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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology

Problem statement: Ficus benghalensis is widely used plant world wide traditionally as well as scientifically. It has a wide uses in various medical ailments. As a part of pharmacological evaluations, we have carried out wound healing activity specially in dexamethasone depressed healing conditions. Approach: Wound healing activity was established by two medels namely incision and excision. Results: The roots of Ficus benghalensis clearly reverted the antihealing in presence of dexamethasone treated animals. It happened through increase in breaking strength in incision model and increase in percentage wound contraction and reduction in period of epithelialization. Conclusion: Presence of various chemical constituents in the roots of Ficus benghalensis specially saponins, flavanoids, taannins and alkaloids were responsible for antagonizing the antihealing effect of dexamethasone treated animals.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2011.68.75 2011/09/17 - 23:28

Problem statement: Obese human subjects treated with oral Vernonia amygdalina (V. amygdalina) aqueous leaf extract for one month who experienced the anti-obesity effects of V. amygdalina leaf extract reported a lighter; clearer; more glowing and firmer skin as side effects of the treatment (unpublished findings). In this study, oral Vernonia amygdalina aqueous leaf extract was taken daily for six months to observe its effects on the external appearance and the firmness of the skin of the treated subject. Approach: Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract was prepared as a leaf effusion. The extract was taken 4 times daily by the subject who also oserved some dietary restritions. Results: The results of the study showed that V. amygdalina leaf extract has potent skin clearing; skin firming; skin lightening (inhibition of skin colour darkening); skin texture and lusture restoration; anti-obesity; body calming and body vitality (vigor) effects. These skin colour and form restoration effects of V. amygdalina extract coupled to its body metabolism effects to give body calm, vitality and youthful looks to the subject. Conclusion: The study concludes that V. amygdalina leaf extract has skin colour and formlightening and restoration effects as well as body calming and body vitalizing effects.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2011.33.36 2011/08/18 - 02:13

Problem statement: Hawthorn comprises more than 200 species worldwide but very few species have been used medicinally. In Mediterranean region, the predominant species of the genus Crataegus is C. aronia syn. Azarolus (L). The extracts or tinctures prepared from the leaves, flowers and/or a fruit has been used traditionally for the treatment of different diseases including different cardiovascular problems. This species (C. aronia syn. Azarolus (L.)) has not been adequately studied. Thus, we aimed to investigate for the possible acute and sub-acute toxicity of C. aronia syn. Azarolus (L.) on Wistar albino rats. Approach: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of C. aronia syn. Azarolus (L.) was determined. A thirty six Wistar rats of both sexes weighing 180- 200 g. were divided randomly into sex groups of 6 rats each. The first group was the control group and fed with equal volume of distilled water, while the other 5 groups were given single daily dose of the aqueous extract per os at different doses (100, 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg-1) for 28 days. The observation of acute toxicity and the sub-acute effects of the extract on the hematological, coagulation, Liver Function (LFT) and renal function parameters were reported. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of C. aronia syn. Azarolus (L) indicates the presence of flavonoids, terpenes/sterols, saponins and tannins. There were no signs of acute toxicity and no fatality. There was significant increase of the Red Blood Cell Count (RBC) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) in rats given the extract at dose of 200 mg kg-1 but not with other doses. Furthermore, the Prothrombin (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times (APTT) were significantly increased in rats given the extract at doses of 100-500 mg kg-1. There was no changes in the level of LFT, renal function and electrolytes. Conclusion: This study indicates that C. aronia syn. Azarolus (L.) whole plant aqueous extract has no acute or sub-acute adverse effects when administered under or equal to the dose of 2000 mg kg-1 body weight. The increase in the RBC, PCV as well as PT and APTT needs further studies.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2011.37.45 2011/08/18 - 02:13

Problem statement: Artemisinin-based anti-malarials are currently widely used in Asia and Africa. Not much is known about the systemic effect of dihydroartemisinin. This study therefore examine the effect of dihydroartemisinin on the lungs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: Five dosages of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) were administered by oral intubation for 5 days to 5 test and 4 control Wistar albino rats. Distilled water was administered to the control albino rats. The dosages of DHA tested were 1 mg kg-1 repeated after an interval of one week 2, 60 and 80 mg kg-1 A histological examination of the tissues of the lungs showed that dihydroartemisinin treatment caused a dose dependent widening of the lumen of the bronchial tree of the lungs of the test rats but not those of the control rats. The 2 mg kg-1 dose of DHA was the maximal response dose. Repetition of the same 1 mg kg-1 dihydroartemisinin dosage after an interval of one week also produced widening effects on the bronchial tree of the test rats but not on those of the control albino rats. Results: These results suggest that widening of the air tubes of the lungs and thus increasing the volume of inspired air (by the DHA-treated subject), is an important mechanism of action of dihydroartemisinin its efficacious rapid cure of malaria. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that dihydroartemisinin could be explore at a future drug to be use in aiding asthma patients.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2011.46.48 2011/08/18 - 02:13

Problem statement: Glucocorticoid-induced ob gene over-expression and resulted hyperleptinemia may lead to adverse consequences especially on cardiovascular system; therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of niacin on hyperleptinemia and ob gene over-expression due to dexamethasone administration in rats. Approach: Twenty four adult male rats divided randomly into four equal groups: (1) normal saline (control), (2) dexamathasone 0.125 mg kg-1 day-1, I.M. (3) dexamathasone 0.125 mg kg-1 day-1, I.M. + niacin 200 mg kg-1 day-1, by oral gavages and (4) niacin 200 mg kg-1 day-1, by oral gavages. After two weeks, blood samples were collected from all animals and leptin level assayed in harvested sera by ELISA method. Moreover, inguinal adipose tissue was excised to be examined for ob gene expression using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Dexamethasone treatment (group 2) increased serum leptin along with its mRNA expression more than 3 folds as compared to control (p<0.001 and p = 0.001 respectively). Although leptin level in rats treated with dexamethasone+niacin was 17.8% lower than group 2; however this decrease was not significant (p>0.05). Concomitant administration of niacin with dexamethasone significantly decreased leptin gene mRNA expression compared to dexamethasone treated rats (p<0.001) and even reversed it to the control level (p>0.05). Niacin alone (group 4) had no effect on serum leptin concentration as well as leptin gene expression in comparison with control group (p>0.05). Conclusion: Niacin slightly ameliorates hyperleptinemia and reverses ob gene mRNA over-expression in adipose tissue of dexamethasone treated rats.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2011.49.54 2011/08/18 - 02:13

Problem statement: Many obese or overweight persons complain that they don’t know what makes them fat. They would also like to know how to loss excess fat and maintain the fat loss. Approch: This research study was structred to make the obesed subject loose excess fat and at the same time learn what makes people fat so that in the future they would prevent developing obesity by eating proper diets. Results: Thirty nine obese human subjects took Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract orally for one month. The subjects were required to adhere to dietary restrictions during the treatment period. The dietary restrictions included abstaining from fattening foods, soups and stews or gravy; acidic beverages; soft drinks; acidic/spicy foods, soups, stews, drinks; artificial seasoning; alcohol; tobacco and consumption of large quantities of carbohydrates. Thirty seven of the subjects who obeyed the dietary restrictions lost 16 kg of excess body fat in one month. One of the subjects who also adhered to the dietary restrictions of the treatment lost 15 kg of excess body fat. The subject who kept all the dietary restrictions except the consumption of alcohol and the consumption of two thirds of formerly consumed carbohydrates; lost 10 kg of excess body fat. These results show that V. amygdalina leaf has specific and efficacious excess body fat elimination (anti-obesity) properties. Conclusion: The results of the study enable us to conclude that the excess fat elimination effects of V. amygdalina leaf extract can be antagonized by consumption of excess calories like those provided by alcohol, the consumption of acidic foods and drinks. The consumption of three thirds leafy vegetable equivalent of a certain amount of carbohydrates together with required daily amounts of proteins, minerals, vitamins and water enables one to avoid accumulation of excess body fat.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2011.55.58 2011/08/18 - 02:13

Problem statement: Natural products have long been a fertile source of cure for cancer, which is projected to become the major cause of death in this century. Major classes of anticancer compounds include alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and lignans. We have chosen terpenoids (bacosides) because terpenoids like taxol are currently being used in cancer chemotherapy. The anticancer activity of Bacoside A (containing Bacoside A3) isolated from the whole plant of plant Bacopa monnieiri (Linn.) was evaluated in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Approach: The Bacoside A was isolated from ethyl acetate insoluble fraction (BM-2B) of chloroform: Methanol (2: 1) (BM-2) extract of B. monnieiri whole plant. The cytotoxicity (in vitro) of Bacoside A (BM2BF8-BSD) was carried out by means of MTT assay using MCF-7 (Human breast cancer), HT-29 (Human colon adeno carcinoma) and A-498 (Human kidney carcinoma) cell lines. The in vivo anticancer activity of Bacoside A was evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor bearing mice. Results: The Bacoside A (31.38 %) rich fraction, coded BM-2B containing Bacoside A3 (8.09 %) was showing potent cytotoxicity. Oral administration of BM-2B to tumor bearing mice at the dose of 250 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight for 10 days, showed significant reduction in percent increase in body weight, tumor volume, packed cell volume, viable tumor cell count and increased non-viable cell count when compared to the untreated mice of the EAC control group. The restoration of hematological parameters towards normalcy was also observed. Conclusion: The results suggests that the Bacoside A (31.38 % Bacoside A containing 8.09 % Bacoside A3) rich fraction (BM-2B) exhibits significant anticancer activity in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2011.11.19 2011/06/11 - 14:11

Problem statement: Patients on chronic opioid therapy are monitored to detect illicit drug use in order to deter diversion of their prescription opioids and to ensure medication adherence. The addictive potential of opioid drugs and their similar binding sites in the brain may make them potential gateway drugs for each other. Recent reports indicate that oxycodone has a high probability of leading to heroin use due to heroin’s similar effects and lower cost. This study explores the correlations between heroin abuse, prescription opioids and illicit drugs using urinary excretion data from pain patients. Approach: This retrospective analysis was conducted using a database of 148,200 urine samples from pain patients during routine drug screening at Millennium Laboratories between 2008 and 2010. Samples were tested for the presence of the heroin metabolite, 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM). All samples were analyzed and were quantified using LC-MS-MS. Microsoft® Excel 2007 and OriginPro® 8.1 were used to calculate percentages and ratios relating heroin use to opioid medications and illicit drugs. Results: Of the 446 samples positive for 6-AM, methadone was concomitantly used most frequently (26.7%) followed by cocaine (25.6%), oxycodone (24.2%), hydrocodone (16.4%), marijuana (11.6%), buprenorphine (4.9%) and methamphetamine (4.7%). The high percentage of concomitant methadone is expected because a portion of patients were likely to be on methadone maintenance therapy for heroin withdrawal. Patients on oxycodone were twice as likely to test positive for 6-AM than those on hydrocodone(0.28% versus 0.14%). Conclusions/Recommendations: Our results indicate that patients on methadone should be most closely monitored for heroin abuse due to their high proportion of concomitant use. The proportions of concomitant use were similar between oxycodone and cocaine and were both considerably higher than marijuana, a purported gateway drug for heroin. This study suggests that oxycodone may be highly correlated with heroin use. Urine samples must be assessed in the full clinical context.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2011.5.10 2011/06/11 - 14:11

Problem statement: To report a case of severe injection site reaction at the site of an IM naltrexone injection in a 30 year old female. Approach: A 30 year old female, being treated with naltrexone extended-release injectable suspension for alcohol dependence, presented with a mass on her left upper gluteal area at the site of injection. The injectable naltrexone was discontinued, however the mass persisted. Upon referral to a general surgeon, it was determined that the mass was a hematoma or subcutaneous tissue necrosis secondary to naltrexone injection. Results: Naltrexone extended-release injection is Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for maintaining abstinence in alcohol dependency. It has been shown to increase the time to relapse compared to placebo, decrease the number of drinking days compared to placebo and decrease the number of heavy drinking days as compared to placebo. There have been no published case reports of severe injection site reaction associated with injectable naltrexone; however there has been a MedWatch alert warning of the risk of injection site reactions after receiving the injection. Conclusion: Patients receiving the injectable naltrexone should carefully monitor the injection site for signs of injection site reaction.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2011.1.4 2011/06/11 - 14:11

Problem statement: Urtica pilulifera (Urticeacae) has been used in folk medicine to alleviate inflammation and arthritis. In this study the anti-arthritic effect of methanolic leaf extract of the plant was evaluated and compared to untreated control as well as ibuprofen-treated groups in a rat model of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis. Approach: Arthritis was induced by injecting CFA subcutaneously into the right paw. The extract was given orally one day before CFA injection up to the completion of study (for 30 days). Two extract doses (1.33 and 2.0 g kg-1) and ibuprofen (53 mg kg-1) as a positive control were used. Paw volume was measured on alternate days up to 30 days. In addition, the effect of the extract on joint deformity, ankle swelling and inflammatory markers was evaluated. Results: The extract prevented arthritis-induced increase in paw volume and joint deformity dose-dependently as compared to control. Moreover, the extract showed significant increase in the packed cell volume [p<0.05]. No alteration of kidney or liver function tests was detected in rats during repeated dose treatment. Conclusion: This study supports the traditional use of U. pilulifera for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and rheumatoid arthritis and suggests further evaluation for its role in increasing red blood cells.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2010.27.32 2011/06/11 - 14:11

Problem statement: Urtica pilulifera (Urticeacae) has been used in folk medicine to alleviate inflammation and arthritis. In this study the anti-arthritic effect of methanolic leaf extract of the plant was evaluated and compared to untreated control as well as ibuprofen-treated groups in a rat model of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis. Approach: Arthritis was induced by injecting CFA subcutaneously into the right paw. The extract was given orally one day before CFA injection up to the completion of study (for 30 days). Two extract doses (1.33 and 2.0 g kg-1) and ibuprofen (53 mg kg-1) as a positive control were used. Paw volume was measured on alternate days up to 30 days. In addition, the effect of the extract on joint deformity, ankle swelling and inflammatory markers was evaluated. Results: The extract prevented arthritis-induced increase in paw volume and joint deformity dose-dependently as compared to control. Moreover, the extract showed significant increase in the packed cell volume [p<0.05]. No alteration of kidney or liver function tests was detected in rats during repeated dose treatment. Conclusion: This study supports the traditional use of U. pilulifera for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and rheumatoid arthritis and suggests further evaluation for its role in increasing red blood cells.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2011.27.32 2011/06/11 - 14:11

Problem statement: Diagnostic and therapeutic arthroscopic surgeries are procedures performed quite frequently in equine practice; and are considered to cause some degree of postoperative pain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the equine synovial fluid biochemical and cytological changes following intra-articular administration of tramadol as a potential analgesic. Approach: Six adult healthy donkeys were selected after clinical examination. Synovial fluid samples were taken from both middle carpal joints after routine preparation. Tramadol 2 mg kg-1 and 100 mg lidocaine 2% were administered to the right and left joints respectively. Synovial fluid collection from the joints was performed at 12, 24, 48-192 hours after medication. Cytological examination, total protein, glucose, specific gravity, Alkaline Phosphates (ALP), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), viscosity and quality of mucin clot were measured. Comparison of treatments was performed by nonparametric sign test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Significance level was set to p ¡Ü0.05. Results: Neither detectable lameness nor special side effect was observed throughout the study. Mucin clot quality test and viscosity, the amount of total nucleated cell count, glucose, ALP and LDH revealed no significant differences between various sampling times between the tramadol and lidocaine groups (P>0.05). Neutrophil count, total protein, specific gravity and AST activity were significantly different. Conclusions/Recommendations: Despite the slightly different results compared to the lidocaine, it seems that the injection of tramadol into the middle carpal joint has no adverse effects on the synovial fluid composition in this joint and it can be considered a good analgesic after arthroscopic surgery with the lowest side effects in horses.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2011.20.26 2011/06/11 - 14:11

Problem statement: Patients on chronic opioid therapy are monitored to detect illicit drug use in order to deter diversion of their prescription opioids and to ensure medication adherence. The addictive potential of opioid drugs and their similar binding sites in the brain may make them potential gateway drugs for each other. Recent reports indicate that oxycodone has a high probability of leading to heroin use due to heroin’s similar effects and lower cost. This study explores the correlations between heroin abuse, prescription opioids and illicit drugs using urinary excretion data from pain patients. Approach: This retrospective analysis was conducted using a database of 148,200 urine samples from pain patients during routine drug screening at Millennium Laboratories between 2008 and 2010. Samples were tested for the presence of the heroin metabolite, 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM). All samples were analyzed and were quantified using LC-MS-MS. Microsoft® Excel 2007 and OriginPro® 8.1 were used to calculate percentages and ratios relating heroin use to opioid medications and illicit drugs. Results: Of the 446 samples positive for 6-AM, methadone was concomitantly used most frequently (26.7%) followed by cocaine (25.6%), oxycodone (24.2%), hydrocodone (16.4%), marijuana (11.6%), buprenorphine (4.9%) and methamphetamine (4.7%). The high percentage of concomitant methadone is expected because a portion of patients were likely to be on methadone maintenance therapy for heroin withdrawal. Patients on oxycodone were twice as likely to test positive for 6-AM than those on hydrocodone(0.28% versus 0.14%). Conclusions/Recommendations: Our results indicate that patients on methadone should be most closely monitored for heroin abuse due to their high proportion of concomitant use. The proportions of concomitant use were similar between oxycodone and cocaine and were both considerably higher than marijuana, a purported gateway drug for heroin. This study suggests that oxycodone may be highly correlated with heroin use. Urine samples must be assessed in the full clinical context

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2010.5.10 2011/06/08 - 20:34

Problem statement: Natural products have long been a fertile source of cure for cancer, which is projected to become the major cause of death in this century. Major classes of anticancer compounds include alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and lignans. We have chosen terpenoids (bacosides) because terpenoids like taxol are currently being used in cancer chemotherapy. The anticancer activity of Bacoside A (containing Bacoside A3) isolated from the whole plant of plant Bacopa monnieiri (Linn.) was evaluated in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Approach: The Bacoside A was isolated from ethyl acetate insoluble fraction (BM-2B) of chloroform: Methanol (2: 1) (BM-2) extract of B. monnieiri whole plant. The cytotoxicity (in vitro) of Bacoside A (BM2BF8-BSD) was carried out by means of MTT assay using MCF-7 (Human breast cancer), HT-29 (Human colon adeno carcinoma) and A-498 (Human kidney carcinoma) cell lines. The in vivo anticancer activity of Bacoside A was evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor bearing mice. Results: The Bacoside A (31.38 %) rich fraction, coded BM-2B containing Bacoside A3 (8.09 %) was showing potent cytotoxicity. Oral administration of BM-2B to tumor bearing mice at the dose of 250 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight for 10 days, showed significant reduction in percent increase in body weight, tumor volume, packed cell volume, viable tumor cell count and increased non-viable cell count when compared to the untreated mice of the EAC control group. The restoration of hematological parameters towards normalcy was also observed. Conclusion: The results suggests that the Bacoside A (31.38 % Bacoside A containing 8.09 % Bacoside A3) rich fraction (BM-2B) exhibits significant anticancer activity in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2010.11.19 2011/06/08 - 20:34

Problem statement: To report a case of severe injection site reaction at the site of an IM naltrexone injection in a 30 year old female. Approach: A 30 year old female, being treated with naltrexone extended-release injectable suspension for alcohol dependence, presented with a mass on her left upper gluteal area at the site of injection. The injectable naltrexone was discontinued, however the mass persisted. Upon referral to a general surgeon, it was determined that the mass was a hematoma or subcutaneous tissue necrosis secondary to naltrexone injection. Results: Naltrexone extended-release injection is Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for maintaining abstinence in alcohol dependency. It has been shown to increase the time to relapse compared to placebo, decrease the number of drinking days compared to placebo and decrease the number of heavy drinking days as compared to placebo. There have been no published case reports of severe injection site reaction associated with injectable naltrexone; however there has been a MedWatch alert warning of the risk of injection site reactions after receiving the injection. Conclusion: Patients receiving the injectable naltrexone should carefully monitor the injection site for signs of injection site reaction.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2010.1.4 2011/06/08 - 20:34

Problem statement: Diagnostic and therapeutic arthroscopic surgeries are procedures performed quite frequently in equine practice; and are considered to cause some degree of postoperative pain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the equine synovial fluid biochemical and cytological changes following intra-articular administration of tramadol as a potential analgesic. Approach: Six adult healthy donkeys were selected after clinical examination. Synovial fluid samples were taken from both middle carpal joints after routine preparation. Tramadol 2 mg kg-1 and 100 mg lidocaine 2% were administered to the right and left joints respectively. Synovial fluid collection from the joints was performed at 12, 24, 48-192 hours after medication. Cytological examination, total protein, glucose, specific gravity, Alkaline Phosphates (ALP), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), viscosity and quality of mucin clot were measured. Comparison of treatments was performed by nonparametric sign test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Significance level was set to p ¡Ü 0.05. Results: Neither detectable lameness nor special side effect was observed throughout the study. Mucin clot quality test and viscosity, the amount of total nucleated cell count, glucose, ALP and LDH revealed no significant differences between various sampling times between the tramadol and lidocaine groups (P>0.05). Neutrophil count, total protein, specific gravity and AST activity were significantly different. Conclusions/Recommendations: Despite the slightly different results compared to the lidocaine, it seems that the injection of tramadol into the middle carpal joint has no adverse effects on the synovial fluid composition in this joint and it can be considered a good analgesic after arthroscopic surgery with the lowest side effects in horses.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2010.20.26 2011/06/08 - 20:34

Problem statement: CPI-613 is a novel anticancer agent and the toxicological profile has
not been assessed. Accordingly, the objective of these studies was to thoroughly evaluate the
Toxicokinetic (TK) effects of CPI-613 in rats and to compare the toxicological profile of rats to
minipigs to determine if there were differences between the two animal species. Approach: These
studies involved assessments of multiple toxicological parameters (including clinical signs as well as
full panel blood work, necropsy and histology) at multiple times in animals treated with the threshold
dose (i.e., a dose that did not induce significant effects), toxic dose (i.e., a dose that induced significant
toxic effects) and dose that approximated the LD10 dose (i.e., a dose that induced death in
approximately 10% of the animals). CPI-613 was given intravenously 2x weekly for 3 weeks, a dosing
schedule that is used in clinical trials of CPI-613. CPI-613-treated animals were compared to absolute
control treatment as well as vehicle treatment. Furthermore, the correlations among toxic effects of
CPI-613, plasma concentrations and Pharmacokinetics (PK) of CPI-613 were evaluated to establish the
TK effects of CPI-613. Results: The results demonstrated the uncommon toxicological profile at toxic
doses of CPI-613, which were related to induction of inflammation as the primary and the only
toxicological effects in both animal species. The induction of inflammation was consistent with the
dose-related increases in plasma CPI-613. Other changes such as elevations in reticulocytes and
Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) were also observed, but they might be secondary to the
inflammatory effects of CPI-613. The toxic doses of CPI-613 were ~60x the anti-tumor dose levels
observed in mouse tumor xenograft models, suggesting a wide safety margin of CPI-613. Conclusion:
CPI-613 had an uncommon toxicological profile (induction of inflammation) in both animal species,
which reflects its novel mechanism of action.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2010.183.208 2011/03/05 - 15:40

Problem statement: The purpose of this study was to histopathology and biomechanics
evaluate the effect of sodium fluoride on cancellous bone defect healing in rat model. Approach: The
experiment was conducted on 40 male adult SD rats which were divided into four groups of control and
experiments. After induction of general anesthesia, a hole in size of 2×3 mm in diameter and depth was
made using a dental bit in the inner aspect of the between condyles of right femor. In all groups, defect
was left untreated. Control group was given distilled water and the other three groups were exposed to
fluoridated water at different concentrations (8, 30 and 60 mg F-/L). After 45 days all rats were sacrificed
and the histopathological and biomechanical penetration tests of the distal femoral bone were performed.
Results: In control group, defect seemed to be filled with adipous tissue and sparse hematogenic cells and
in spite of a poor osteogenic activity and some osteoblasts could already be seen. In experiment groups,
many osteoblasts groupings and young bone trabeculas increased in number and bone trabeculas more
organized. Histopathologically findings show that 30 mg F-/L sodium fluoride in drinking water has been
better effect than other groups. The mean load for fracturing in control group was 173.01±23.05 and in
experiment groups 8, 30 and 60mg were 177.31±33.71, 181.90±36.81 and 168.51±54.35. Differences
observed in biomechanically findings were significant between 30mg group and other groups (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The results of this study show that fluoride level at 30 mg F- L−1 in drinking water increases
compressive strength of cancellous bone defect in healing process and could stimulate osteogenesis in
femoral cancellous bone defect in rats.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2010.177.182 2011/02/28 - 09:19

Problem statement: Oxidative stress plays a major role in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Portulaca oleracea (P.O.) has been shown to exhibit antioxidant properties. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of P.O. on the oxidative stress in Paracetamol-induced hepatic toxicity in male rats. Approach: Forty male rats were divided into four groups. Group I served as control; Group II Received isotonic saline for 20 days and then simultaneously administered with paracetamol 750 mg kg−1 body wt. every 72 h for 10 days; Group III received freshly prepared P.O. for 30 days; Group IV received freshly prepared P.O. for 20 days and then simultaneously administered with paracetamol 750 mg kg−1 body wt. every 72 h for 10 days. All animals were sacrificed cervical decapitation 24 h after the last application and the blood was collected for the determination of serum marker of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant and histology of the liver was performed. Results: Paracetamol treatment resulted in an increase in the hepatic TBARS content and depletion in total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione content, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. Administration of P.O. with paracetamol significantly ameliorated the indices of hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol. In addition, P.O. alleviated paracetamol induced oxidative changes in liver. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that P.O. inhibits paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity and might serve as a protective agent with paracetamol to limit its free radical induced liver injury.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2010.167.176 2011/02/09 - 02:29

Problem statement: Owing to numerous adverse effects of most orthodox pharmaceuticals, the use of herbal remedies in treatment and prevention of diseases is gaining much attention, especially in developing countries. The increase patronage of these remedies is often predicated on the assumption that they are harmless since they are prepared from natural sources. However, toxicity related to herbal medicines is becoming widely recognized. Yoyo ‘Cleanser’ Bitters (YB) and Fields Swedish Bitters (SB) are herbal preparations largely consumed in Nigeria because of their high publicity in the various national news media. This study evaluated their toxicity potentials following sub-chronic administration in rats. Approach: Thirty-five Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 7 rats/group. Control received normal saline while the experimental groups were treated separately with 15 and 30 mL kg-1 of YB and SB respectively. Treatment was given daily by gavage for 30 days. Body weights were measured weekly and rats were sacrificed 24 h after last treatment. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture for biochemical and haematological assessment. Vital organs were also excised and weighed. Results: YB and SB did not significantly affect creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Na+ ion but significantly (p<0.01) decreased K+ ion concentration when compared with control. Both herbal preparations produced moderate increases in alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities, with YB (30 mL kg-1) significantly (p<0.05) increasing the latter. YB and SB did not significantly alter total cholesterol, triglycerides and albumin but SB (30 mL kg-1) significantly (p<0.05) decreased total protein when compared with control. SB significantly (p<0.05) elevated white blood cell count while other haematological parameters, vital organs and body weights were not significantly affected by both herbal preparations. Conclusion: YB and SB possess the risk of inducing hypokalaemia. The potential to also increase markers of liver function calls for cautious use in conditions associated with liver impairment.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2010.159.166 2011/02/02 - 08:52

This study reported on a descriptive exploratory study of the prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk factors among adult Australian-Lebanese migrants living in Melbourne. This study fills a gap in extant research regarding CVD risk factors within this ethnic community in Melbourne. Problem statement: Australia’s multicultural society consists of more than 200 ethnic groups. Nearly a quarter of the populations are born overseas. Thus, the national health profile is significantly affected by the health status of immigrants. The prevalence of CVD risk factors has been researched in several ethnic communities in Melbourne, however, specific CVD risk factors among Australian-Lebanese migrants living in Melbourne has never been studied. Approach: A convenience sample of 200 adult Australian-Lebanese (88 men and 112 women) residing permanently in Melbourne completed a structured questionnaire based on the 1989 National Heart Foundation Risk Factor Prevalence Study. Physical measurements of height, weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure and reported cholesterol levels were also obtained. Results: Subjects were aged between 20-69 years and manifested many risk factors for CVD. Lack of physical activity and increased weight was prevalent across all age groups. Hypertension increased with age and smoking was more prevalent among the Australian-Lebanese than the general Australian population. Multivariate forward logistic regression analysis found that the strongest predictors of CVD risk factors were age, gender, level of education and length of residence in Australia. The most vulnerable were older men with a lower level of education who had resided in Australia for more than 10 years. Conclusion: The CVD risk factors among the Australian-Lebanese included overweight and obesity, lack of physical activity and high levels of smoking. The findings warrant further research among other Arabic speaking groups who have similar social and cultural practices. The findings demonstrate the need for culturally tailored health promotion programs aimed at reducing CVD risk behaviors among this ethnic group.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ijrnsp.2010.1.7 2011/01/11 - 14:24

Problem statement: This study was designed to identify predictors of the use of home health care services by elders in different ethnic groups. Approach: A cross-sectional study was conducted with convenient sample of Anglo elders (N = 57), Mexican American elders (N = 56) and elders in South Korea (N = 83). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted. Results: The need for home health care services was the significant predictor of home care service use for Anglo (Adjusted R2 = 0.164; R2 change = 0.176; F-change (1,56) = 11.93; p = 0.001); service awareness and low education were significant predictors for Mexican American (Adjusted R2 = 0.332; R2 change = 0.068; F-change (1,48) = 5.22; p = 0.027). Service awareness and elders living alone were significant predictors for South Korean elders (Adjusted R2 = 0.112; R2 change = 0.050; F-change (1,80) = 4.58; p = 0.035). Conclusion: The results of the study suggested that effective interventions for home health care services should focus on elders’ service awareness, low income and education and elders living alone to maximize the use of home health care services.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ijrnsp.2010.8.16 2011/01/11 - 14:24

Problem statement: A cesarean birth happens through an incision in the abdominal wall and uterus In November of 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) reported the national cesarean birth rate was the highest ever at 29.1%, which is over a quarter of all deliveries. This means that over 1 in 4 women will experience a cesarean delivery. With any major surgical procedure, there are risks involved. It is important to know and understand your risks before a cesarean procedure, Approach: Descriptive study was carried from 1st March to end of October 2009, 200 cases attending Tikrit teaching hospital and 2 private hospitals in Tikrit city that were developing complications after cesarean section during time of the study were enrolled in this study. Results: The study reviled that half of study population from age group 20-34 years, 36.5% were developed complications after C/S. it was founded that 36.5% developed wound infections, 31.5% complained from post partum hemorrhage 17.5% of them of secondary type and 14% of primary type. And 6, 7.5 and 1% developed paralytic illus, DVT, death respectively and 34% occurred within first week after C/S and 8%within operation. Conclusion: wound infection and hemorrhage are the most frequent complications that happened after cesarean section and about third of patients with complication had previous complication.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ijrnsp.2010.17.20 2011/01/11 - 14:24

Problem statement: In order to support the needs of the staff working in discrete areas of nursing, the attitudes, behaviors and needs of the group must first be articulated. Unfortunately, there has been little research conducted to understand the culture of what it is that health care workers think and feel and why they make the choices they do in their working environment and also why they chose to leave the environment. Specifically, what do intensive care clinicians think about the work they do when managing end-of-life care in this technical, highly skilled environment. The focus of an ethnographic study conducted in an Australian hospital in 2007 was to describe the attitudes, behaviors and social conscience of this group whilst they provided end-of-life care. Conclusion: Staff were unable to control many factors that impact on the capacity of professional practice within the intensive care environment. In response to this limited control, staff developed tactics for managing the varying levels of expected clinical service delivery associated with varying possible outcome for each individual patient admission. This research garnered three discrete groups of coping strategies: physical, social and psychological. Future research may demonstrate capacity to engage in such coping strategies has a direct link to clinical longevity.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ijrnsp.2010.21.24 2011/01/11 - 14:24

Problem statement: To identify demography factor relation that is study, education storey; level, mother age and also social economics status to occurrence of LBW in RSCM Jakarta. Approach: Type this studied is analytic survey with cross sectional design. Population in this studied is all noted mothers bear during year 2006 counted 2.755 with sample equal to 125 mothers. This studied is started in January with intake of sample by random sampling. The data were collected in this studied are secondary data, that is seen data and noted from medical record of RSCM Jakarta Year 2006. Appliance used at this studied is sheet of check list. Data analysis conducted by univariat and bivariate. Results: Statistical test from variable studied that is, study, education, mother age and social economics status, known by that there is relation having a meaning among study of mother, mother age and social economics status with occurrence of heavy baby born to lower in RSCM Jakarta. Conclusion: LBW in RSCM Year equal to 4.54% from 125 mother sample bear.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ijrnsp.2010.25.28 2011/01/11 - 14:24

Diabetes mellitus with the prevalence rate of 8.9-12.3% in human population, ultimately leads to the peripheral nervous system involvement in many patients. It causes various types of polyneuropathies, which may manifest abnormalities such as impaired nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and prolonged F-wave latency. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on NCV and F-wave latency. This clinical trial was performed on diabetic patients referring to the Diabetes Center of Shahid Bahonar Hospital in Kerman/Iran. Subjects were randomly divided to Omega-3 and Control (no treatment) group. Patients in the case group received three capsules of omega-3 daily and for the duration of 12 weeks. NCV and F-wave latency were determined in all patients before and after the treatment period. The rate of alterations in these variables in the two groups was analyzed by using statistical tests. Controlling for baseline NCV and F- wave latency measures, follow up results showed no significant difference between the Omega-3 and the no-treatment group in accordance to somatic nerve measures. No significant difference in electrodiagnostic indices was found before and after Omega-3 administration. This result may be due to using the combination of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).Short term administration and lack of sufficient time for drug efficacy can be other probable reason. Further studies with the administration of pure forms of EPA or DHA and longer period of administration are suggested.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2007.1.3 2011/01/11 - 03:48

Hormesis is defined as “a very low dose of a chemical agent [which] may trigger from an organism the opposite response to a very high dose” (Wikipedia, the free on-line encyclopedia). It is an important dose-response phenomenon that is finally becoming recognized and integrated within the toxicological and biomedical sciences. These developments have been stimulated by the need to better understand the nature of the dose response in the low dose zone, to clarify adaptive mechanisms and how they could be exploited to enhance human health, and the need to follow up and confirm numerous investigations that have unexpectedly observed the hormetic dose-response in biomedical research, some of which have obvious clinical implications.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2008.1.3 2011/01/11 - 03:48

The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of the root bark of Onosma hispidum following antitussive activity directed isolation led to the isolation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid (mCA) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid (mBA) which have been reported for the first time in this species. Antitussive activity of the compounds was evaluated by reduction in frequency of cough induced by SO2 gas in mice. In addition to these compounds, the crude ethanolic extract and methanolic fraction showed highly significant antitussive activity (p 0.001, Students t test) compared to control. A dose-dependent inhibition of cough was observed with the extracts and the pure compounds and the results were also comparable with the effect produced by dextromethorphan- a standard antitussive drug.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2006.1.4 2011/01/11 - 03:48

Problem statement: Mikania scandens (L.) Willd., a medicinal plant, is popularly used as herbal remedy for various ailments in Bangladesh. But the scientific basis for its medicinal use especially in pain and inflammation remains unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate analgesic and antioxidant potential of the hydromethanol extract of the leaves of the plant. Approach: The analgesic activity was determined for its central and peripheral pharmacological actions using hotplate and tail immersion method and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice respectively. The hydromethanol extract was also investigated for its antioxidant action using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, Nitric Oxide (NO) scavenging and reducing power assays. Results: The extract, at the dose of 250 and 500 mg kg-1, produced a significant (p<0.05) increase in pain threshold in hotplate and tail immersion methods in a dose dependent manner. In acetic acid-induced writhing test, the extract (500 mg kg-1) produced a maximum of 53.73% inhibition (p<0.001) of writhing reaction compared to the reference drug Diclofenac-Na (76%). A dose dependent scavenging of DPPH radical and NO was observed with good reducing power with the extract. In DPPH radical scavenging assay, the IC50 value of the extract was 375.40 μg mL-1 while the IC50 value for the reference ascorbic acid was 55.89 μg mL-1. The IC50 values of the extract and ascorbic acid were 220.43 and 125.10 μg mL1, respectively in NO scavenging assay. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that the extract from Mikania scandens has strong analgesic and antioxidant effects.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2009.1.7 2011/01/11 - 03:48

Problem statement: Crude oil which may be broadly characterized as paraffinic or naphthenic is a complex mixture of alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons. About 500,000 workers are employed in crude oil exploration and production worldwide. There have been reports of occupational exposure during drilling, pumping and transportation of crude oil, including maintenance of equipment used for these processes. Thus, skin tumors have been reported in mice after repeated application of the east Wilmington crude oil to their skin. Approach: It may thus be necessary to investigate the mutagenic potentials of crude oil fractions using a modified Ames test and internationally accepted Allium cepa (Linn) assay. The Allium cepa assay was done to determine the mean root length, mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations of the onions root grown in various concentrations of 5, 10 and 15% v/v crude oil, petrol, kerosene, engine oil and diesel in water. The modified Ames test which is a modification of the standard Ames test was done using E. coli (0157: H7) that has the phenotypic characteristics of glucose and lactose fermentation, motile, urease negative, indole positive and citrate negative. Thus the alteration in normal biochemical characteristics was determined by inoculating the revertant strains produced by the organism after incubating with the crude oil fractions into the specified media to re-determine their biochemical characteristics. Results: The results obtained from the Allium cepa assay showed increasing root growth inhibition with increased concentration and decreasing mitotic index with increased concentration. Stickiness, Vagrant, Bridges and fragments, Bi-nuclei, C-mitosis, multi polar anaphase and anaphase with laggards chromosomal aberration were observed. The modified Ames test showed a remarkable alteration in the biochemical characteristics of E. coli (0157: H7) by petrol and engine oil indicating mutagenicity. Conclusion: The results of the Ames test showed petrol and engine oil to demonstrate mutagenicity in bacteria, while, the Allium cepa assay showed mitodepressive effects of crude oil, petrol, engine oil, diesel and kerosene.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2010.1.8 2011/01/11 - 03:48

The role of vitamin C on diabetes mellitus is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of oral administration of vitamin C on some of the metabolic parameters of diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg kgˉ1 body weight at 12 weeks of age). Vitamin C (10, 50, 100 mg kgˉ1 body weight) was administered orally for a period of four weeks to normal and diabetic male Wistar rats. In some experiments vitamin C was given either before or after the induction of diabetes mellitus. Glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed on fasted normal, diabetic and vitamin C-treated rats at the end of the experimental period. Blood sugar level and weight were also recorded on a weekly basis for each rat in different groups. Vitamin C significantly (p<0.05) reduced blood glucose level and decreased weight gain in experimental diabetes mellitus at all doses when compared to untreated rats. This beneficial effect of vitamin C on the hyperglycemia of diabetic rats was dose-dependent. Moreover, vitamin C also improved GTT in diabetic rats compared to untreated diabetic rats. In conclusion, vitamin C may play a role in insulin metabolism and thus be a useful adjuvant therapy in diabetes mellitus.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2007.4.9 2011/01/11 - 03:48

Hormesis refers to the ability of a chemical or physical agent to condition the physiological state of an organism to tolerate stress with low doses of otherwise harmful agents. Evolutionary evidence shows that the survival and longevity of species hinge on their optimal ability to resist stress challenge. Hormesis is a potent strategy to stimulate latent repair processes to tolerate a specific challenge. Examples of hormetic agent-mimetics, which induce at least partial physiological conditioning, activate known pathways of longevity determinants, i.e., genetic stability, altered metabolism, immunoregulation and stress resistance. Despite the diversity of age-related diseases, glucose and oxidation-mediated protein and DNA damage are common denominators. The associated physiological conditioning-benefits may trigger: 1) activation of latent stress resistance pathways of youthful DNA repair; 2) increased resistance to oxidizing pollutants; 3) improved protein structure and function; 4) improved immunity; 5) damaged tissue remodeling; 6) adjustments in central and peripheral nervous systems; 7) altered metabolism; and 8) delay or breaking of inappropriate protein cross-links. Hormetic mimetics have intervention potential in cancer, diabetes, age-related diseases, infectious diseases, heart and kidney failure, cardiovascular diseases and Alzheimer’s disease. Small nucleotide SOS signals, dipeptides, ethanol, thiols, and metals and conserved peptide sequences found in sharks, frogs, woodchucks, and bears, can regulate cytokines, cellular immunity, and central and peripheral neuronal regulatory pathways to promote healthy blood pressure maintenance, heart rate, and metabolic pathways. disease sensitivity. Conserved stress mimetics are highlighted here that rejuvenate DNA and proteins repair and thus may intervene in aging, disease, and trauma. Hibernation Induction Trigger mimetics, Deltorphins, emerge as novel hormetic agents, effective both as pre and post exposure to physiological conditioners to tolerate stress, and prevent damage, and delay possibly aging. Hormesis mimetics offer powerful survival strategies, with better control over the beneficial dose response. Combinations of several mimetics may more closely mimic environmental challenges, which stimulate multiple stress responses.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2008.4.13 2011/01/11 - 03:48

This study was designed to evaluate the role of alpha- melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on heart rate and some hematological values in alloxan induced diabetic rats. 40 male white rats were divided into four experimental groups: control, diabetic, α-MSH-treated and α-MSH-treated diabetic. At the end of the experimental period (3weeks), animals in all four groups were fasted for 12 hrs and blood samples were taken for the determination of plasma insulin, Glucagon, glucose levels, RBC and WBC (red and white blood cell) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration. It was found that (α-MSH) increased the lowered RBC and WBC counts, PCV and neutrophil percentage in diabetic rats. However the WBC counts of the (α-MSH) treated diabetic group was still lower than the control and (α-MSH) group. (α-MSH) also decreased the elevated heart rate, ESR and glucose concentration of diabetic rats. The hormone was investigated for hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats and induced not significant reduction in serum glucose from (19.83±1.25 MmolL) in diabetic group to (15.7±1.10 MmolL) in (α-MSH)-treated diabetic group. However the blood glucose still higher than the control and (α-MSH) group, serum insulin increased from (0.55±0.08 ng mLˉ1) in control group to (0.65±0.06 ng mLˉ1) in α-MSH-treated group and still higher than control in α-MSH-treated diabetic (0.59±042 ng mLˉ1) and serum Glucagon increased in diabetic, α-MSH-treated and α-MSH-treated diabetic groups. It is concluded that treatment (α-MSH) might decrease the diabetes-induced disturbances of heart rate and some hematological parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2006.5.10 2011/01/11 - 03:48

Problem statement: Glycosidase inhibitors are vital sources for the treatment of diabetes type II with a special importance in pharmacology, food industry and biotechnology, since for diabetes control, different diets and drugs, especially herbal medicines are recommended in this era. Approach: While screening for the potent natural glycosidase inhibitors, we found the fruits of Chaenomeles sinensis (C. sinensis), as the most effective glycosidase inhibitor. The crude 80% methanolic extract of the fruits and its n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were further investigated for α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, α-galactosidase and β-galactosidase enzyme inhibition activities. Results: All the C. sinensis extracts showed remarkable α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase inhibitory activities (at a concentration of 5 μg 210 μL reaction-1) ranging from 82-99 and 5-85%, respectively. Among all the inhibition studies, n-butanol fraction demonstrated the highest (99%) α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, whereas minor α-galactosidase (18-35%) and β-galactosidase (10-34%) inhibitions were examined in all the fractions of C. sinensis. Conclusion: C. sinensis fruits may prove as potent natural anti-diabetic source with noteworthy α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase inhibitions, because the inhibition of these enzymes provide a strong biochemical basis for the management of type II diabetes by controlling glucose absorption. These results provide intense rationale for further animal and clinical studies.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2009.8.11 2011/01/11 - 03:48

Problem statement: Oral cancer is one of the most common life threatening cancers all over the world, in particular Asian countries and tobacco is considered to be the most potent risk factor for oral cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for oral cancer among the subjects from the studied area. Approach: A case-control study of 350 cases and 350 controls over a period of 19 months during April 2005 and September 2006 was carried out. The self reported information about their tobacco, alcohol along with other associated habits was collected by structured questionnaires. The consumption of tobacco was classified into three types, active smoking, passive smoking and smokeless form of tobacco. Results: There was a significant association between consumption of tobacco and the development of oral cancer (p<0.05 for all). Active smoking, in particular bidi smoking showed strong association with oral cancer compared to the passive smoking. Of the smokeless tobacco type, gutkha and tobacco flakes consumption showed the strong association. However, betel leaf and paan parag chewing had no association. While, alcohol consumption was associated with oral cancer with strongest determinant being the consumption of hard liquor. Dietary habits, in particular the non-vegetarian diet was significantly associated with oral cancer. The entire associations were statistically adjusted for possible confounders like age, gender, alcohol, the use of other tobacco types, non-vegetarian diet, education, location and monthly household income as appropriate. Conclusion: Smokeless tobacco consumption emerged as the strongest risk factor for oral cancer.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2010.9.13 2011/01/11 - 03:48

&alpha; Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat (Hymenochaetaceae) has been widely used as a folk medicine to treat various cancers in Russia, Poland and most of Baltic countries for literally more than four centuries. However, in spite of its therapeutic significance for cancers, this fungus has not been studied systematically for the mechanisms of antitumor activity. In this study, we report the effects of aqueous extracts of I. obliquus (AEI) on inducing apoptosis of Sarcoma 180. AEI prepared from the sclerotium of I. obliquus was either administered to Sarcoma 180-bearing mice or supplemented into the culture of Sarcoma 180 cells. Oral administration of AEI significantly inhibited Sarcoma 180-induced reduction of splenic lymphocytes and proliferation potentials and elicited over-expression of bax gene in Sarcoma 180 cells, leading to the regression of Sarcoma 180 in mice. Supplementation of AEI into the culture of Sarcoma 180 cells resulted in a significant increase in the number of cells in G0-G1 phase and triggered remarkable increment in programmed death (apoptosis) of Sarcoma 180 cells. In addition, AEI showed stimulatory effect on TNF- release by mice peritoneal macrophages. These results indicated that the antitumor activity of AEI was mediated by protecting splenic lymphocytes from tumor-induced apoptosis and by triggering apoptosis of tumor cells.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2007.10.17 2011/01/11 - 03:48

Treatment of refractory schizophrenia with the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine is associated with life-threatening agranulocytosis, characterised by a drop in neutrophil count. Theoretically, toxicity may be accounted for by direct action of parent drug or one of its stable metabolites on bone marrow stroma given importance of these cells to neutrophil maturation. Effects of clozapine, N-desmethylclozapine and clozapine N-oxide on stromal cell viability were therefore assessed using human primary long-term bone marrow culture and stromal cell lines, HAS303 and LP101, to define cell-specificity of response. Clozapine, N-desmethylclozapine and clozapine N-oxide had no significant effect on bone marrow stromal, HAS303 and LP101 viability over a wide drug concentration range (10-20000 ng mLˉ1) compared with cells in absence of drug. Hence it is unlikely that parent drug or its stable metabolites are directly toxic to stroma under clinical conditions. Reduced capability of stroma to support myelopoiesis, however, cannot be excluded.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2006.11.16 2011/01/11 - 03:48

Problem statement: Erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) has been detected in breast cancer cells and speculated to be involved in cancer growth, viability and angiogenesis. This has risen suspicious that EPO administration may enhance the severity of cancer. Approach: This study was undertaken to determine the effects of rHuEPO, Tamoxifen and their combination on the growth and angiogenesis of mammary tumor. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to develop mammary tumor through xenograft technique by inoculating 6x105 LCM 2388 cells. Results: Recombinant human erythropoietin, Tamoxifen and Tamoxifen-rHuEPO combination were administered weekly for four weeks and size of tumors was measured weekly. Blood was also collected weekly and serum separated and subjected to ELISA for Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 (MMP-2) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), quantification. The animals were sacrificed at the end of experiment and tumor masses excised for histopathological analysis. Results showed no significance difference in the growth of mammary tumor of rats that received rHuEPO compared to the control rats. Interestingly, the combination of rHuEPO and Tamoxifen produced approximately 90% tumor regression from the initial size compared to Tamoxifen alone which showed 70% tumor regression. Quantification of serum angiogenic factors, MMP2 and VEGF of rHuEPO treatment group showed lower concentrations than the control group. Conclusion/Recommendations: Among all groups, Tamoxifen-treated group showed the lowest concentration of the angiogenic factors. The mitotic index of the tumor from all groups were observed to be at low frequency (G1). In conclusion, rHuEPO did not produce any significant promoting effect either on tumor growth, angiogenesis or tumor cell proliferation.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2009.12.16 2011/01/11 - 03:48

A number of chemicals including antioxidants, vitamins and hormones are widely advertised as anti-aging drugs (geroprotectors). It is usually believed that life-extending capacity of geroprotectors may be attributed to their specific anti-aging mechanisms, even without solid scientific evidence. The analysis of the survival data gathered by both anti-aging and hormetic interventions demonstrates that many essential similarities exist between them. The evidence that life-extending effects of anti-aging drugs may be due to hormetic-like response is discussed in this review.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2008.14.18 2011/01/11 - 03:48

Problem statement: Hyperlipidemia is well known to play a main role in the development of atherosclerosis. It is characterized by abnormally elevated cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the blood. It has been recognized for many years that hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infraction, heart attacks and cerebrovascular diseases. In recent years, Coenzyme Q10 has gained considerable attention as a dietary supplement capable of influencing cellular bioenergetics and as a supplementary treatment for some chronic diseases. Approach: The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether Coenzyme Q10 supplementation would alter high cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemic model in female rats. Sixty female albino rats of the Wistar strain weighing between 34.3 and 42.1 g were used. The experimental animals were divided into six groups. Rats of group 1 served as controls, fed with standard diet and had free access to water for three months. Rats of group 2 were daily supplemented with 1 mL of corn oil containing 10 mg of cholesterol/rat for two months. Animals of group 3 were daily supplemented with 1 mL of corn oil containing 10 mg of cholesterol/rat for two months and daily supplemented with 1 mg Coenzyme Q10/rat at third month. Rats of group 4 were daily supplemented with 1 mL of corn oil /rat for two months. The experimental rats of group 5 were daily supplemented with 1 mL of corn oil /rat for two months and daily supplemented with 1 mg Coenzyme Q10/rat at third month. Rats of group 6 were supplemented with 1 mg Coenzyme Q10/rat at third month. The body weight percentage changes were determined after second and third months in all experimental groups. Results: After 2 months, the maximum changes of body weight were noted in groups treated with high cholesterol diet and corn oil. After three months, the maximum percentage changes were observed in groups two and four and the minimum changes were noted in sixth group supplemented with only Coenzyme Q10 at last period. Serum triglycerides, cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C), Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C), Very Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (VLDL-C), Atehrogenic Index (AI) and HDL Cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio were assessed at the end of experimental period. Significant increases in the levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL-C VLDL-C were noted in rats supplemented with high cholesterol diet, while the level of HDL-C was significantly reduced. Similar observations were noted in rats treated with high cholesterol diet plus Coenzyme Q10. Statistically, the treatment of Coenzyme Q10 in rats subjected to high cholesterol diet showed a decrease in the change levels of these parameters. Also, the Atehrogenic Index (AI) value was significantly elevated in rats supplemented with high cholesterol diet compared with control value. Administration of Coenzyme Q10 for a period of one month to rats supplemented with high cholesterol diet significantly decreased the percentage change of the Atehrogenic Index (IA) value. HDL-C ratio value was significantly decreased in rats supplemented with high cholesterol diet compared with control value. Treatment with Coenzyme Q10 for a period of last month significantly decreased the percentage change of the HDL-C ratio value in rats fed with high cholesterol diet. Conclusion: The present results suggested that Coenzyme Q10 possesses hypolipidemic effects in rats supplemented with high cholesterol diet. Thus, use of Coenzyme Q10 may be useful in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in which atherosclerosis plays a major role.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2010.14.23 2011/01/11 - 03:48