instrument for the prevention and liquidation of crisis phenomena; it increases the efficiency of the adoption and realization of strategic plans to counter crises. Using planned scenarios and mechanisms to run corporations during a crisis may provide the opportunity to maintain strict governance of the actions of corporate top management and to identify the main tasks for neutralizing crisis events as they develop during the crisis situation. Quick and effective implementation of the set tasks during a crisis will help a corporation to increase the efficiency of its anti-crisis measures.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2014.49.57 2014/06/28 - 15:36
  • This study applies to the statistical cost accounting model to capture the impact of the Greek economic crisis on the returns of the Greek construction sector using the published financial statements of the construction firms listed on the Athens Exchange during 2005-2011. The evidence from our analysis suggests that the construction sector has been affected by the Greek crisis since there is a great decrease of the construction activities. According to our results, our findings support the theoretical model and reveals that there is a negative impact on the earnings due to the underemployment of the fixed assets. Additionally, we find that the cash and cash equivalent items do not actually help our sample firms to produce profit and the most expensive item of the balance sheet is the non financial short term liabilities.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2013.168.174 2014/06/24 - 16:07
  • The main aim of this study is to illustrate a comparative analysis for the accounting reporting of “employee benefits” between the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and other accounting reporting standards. The empirical analysis is carried out in accordance with the Greek Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GGAAP), with IFRS, following the implementation of International Accounting Standard (IAS) 19 “Employee Benefits” and with the U.S. Financial Accounting Standards (USFAS) 87. The sample consists of the 20 biggest listed entities in the Athens Stock Exchange (FTSE 20 index of the ASE). The contribution of the paper is to review the accounting reporting between different accounting standards, to a great extent, in order to find out the appropriate adjustments that have to be made for the treatment and presentation of employee benefits in the financial statements. The conclusions of the paper would be contributed to debate for the recognition of employee benefits on entities’ ac-counting statements in a more accurate way.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2013.153.167 2014/06/24 - 16:07
  • Making successful policies for manufacturing or globalized business sectors require “honest” answers by the respondents in the surveys. When some respondents cheat in their answers to the questions in a survey for a variety of reasons, the survey results become useless. Currently, there is no appropriate probability model to address this phenomenon “cheating” in a survey. An efficient methodology is needed to estimate the proportion of “cheaters” in a survey and assess the statistical significance of the estimate. Such a methodology does not exist now in the literature. This article fulfils the need. In a pioneering manner, this article has formulated a bivariate probability model to explain the “cheating” in surveys. Several statistical properties of this new model are identified and explained. For illustration of the new probability model, the responses from 259 less and 217 more educated Germans about xenophobia are considered. The xenophobia is a stumbling block to a successful business operation in this globalized economy. Two psychometric reasons: “Insecurity level” and “social pressure” behind the xenophobia are captured with the help of the probability model and they are explained. The model of this article helps to predict “honesty” versus “cheating” levels in a survey. A statistical testing procedure is prepared to check whether an estimated “social pressure” level is significant.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2014.42.48 2014/06/18 - 21:00
  • This study presents, analyzes and compares the factors affecting the dividend policy of the Greek listed firms, prior to the Greek economic crises, to NYSE, NASDAQ, Norwegian and U.K. firms. Our empirical investigation has a dual objective, to record the dividend policy of the Greek firms and to compare their dividend choices to other, more financially mature, markets. We sent to all Athens Exchange listed firms a detailed questionnaire concerning their dividend choices. Our findings proved to be very interesting since the average listed Greek firm shares the same opinion with the average firm of the compared studies in the following areas: Price affection, risk bearing, past dividends’ pattern and agency costs. Some of our findings proved to be quite close with some of the results of the compared studies in the following subjects: The sector of the company, the target payout ratio, the financing ability and the information content of dividends. Finally, some of our findings are in contradiction to some of the results of the previous studies, these are: The impact of taxation on dividends and the legislation framework.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2013.139.152 2014/06/03 - 16:10
  • The purpose of the study is to examine the factors measuring customers’ satisfaction, especially the impact of service quality on customers’ satisfaction in public transportation industry in the university town of Sintok located in Kedah province of Malaysia. In order to assess the relationships between service quality and customer satisfaction survey http://www.scientificjournals.org/journals2007/articles/1003.htmdata were collected from 300 Bus commuters. All hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlations, controlling for the background variables of gender, marital status, ethnicity and education. The results indicate that hypotheses 1 through 5 were supported. Using multiple regressions as a basis for causal paths, a model was developed that examined the influence of all five dimensions of service quality on customers’ satisfaction. The model explained 26.9% of the variance which indicates that 26.9% of the changes in the dependent variable are explained by the independent variables. Altogether, independent variables explained 26.9% of the variations.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2014.34.41 2014/05/23 - 11:09
  • The purpose of the study is to examine the factors measuring customers’ satisfaction, especially the impact of service quality on customers’ satisfaction in public transportation industry in the university town of Sintok located in Kedah province of Malaysia. In order to assess the relationships between service quality and customer satisfaction survey http://www.scientificjournals.org/journals2007/articles/1003.htmdata were collected from 300 Bus commuters. All hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlations, controlling for the background variables of gender, marital status, ethnicity and education. The results indicate that hypotheses 1 through 5 were supported. Using multiple regressions as a basis for causal paths, a model was developed that examined the influence of all five dimensions of service quality on customers’ satisfaction. The model explained 26.9% of the variance which indicates that 26.9% of the changes in the dependent variable are explained by the independent variables. Altogether, independent variables explained 26.9% of the variations.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2014.34.41 2014/05/23 - 11:09
  • The Third Sector in Italy records a slow but constant growth due to the increase of the number of entities but not of their dimension. The difficulties in financial management, generated by a low attraction of debt and equity financial resources and a low level of managerial skills characterized the non profit organizations. Focused on the social cooperatives, the article describe the effects on the financial structure of innovative financial instruments as the participative loan. In the last years in Italy there has been an increasing attention towards the ethical finance. The consideration of the social co-ops as a part of the Third Sector allows them to have a privileged interlocution with the institutions of the ethical finance. But the development of this institutions, although it is originated from the will to support the social responsible development, at the moment seems not to support a substantial resolution of the financial needs related to the management of the social cooperatives. The article shows an analysis on a particular financial intermediary, the Cooperazione Finanza Impresa (CFI). This institution is a private equity investor which since twenty years is dedicated to worker cooperatives and social cooperatives. The interest for this institution, besides the entities financed, is based on a particular form of participative loan developed. The investigation start from the observation of a singular social cooperatives with the elaboration of a set of indicators based on the financial ratio analysis. The evaluation regard the financial structure previous to the financing operation and its subsequent modification. Due to the first conclusions, the investigation enlarged the analysis to a sample of 10 social cooperatives in order to confirm the first results. The observation of modified financial structure up a period of five years shows significative positive change that support both the economic and the financial equilibrium, with a significant reduction of the average cost of the debt in all the cooperatives financing by participative loans.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2014.19.33 2014/05/07 - 19:44
  • This study examines the dispute surrounding the perceived gap in incomes of different socio-economic classes. The trend in income inequality based on the Gini coefficient in America in contrast to that of other nations in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development is displayed. Global and national forces seen as causes for the increased separation of income levels are discussed. Continued economic disparity can threaten public welfare and create social unrest that will ultimately prove detrimental to the social and economic fabric that bind a nation. This issue will continue to remain at the forefront of our public policy and will play a significant role in the future course of our economic policy.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2014.11.18 2014/04/03 - 17:39
  • In rapidly changing and developing world, the importance given for the concept of innovation appeared as an inevitable factor for the firms to obtain sustainable competitive advantage started to increase and has become an issue of a particular concern in agenda of company executives. The concept of innovation appears as a factor that should be discussed as a whole and on which many ideas have been put forward and interpretations have been made. The basic purpose of this study was to discuss the innovation as management emphasizing the importance of innovation in term of businesses. In the study, it is tried to specify whether the companies analyzed in the sample scale determined in Istanbul province had interests related to actualizing innovation and management applications or not. By the help of the hypothesis established in accordance with the purpose of the research, reliability and validity were tested using correlation and regression analysis with SPSS 17 software. Consequently, it was revealed that it is compulsory for entities to adapt and practice innovative and management approaches in order for them to achieve successful results at this process when innovation has become such necessary and important. In particular, innovation directly affects the firm’s financial and growth performance in various ways."

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2014.1.10 2014/04/03 - 17:39
  • The paper examines the evaluation of the significance of the criteria that influence two groups of investors, who reside in different areas of Greece, in selecting their investments: (a) Investors from a metropolitan city (Athens) and (b) investors from regional Greece (Peloponnese). The study is grounded in the current and potential criteria and sub-criteria influencing investors in selecting financial investment products. The methodology applied in order to satisfy the research aims is the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The quantitative research analysis is based on a sample of data collected via a questionnaire answered by a sample of key experts: Specifically, bank executives specialized in financial investment products. The general conclusions stemming from the comparative study are: Metropolitan city Investors (MIs) are more experienced, more dispassionate, more patient and conservative than the Regional Investors. Furthermore, the MIs are more tolerant, provident and informed. The Regional Investors (RIs) can be perceived as more enthusiastic and interested in taking risks than the MIs, but they also appear to feel less secure when it comes to investing. Future research should address larger number of participants from other metropolitan cities and regions and, eventually, from other countries.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2013.120.128 2014/03/14 - 14:38
  • This study investigates the status of female entrepreneurs in the Greek countryside as formed in the recent years owed to the emergence of agritourism. Agritourism has provided opportunities for additional income in localities through the utilization of knowledge of traditional customs, recipes, folk art. Women entrepreneurs in the sector often function within a context of adverse circumstances, pertaining to their multiple responsibilities at home and at work. Organization of women in producers’ cooperatives has facilitated their endeavor with regard to commitment, mutual support and pooling knowledge. On the other hand, major obstacles include lack of management education and insufficient marketing of local products. Even though status of women has been upgraded to an extent due to their additional contribution to the family income, conservative stereotypes about their role remain still intact in the countryside.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2013.129.138 2014/03/14 - 14:38
  • Adoption of an E-procurement system offers a company many benefits in terms of tremendous cost savings and efficiency in procurement process. Therefore, E-procurement is constantly receiving lots of attention from companies in global markets. Although the benefits of e-procurement are plenty, the reality is that it is not being adapted to the much extent in developing countries. However, Indian and Chinese companies are planning to successfully adopt strategic approach for adopting e-procurement systems. Since the compatibility of e-procurement is somewhat barrier for implementation and integration of existing infrastructure, however in reality the cost savings are overpowering the risks. The present study explores how the tangible benefits and risks associated to e-procurement affect the e-procurement adoption and further explores the impact of e-procurement adoption in India and China. By using Indian and Chine firms, the results show that cost benefit is the main driver for companies to adopt e-procurement in India.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2013.107.115 2014/02/25 - 18:20
  • The chemical industry is of long-term importance to the maintain development of local economies and consider the largest industrial sectors in Jordan in terms of the exports volume which accomplished JD 1049000S in 2012. Working capital considers being a measure of company’s efficiency and its short-term financial health; moreover, it is a critical component for a business survival and a main item for the hall boost in profitability. While Chemical Industries plays a vital role in Jordanian economic and compose a large portion in the total local output; this study conduct to approve the impact of capital turnover as a measure of efficiency on Chemical companies’ profitability expressed by Return On Assets (ROA). A simple liner regression applied to test a period 2009-2011 in order to conclude the extent of the impact of working capital turnover on Jordanian Chemical industries’ profitability through Return On Assets (ROA). The study showed a significant impact of independent variable working capital turnover on dependent variable return on assets among Chemical Industries listed on Amman Stock Exchange during the period from 2009 to 2011.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2013.116.119 2014/02/25 - 18:20
  • Diminishing Musharakah Mutanaqisah Partnership (MMP) contract has been offered by Islamic banks in Malaysia, this study aims to presents the result of a comparison made between the theoretical explanations of how the MMP works and what is actually being done in practice. This study makes use of a qualitative approach in analysing how the MMP works in practice. It then makes a comparison between the MMP as being practiced in real situation and what theoretical writing tells us to expect by analysing an offer letter of a customer of HSBC Amanah Malaysia. Further research is carried out on home financing packages offered by 10 local Islamic banks and 6 foreign Islamic banks by calling the banks and walking into the branches. Our findings reveal that HSBC Amanah Malaysia is using base financing rate replacing the market rental rate of which the base financing rate is the same as base lending rate in the conventional housing loan. In addition, HSBC Amanah also imposes penalty charges on any early settlement and redemption. Other local and foreign banks are also using similar base financing rate to determine the rental rate and only a few of them are not imposing penalty charges on early settlement and redemption. This study provides result that HSBC Amanah’s Home Smart-i facility, the MMP in practice is moving towards a convergence to conventional banking and in fact, there is no difference with conventional housing loan. For HSBC Amanah to truly offer and reflect the principles and tenets behind MMP contracts, it has to make some amendments to the terms and conditions as stated in its offer letter for a diminishing musharakah mutanaqisah partnership contract.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2013.95.106 2014/02/13 - 21:23
  • The paper discusses about awareness of mobile banking services and their possible contribution towards sustainable growth. This study attempts to look into the issues regarding mobile banking services and their possible contribution in financial inclusion in India. With the help of this study author tries to focus those areas where banks can provide these mobile banking services. If this service is adopted in a positive manner it can drastically change the scenario of Financial Inclusion. For a successful financial inclusion i.e., inclusive growth, in this era, combination of both the services i.e., banking as well as mobile is very much required. Mobile banking which can be termed as virtual banking can do wonders for the economy, because these days growth in economy is possible with the help of financial inclusion and in current scenario, statistics reveals that it is very easy with the help of mobile banking. This study has been done in two phases. First phase discusses about awareness of M-banking services and Second phase discusses about possible contribution of mobile banking towards financial inclusion. M-banking in India, as assessed by the govt. can work as a potent tool for financial inclusion, is yet to clear many hurdles before it can fulfill its objective of reaching the unbanked population. In fact including rural subscribers in the banking net can help in inclusive growth, as it not very difficult to go for a mobile phone rather than going for a computer in rural areas. This service can do wonders if implemented effectively and sincerely. If any service is provided, there are always two sides, supply side and demand side. M-banking in India, as assessed by the govt. can work as a potent tool for financial inclusion, is yet to clear many hurdles before it can fulfill its objective of reaching the unbanked population. If this service is adopted in a positive manner it can drastically change the scenario of Financial Inclusion.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2013.89.94 2014/02/11 - 14:28
  • Return on Investment (ROI) is a financial ratio which commonly used to evaluate the overall performance of a company. Despite of the importance of ROI unfortunately not many Libyan banks use it to evaluate their performance. Most of Libyan banks use the result of income statements to evaluate their performance instead of other tools that use to evaluate performance of banks. This study will be focusing on the ROI. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of Libyan banks using ROI as a financial tool. The Libyan banks which involved in this research are: Alwahda bank, National Commercial bank, Commercial and Development bank, Mediterranean bank and Alejmaa Alarabi bank. In this research financial statements of the Libyan banks for period from 2005-2009 will be used to calculate the ROI. In general, the results of the ROI of the banks used in this research showed increase and then begin to decrease and then increase again. The results clearly indicate that the performance of Libyan banks is not stable depending on components of ROI.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2013.84.88 2014/01/06 - 15:58
  • Cultural differences are one of many forces influencing consumer decision making and the effect of cultural differences on the development and use of information and communication technologies. As different companies are not taking their business outside geographic boundaries, the global activities are opened to a large degree via current communication and information technologies. The aim of the study is to determine the cultural differences identification and its effect on E-service quality perception. A quantitative research design was adopted to collect data. Multiple regression analysis method was used to conduct this study. The findings of the study will contribute to both theory and practice. The results of this study have important contributions and implications for practitioners and policy-makers. This study contributed to the field of service quality expectations relationship with online shopping in the context of developing countries. It also examined the impact of culture on the service quality consumer expectations.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2013.74.83 2013/12/31 - 13:47
  • What makes a technological innovation successful for an industry? This study examines how green technology innovation is impacted by strategic management of the human resource in firms. The value of this study lies in its intention to explain the needs to effectively blend people matters first before endeavouring technologies. We focus on Malaysia’s leading automobile manufacturer, Proton which currently embarks on smart green initiatives in its product development. The quantitative survey identifies potential challenges of Proton’s human resource management that may infringe green technology process. Our findings confirm the effects of strategic human resource management system on adopting the green technology innovation. The most important factors affecting the implementation of green technology include knowledge application, team development, knowledge sharing, performance-based reward and training of before and during the process of embracing the new technology.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2013.65.73 2013/12/31 - 13:47
  • Cultural differences are one of many forces influencing consumer decision making and the effect of cultural differences on the development and use of information and communication technologies. As different companies are not taking their business outside geographic boundaries, the global activities are opened to a large degree via current communication and information technologies. The aim of the study is to determine the cultural differences identification and its effect on E-service quality perception. A quantitative research design was adopted to collect data. Multiple regression analysis method was used to conduct this study. The findings of the study will contribute to both theory and practice. The results of this study have important contributions and implications for practitioners and policy-makers. This study contributed to the field of service quality expectations relationship with online shopping in the context of developing countries. It also examined the impact of culture on the service quality consumer expectations.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2013.65.74 2013/12/30 - 09:37
  • What makes a technological innovation successful for an industry? This study examines how green technology innovation is impacted by strategic management of the human resource in firms. The value of this study lies in its intention to explain the needs to effectively blend people matters first before endeavouring technologies. We focus on Malaysia’s leading automobile manufacturer, Proton which currently embarks on smart green initiatives in its product development. The quantitative survey identifies potential challenges of Proton’s human resource management that may infringe green technology process. Our findings confirm the effects of strategic human resource management system on adopting the green technology innovation. The most important factors affecting the implementation of green technology include knowledge application, team development, knowledge sharing, performance-based reward and training of before and during the process of embracing the new technology.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2013.56.64 2013/12/11 - 18:23
  • The purpose of this study is to describe and clarify the foreign currency translation problem and to suggest normative criteria by which various methodologies can be tested. The translation problem is presented as a set of four critical questions: (1) whether translation should be done, (2) what numbers to use to translate foreign currency accounts into the reporting currency, (3) what to do with the imbalance that results from translating different accounts with different numbers and (4) what, if anything, to do about changes in price levels. Several normative criteria are recommended for evaluating of various translation methodologies, some related specifically to earnings quality. It is further suggested that when empirical research is done to test various translation methodologies against normative criteria, (1) no translation at all and (2) price parity methodologies should also be tested.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2013.47.55 2013/11/27 - 17:53
  • This study reintroduces the famous discriminant functions from Edward Altman and Begley, Ming and Watts (BMW) that were used to predict bankrupts. We will formulate three new discriminant functions which differ from Altman’s and BMW’s re-estimated Altman model. Altman’s models as well as Begley, Ming and Watts’s re-estimated Altman model apply to publicly traded industries, whereas the new models formulated in this study are based on retail companies. The three new functions will provide better predictions on retail bankruptcy and they will minimize the chance of misclassifications.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2013.29.46 2013/09/15 - 07:10
  • Botswana along with its Southern African Customs Union (SACU) states is negotiating a European Union (SACU-EU) Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA). The negotiations are contentious both within SACU and against the EU and not surprisingly, the initial 2007 deadline not met. This study investigates the effects of such an agreement on Botswana’s import of food, beverages and tobacco using the Vinerian partial equilibrium method. The authors attempt to quantify the impacts of a reciprocal duty and quota free EPA on Botswana’s imports of food, beverages and tobacco under SACU-EU EPA’s. The partial equilibrium analysis suggests that a net welfare benefit for the Botswana consumers is possible. Although there are some trade diversion and tariff revenue losses these do not appear to be large enough to negate the effects of the welfare enhancing trade creation.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2013.1.14 2013/09/04 - 09:06
  • In the world of business, the competition is getting stiffer and stiffer daily. Sustainability has become an issue. In view of this the company and the organization has to be efficient in managing time, money and energy. I-TOP is a very fluid model that helps managers work towards optimizing the Return on Investment (ROI) in order for them to be the ROI champion in their respective organization or business community. This can be achieved through Technology Infinite Possibilities, Outright Environmental Scanning and People (Human Capital Development). Organizations that go through this I-TOP model would be able to form an organization that has worldwide efficiency that is critical for optimizing the ROI, where economic scale of business is one of the important factors.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2013.15.21 2013/09/04 - 09:06
  • In recent times, most central banks have adopted inflation-targeting monetary policy approach aimed primarily to achieve single-digit inflation. Though, the literature suggest that low level of inflation promotes economic growth, the literature is silent on the threshold inflation level needed to promote growth. Studies in developing countries that seek to estimate the threshold level of inflation that promotes economic growth do not support single-digit inflation level. The question that arises is whether single-digit inflation support economic growth. The study thus investigate whether single-digit inflation has any positive effect on economic growth and whether inflation-targeting policy promotes economic growth. The study used annual time series data spanning from 1965 to 2011 for Ghana. Using autoregressive distributed lag model technique, the study found that single-digit inflation has no significant effect on economic growth both in the short and long run. However, the findings of the study supports inflation targeting policy as growth enhancing tool in both short and long run.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2013.22.28 2013/09/04 - 09:06
  • Along with the traditional macroeconomic determinants of FDI, additional explanatory variables, such as the exchange rates, should be encountered in undertaking physical investment decisions, as these variables affect several comparative costs and the cost of lending. The goal of this study is to examine for the first time panel data evidence of Greek outward FDI flows directed to 16 EU and non-EU countries over the period 1997-2008, focusing on the relative importance of emerging variables on the determination of the direction of FDI. The results clearly show that-under different specifications-increases in the level of exchange, affect FDI flows directed from Greece to the host economies. Moreover, significant determinants for the streaming of the Greek FDI are the minimum wage rate and the labour productivity in the host economies as well as the price of the Greek physical capital.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2012.207.215 2013/07/07 - 08:00
  • In this study we apply a multiplier decomposition methodology of a linear general equilibrium model based on the regional social accounting matrix to the Andalusian economy. The aim of this methodology is to separate the size of the different effects in terms of energy expenditure and total emissions generated by the whole productive system to satisfy the final demand of each branch of the Andalusian economy and the direct emissions generated to produce energy for each subsystem.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2012.216.226 2013/07/07 - 08:00
  • The study examined the impact of inflation on financial development in Ghana using quarterly time series data (1990-2008). It was in line with the empirical works that provided support for the proposition that inflation affects financial development negatively. While price stability has been emphasized in the literature to be the best antidote in addressing the problem, recent evidence of disagreements on its definition and the ways to achieving it, coupled with, threshold effects between the two variables have questioned the precise link between the two variables and their acclaimed antidote. The study therefore made use of the Cointegration Approach the Granger Causality testing procedure suggested and the Conditional Least Squares technique to address these issues for the case of Ghana. The study established several statistically significant and economically meaningful relationships between the two variables. Pair-wise correlation analysis established a negative association between the two variables. In contrast, conflicting results were produced with regression analysis: the relationship between the two variables in the short run was established to be positive, while no relationship at all was established in the long run. Furthermore, a unidirectional causal link was established to be running from inflation to financial development; when the ratio of private sector credit to GDP and the market capitalization ratio were used as indicators for financial development. Lastly, threshold effects were observed in the inflation-financial development relation for inflation rates between 11-16% per annum. The study thus recommended the definition of price stability for inflation rates between 11-16% in support of financial development in Ghana. Additionally, it was recommended that the country should promote financial sector policies in a more holistic approach, as financial development does not granger cause inflation or inflationary pressures.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2012.227.236 2013/07/07 - 08:00
  • Based on the classification of 144 kinds of manufactured products, we make an analysis on the technological structure of Chinese manufactured exports from 1999-2009. We find that: (1) the trade structure of Chinese manufactured exports are totally changed in both world and US markets, the share of Low Technology (LT) products in the total exports shrank while the share of High Technology (HT) products expanded. The development of HT1 products (electronic and electrical products) contributed a lot to the rapid growth of the share of HT exports. (2) Compared with other BRICs and select Asian countries, China had absolute advantage in the US import market. However, in contrast to Canada, Mexico, Japan and Germany, China has no revealed comparative advantage except in LT and HT1 products. (3) The trade structure for Chinese exports manifests the tendency of optimization, the best example is Medium Technology (MT) products and the least is HT products.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2012.197.206 2013/07/06 - 08:57
  • Generals, entrepreneurs and planners aim to dislocate enemies, outsmart competitors or build iconic cities. All advocate ‘smart strategy’ but what are its constituents? I seek some cross-disciplinary clarification. A selection of military, business and planning literature is investigated, looking for common themes and a smart strategy framework. Strategic complexity and the limits to generalisation in turbulent times are noted. In the military, overwhelming force confronts asymmetric warfare with deception and carefully-calibrated power projections, conducted at tempo, to confuse and overwhelm the enemy. In business, making money is necessary but insufficient for a smart strategy. Other ‘smart’ criteria are ethics, delegation, talented people and continuous systems innovation. In urban planning, centralist or dispersed intervention strategies jostle with evolutionary ones but without a final resolution in complex, idiosyncratic cities with adjustment lags and spatial irresolution. Despite context dependency, our multi-disciplinary overview generates some practical business advice. A smart strategy recoils from top-down, techno-centric or managerialist litanies. Clarity of purpose, sound intelligence and judgment orientate the entity and harmonize its activities around key products/markets. Deception confuses and disorientates competitors but needs product support. Flexibility/adaptability balances informed leadership with devolved innovation, underpinned by systems upgrades and talent.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2012.190.196 2013/06/12 - 04:11
  • In this study we examined output gap in the Iranian economy. The main question of the study is that how much is seasonal output gap in Iranian Economy and which factor affects gap variation. The other question is that whether using HP-F as a statistical based method for estimating output gap, provide different result than using SVAR as theory based method. Accordingly the aim of study is to estimate potential output and thus output gap using two method and analysis of the result. We used two methods (Hodrick-Prescott Filter and SVAR) to estimate quarterly output gap for the period 1988:1-2008:4. The results pointed out that the estimation is not sensitive to the method and there is a close relation between oil revenue and output gap. In the period of 1998:3-1999:3, when oil price reduced to $11.45 per barrel, Iranian economy faced with a recession and it affected on output gap with a lag. Output gap increased from 34818 in 2004:1-76782 million dollars in 2008: 4. The comparison of estimated output gap and changes of oil price in different periods point out the positive relation. According to the estimations of output gap, output gap in the Iranian Economy has intense fluctuation due to the effects of oil proceeds fluctuations. In some years, actual output is more than potential output, that is, output gap is positive and so this situation can be an important reason for inflation in that period and policy maker must do plans and policies for control of inflation and in some years, actual output is less than potential output and this means output gap was negative. This situation is a reason for unemployment in these years and therefore policy makers must do expansionary policies.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2012.180.189 2013/06/09 - 22:42
  • Substantial empirical evidence indicates properties across the United States that are located within a Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) sell at a discount compared to similar properties otherwise located. This result is also true in our sample. Researchers have suggested the price discount equals a combination of the present value of the required flood insurance premiums and the value of uninsurable costs. To identify the portion of the discount applicable to each component, analysts have been required to estimate applicable insurance premiums and to assume a discount rate. The present paper presents a methodology that does not require these prerequisites, but still enables separation of the discount into the two components. in the united states, the federal emergency management agency sometimes issues a Letter of Map Amendment (LOMA), which exempts a property from the requirement that it be insured against flood damage as a prerequisite to the owner obtaining a federally-related mortgage loan. Therefore, any price difference between non-LOMA SFHA properties and similar properties outside the SFHA should continue to equal the sum of the two components and any significant price difference between SFHA properties with a LOMA and similar properties located outside the SFHA should equal the present value of the uninsurable costs only. Hedonic regression is used to test this proposal by comparing the selling prices of single-family house transactions for properties located within and outside the SFHA in Kettering, Ohio. In our sample, no significant uninsurable costs were detected.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2012.172.179 2013/06/09 - 22:42
  • In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI) on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered project in the direction of the government for fostering social entrepreneurs, putting emphasis on follow-up management and evaluation. Second, it must suggest a standard model for social entrepreneur promotion project. In other words, the projects with low performance should be reduced and education models appropriate for new circumstances and changes must be adopted through not only programs standardized in divisions, categories and local provinces, but also appointing expert instructors and project evaluation. Third, it’s necessary to propose specific guideline for detailed education operation according to education trainee and objectives of social entrepreneur. Fourth, it is needed to have more various contents development and distribution by strengthening support for specialized foundation, management and case studies related to fostering social entrepreneurs. Finally, it is even more required to spread awareness on social economics relating to programs for fostering social entrepreneur. With the long-term perspective, it is needed to render policy and specialization for fostering Korean-model social entrepreneurs, which is able to raise competent social entrepreneurs suitable for each stage of growth such as sourcing, incubation and launching social entrepreneurs.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2012.155.165 2013/03/09 - 21:32
  • In Thailand, poultry sector is the main economic growth of livestock sector, especially broiler production. The rapid expansion in broiler production has been made possible by the increase in the number of commercial farms or contract farming. The objective of this research was to understand better how contract farming works, who gets involved and why and who benefits from the agreement. The study is based on the broiler file survey in Chiang Mai province of Thailand. As the results, contract farming looks quite attractive for farmers as well as for private companies but most of the farmers complained about long waiting until the delivery of the next cycle of chicks have started.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2012.166.171 2013/03/09 - 21:32
  • Entry-level public accountants in the U.S. must satisfy a litany of historically unparalleled requirements and demands. This unique set of challenges calls forth new questions about how effectively entry-level accountants are navigating the divide between their conceptual educations and the practical rigors of public practice. To examine these questions, we relied on qualitative analysis predicated on a theoretical framework of constructivism and systems theory. Our study confirmed practitioners’ perceptions about the preparation of entry-level accountants that have been documented for nearly a hundred years: Entry-level accountants’ shortcomings often include written and oral communications skills, interpersonal skills and critical thinking skills. However, what is unique to this study is that we also considered faculty perspectives. Faculty concurred with practitioners’ perspectives on entry-level accountants’ strengths and weaknesses-noting considerable growth in most problem areas over the college years. Practitioners and faculty also largely agreed about the pathway to successful and unsuccessful careers in public accounting. We suggest that continuing the historical perspective of extreme separation between academia and the business world is not particularly beneficial to the career preparation of junior accountants. Rather, we recommend that viewing accounting faculty and practitioners as part of the same continuum is likely to be more advantageous to the preparation of entry-level accountants and to the profession as a whole. We also conclude that differences in faculty and practitioner perspectives serve as checks and balances on the accounting profession-although more collaboration might facilitate greater improvements.

    http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajebasp.2012.144.154 2013/02/08 - 23:01