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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.174.176 2014/09/26 - 06:12

The present study was designed to determine the modulating effect of green tea and vitamin C against adverse effects of malathion. Animals were divided into four groups 5 rats /group). Group one was used as a control. Group two given malathion (50 mg/kg/day; 1/50 of the LD50 for four weeks). Group three and Group four were given malathion (50 mg/kg/day; 1/50 of the LD50 for four weeks) plus vitamin C (200 mg/kg/day) and plus green tea (36 mg/kg/day) respectively. At the end of the fourth week, the malathion-treated group had significantly lower Red Blood Cell count (RBCs), Hemoglobin concentration (Hb), Packed Cell Volume (PCV%) and leucocytes (WBCs) than the control group. Compared to the control group, the malathion-treated group had significantly higher serum Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, creatinine and uric acid levels than the control group. The malathion treated rats also had significantly lower serum total protein, albumin and globulin levels than the control group, but the malathion plus vitamin C and malathion plus green tea groups did not differ from the control group in terms of these parameters. Moreover, concomitant vitamin C and green tea treatment significantly normalized, at least partially, all of the other hematological and biochemical parameters that were altered by malathion. Liver tissue homogenate in malathion treated group had lower Glutathione (GSH), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-PX) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) levels accompanied with higher level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) than the control group. Histopathological studies revealed that the malathion-treated, malathion plus vitamin C and malathion plus green tea treated groups exhibited histopathological changes in liver and kidney tissues, although some pathological features were only observed in the malathion-treated group. Thus, vitamin C and green tea can reduce malathion hepatotoxicity and nephrptoxicity.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.177.188 2014/09/17 - 02:11

The present study was designed to determine the modulating effect of green tea and vitamin C against adverse effects of malathion. Animals were divided into four groups 5 rats /group). Group one was used as a control. Group two given malathion (50 mg/kg/day; 1/50 of the LD50 for four weeks). Group three and Group four were given malathion (50 mg/kg/day; 1/50 of the LD50 for four weeks) plus vitamin C (200 mg/kg/day) and plus green tea (36 mg/kg/day) respectively. At the end of the fourth week, the malathion-treated group had significantly lower Red Blood Cell Count (RBCs), Hemoglobin concentration (Hb), Paced Cell Volume (PCV%) and White Blood Cells (WBCs) than the control group. Compared to the control group, the malathion-treated group had significantly higher serum Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, creatinine and uric acid level. The malathion treated rats also had significantly lower serum total protein, albumin and globulin levels than the control group, the malathion plus vitamin C and malathion plus green tea groups did not differ from the control group in terms of these parameters. However, concomitant vitamin C and green tea treatment significantly normalized, at least partially, all the other hematological and biochemical parameters that were altered by malathion. Liver tissue homogenate in malathion treated group had lower Glutathione (GSH), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-PX) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) levels accompanied with higher level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) than the control group. Histopathological studies revealed that the malathion-treated, malathion plus vitamin C and malathion plus green tea treated groups exhibited histopathological changes in liver and kidney tissues, although some pathological features were only observed in the malathion-treated group. Thus, vitamin C and green tea can at least partly reduce malathion hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.174.185 2014/07/23 - 09:13

To identify character accentuation students who are prone to addiction will allow to adjust their socialization process during the training period in order to increase its effectiveness, as well as it will contribute to the creation of effective psycho-educational programs aimed at reducing the level of their addiction to drugs. Objective: To identify the influence of experimental character accentuation susceptibility to drug addiction among students. The study is based on concept of accented personalities by K. Leonhard and typology of accented personalities by A.E. Lichko. Psychological testing was as an empirical research method. Data processing was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) v.17. It was found out that the students of higher education compared to students of secondary vocational education had susceptibility to drug addiction associated with less accentuation of character. This can be explained by the fact that those who are going to the universities to study are more socially adapted, they have a higher level of self-control and self-discipline, able by virtue of age and education to control outbursts of emotions and behavior. The findings of the study data will allow to adjust psycho-educational programs aimed at reducing the propensity to addiction among students based on character accentuation detected among students of higher and vocational education.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.168.173 2014/06/29 - 13:17

Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by degradation of matrix and destruction of articular cartilage. Articular chondrocytes are solely responsible for the production and maintenance of the extracellular matrix. Therefore, chondrocyte disruption is implicated in cartilage degeneration. Numerous studies have shown that antioxidant treatments are promising therapeutics in cases of OA. This study was designedto examine whether vitamin E protects rat articular chondrocytes against increased inflammatory markers and oxidative stress and prevents cartilage destruction in mono-iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis rat model. Data showed that osteoarthritis group showed a significant increase in inflammatory markers, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) (38±1 ng/mL), Interlukin-6 (IL-6) (253±15 ng/mL) and oxidative stress marker, Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) (14±1 ng/mL) compared to control (18±1 ng/mL), (121+/-23 ng/mL) and (8±1 ng/mL) respectively. Opposite trend was found when animals were treated with vitamin E where TNF-α (27±2 ng/mL) and SOD (10±1 ng/mL) declined significantly. Electro-microscopic examination documented the above results and showed improvement of knee joint after administration of vitamin E. This study supported the notion that OA is a multi factorial complication, caused by inflammation and increased oxidative stress. Administration of vitamin E decreased the markers of inflammation and oxidative stress as well asimproved ultra-structure of the knee jointin acute OA animal model. However, further work id needed to validate reliability in human patients suffering from osteoarthritis.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.157.167 2014/05/19 - 18:02

Snakebites envenomations are a problem public health in worldwide due to the high rates of morbidity and mortality. The Bothrops venom causes local tissue damage and inflammation is one of the most important events that occur. At present, effective treatment for snakebites is serum therapy with antivenom, which neutralizes systemic alterations but does not prevent local damage that can cause disabilities. Many plants are used in popular medicine to treat these accidents but few attempts have been made to investigate the scientific validity of these assertions. In Amazon region, indigenous and local people use the macerated bark of Brosimum guinanensis applied in the form of cataplasm, on the site of snakebite. This study aimed to analyze the ability of the Brosimum guianensis aqueous extract in the neutralization several effects induced by Bothrops atrox snake venom to investigate the scientific validity of folk medicine informations by means of controlled experiments. Our results showed that Brosimum guianensis aqueous extract was not effective to inhibit oedema, peritonitis, coagulant, myotoxic, phospholipase A2 activity (indirect hemolytic method) induced by B. atrox venom, but was able to inhibited significantly hemorrhagic and nociceptive activities. These results support a potential effect of this extract as a compounds source for biotechonological application and synthesis of new drugs with therapeutic purpose.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.148.156 2014/05/13 - 18:47

This study was designed to investigate the antibacterial activities of alcohol extracts of Phoenix dactylifera (date palm ‘type Ajwa’), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom), Tinospora crispa (Akar patawali) and Panax ginseng (ginseng). The plant extracts were prepared with methanol and assayed for antibacterial activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) and S. aureus. Extracts of N. sativa, E. cardamomum and P. ginseng produced maximum inhibition activities in the MRSA strain ATCC 33591, while T. crispa had the greatest activity in the strain ATCC 25923. The P. dactylifera extract had no effect on the tested bacteria. The growth inhibition was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations. An in vivo experiment using the T. crispa ethanol extract in adult male and female Sprague Dawley rats (4 g kg-1 dose) showed low toxicity based on the LD50 value.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.139.147 2014/04/03 - 20:00

The present series of compounds were synthesized with the aim to develop newer anticonvulsant agents that are comparatively more efficacious and safer than the currently used anticonvulsant agents. Various thiazolyl coumarins were synthesized by the reaction of 3-(bromoacetyl)-2H-chromen-2-one with different substituted aryl thiourea. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral data and elemental analyses. Compounds were tested for anticonvulsant activity utilizing Pen Tylenetetra Zole-induced seizure (PTZ) and Maximal Electroshock Seizure (MES) tests at 30, 100 and 300 mg kg-1 dose level. Neurotoxicity and ethanol potentiation test of the compounds were also assessed at the same dose level. Two compounds of the series 3g and 3j exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity at 30 mg kg-1 dose level with lesser neurotoxicity than the standard drug phenytoin.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.132.138 2014/03/27 - 01:48

Peptic ulcer is a common upper gastrointestinal disease that remains a major public health problem. Gastric ulceration caused by Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID), stress and alcohol are the common causes of gastric ulcer formation in humans following helicobacter pylori bacterial infection of the stomach. The neurohormone, melatonin was reported to protect against NSAID- and stress-induced gastric lesions. We sought to determine whether melatonin, which is known to have antioxidant effects and induces systemic leukocyte mobilization, can protect the gastric structure from a sterile tissue injury. Equally divided melatonin or vehicle pre-treated Albino rats (N = 20) were subjected to sterile tissue injury of gastric ulceration using hypertonic sodium chloride solution. Melatonin treatment significantly protected the animals from gastric lesions induced by hypertonic salt compared to control vehicle-treated animals that show formation of gastric lesions in all examined rats. In addition, melatonin treatment significantly increased sterile tissue injury induction of both mononuclear and polymorphonuclear peripheral blood cells. We conclude that melatonin protects sterile tissue injury-induced gastric lesions and augments white blood cell populations in response to this type of tissue injury.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.125.131 2014/03/18 - 11:59

The gastrointestinal and antibacterial properties of dichloromethane: Methanol extract (DVE) and fractions (DVHF, DVDF and DVMF) from Desmodium velutinum Willd. DC. (Fabaceae) leaves were investigated. The extract and fractions significantly (p<0.05) reduced normal defecation in rats (33-100%) and significantly (p<0.05-0.001) protected rats against castor oil- induced diarrhea (40-100%). They significantly (p<0.05) prolonged the intestinal transit time of charcoal meal in mice and inhibited the spontaneous contractions of the isolated rabbit jejunum and acetylcholine- and histamine-induced contractions of the guinea pig ileum. They potently protected against ethanol and mildly against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers. Only DVE inhibited the growth of Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi with MICs of 37.15, 39.81, 100 and 100 mg mL-1 respectively. Acute toxicity test on DVE established an oral LD50>5g kg-1 in mice. Results demonstrated that D. velutinum leaf possesses gastrointestinal antimotility and antispasmodic effects and mild antibacterial and gastroprotective activities.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.114.124 2014/03/13 - 05:52

The effects of Sterculia Tragacantha methanol leaf Extract (STEX) on formaldehyde and adjuvant-induced arthritis were studied in rats. Paw thickness, White Blood Cell Count (WBC) count, Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Haemoglobin Concentration (HB), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), lipid peroxidation, Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) activity and catalase activity were studied post induction of arthritis. In both formaldehyde and adjuvant-induced arthritis studies, mean paw thickness in animals given 300 mg kg-1 STEX was significantly (p<0.05) lower on days 7 and 14 compared to that of normal saline group. Mean WBC of 100 and 300 mg kg-1v STEX groups were significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of normal saline group. Mean ESR of normal saline and 100 mg kg-1 STEX groups were significantly (p<0.05) faster than ESR of 300 mg kg-1 group. Mean MDA level of 300 mg kg-1 STEX group was similar to that of non-arthritic group while mean SOD levels of 300 and 100 mg kg-1 STEX groups were significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of normal saline group. Mean catalase level of 100 and 300 mg kg-1 STEX groups were significantly (p<0.05) higher compared to that of normal saline group. These results show that STEX exhibited potent anti-arthritic activity.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.107.113 2014/03/12 - 00:05

Studies have shown that Chlorpyrifos (CPF), an Organophosphate (OP) insecticide alters both sex and thyroid hormones. Apart from inhibiting Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, CPF has been shown to cause oxidative stress. The antioxidant potentials of many flavonoid-containing plants are increasingly being exploited in the therapy of many infectious and non-infectious diseases. Hibiscus Sabdariffa (HS) is one of the most widely used nutraceuticals that has been used traditionally to combat various illnesses due to its high flavonoid contents. The present study was therefore aimed at evaluating the ameliorative potentials of HS on subchronic chlorpyrifos-evoked alterations in sex and thyroid hormones in male Wistar rats. Forty-two (42) young adult male Wistar rats were divided at random into six groups containing seven (7) rats per group. Group I was administered distilled water (2 mL kg-1) only while group II received soya oil (2 mL kg-1), Group III was dosed with only aqueous extract of HS (500 mL kg-1 ~ 1/10th of the LD50), while group IV was given CPF (10.6 mL kg-1 ~ 1/8th of the LD50). Group V was pretreated with low dose of HS (250 mg kg-1 ~ 1/20th of the LD50) and then administered reconstituted CPF (10.6 mg kg-1), 30 min later. Group VI was pretreated with high dose of the HS (500 mg kg-1) and then administered CPF (10.6 mg kg-1), 30 min later. The regimens were administered orally by gavage once daily for a period of 11 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, sera obtained from the blood samples were analyzed for the levels of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), testosterone, thyroid hormones (T3, T4 and TSH) and AChE. Thyroid and pituitary glands of each rat were also evaluated for Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Results showed a non-significant (p>0.05) decrease in the concentrations of FSH, LH and testosterone in the CPF group relative to the other groups. There was significant decrease (p<0.05) in the concentrations of T3, T4 and an increase in TSH in the CPF group relative to the other groups. There were significant increases (p<0.05) in MDA concentrations in the thyroid and pituitary glands in the CPF group compared to the other groups. Pretreatment with aqueous extract of HS demonstrated a dose-dependent amelioration of CPF-induced alterations in the levels of testosterone, LH, FSH, AChE, T3, T4 and TSH in the serum and that of pituitary and thyroid glands MDA. This may be partly due to its high level of polyphenolic compounds that confer its antioxidant and possibly AChE restoration activities. It is therefore concluded that pretreatment of individuals who are occupationally exposed to CPF and probably other OPs with the extract of HS may result in protection from the insecticide-induced adverse reproductive health outcomes.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.96.106 2014/02/20 - 12:36

Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) is one of most prevalent complications of Diabetes Mellitus (DM), therefore prevention of its development is a important field for researches. Quercetin is a plant flavenoid with hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties that is claimed to have a reno-protective effect in diabetes. This study was designed to investigate the reno-preventive role of Quercetin treatment in terms of biochemical and pathological changes in diabetic rats and to determine whether the effect is mediated through modulation of oxidative stress and Na+, K+ ATPase expression and activity. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed equally among 6 groups: (i) Control group (C), (ii) Quercetin treated Control group (CQ), (iii) Diabetic group (D), (iv) Diabetic Insulin treated group (DI), (v) Diabetic Quercetin treated group (DQ) and (vi) Diabetic Insulin and Quercetin treated group (DIQ). Systolic blood pressure was measured at the end of the experiments (8 weeks). Retro-orbital blood samples were used to determine the serum levels of glucose, HbA1c, urea, creatinine, Na+ and K+. Renal homogenate levels of Na+, K+ATPase activity, Malondialdehyde (MDA0, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) were measured. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR Na+, K+ATPase expression assays and kidney histopathological examination were conducted. Treatment with either insulin or Quercetin alone resulted in partial reversal of the biochemical and histopathological signs of nephropathy in diabetic rats. This was associated with partial but significant amelioration of indicators of oxidative stress and Na+,K+ATPase gene expression and activity. However only combined treatment by both insulin and Quercetin significantly improved all of the aforementioned parameters up to the control levels. These results suggested that combined therapy with insulin and Quercetin might be a useful preventive tool against development of DN.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.84.95 2014/02/14 - 12:43

The pesticides are one of the most potentially harmful chemicals liberated in the environment in an unplanned manner. Dimethoate is widely used as a potent pesticide in many countries and has been shown to produce some adverse health effects. In the present study, we investigated the effect of dimethoate (an organophosphate insecticide) on the reproductive system and fertility of male rats and the possible mechanism underlining its action. Twenty four adult Wistar male rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals per group and force-fed with 0, 3.66, 5.50 and 11 mg kg-1 body weight of dimethoate for 90 days. At 80 days of treatment, each males was allows to mate with two primiparous cyclic females. The results showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) of body weight gain in rats gavaged with dimethoate compared to control. In addition, this insecticide at the doses of 3.66, 5.5 and 11 mg kg-1 caused a significant (p<0.05) increase of the relative weight of epididymis. Dimethoate at its highest dose caused a decrease in the relative weights of testes and ventral prostate. The doses 3.66, 5.50 and 11.00 mg kg-1 body weight of dimethoate caused a significant decrease (p<0.05) of the sperm concentration and motility. The level of protein and cholesterol in the serum and testes as well as the activity of prostatic acid phosphatase decreased significantly (p<0.05) in rats treated with dimethoate compared to control. Fertility, gestation and parturition indices as well as the litter size decreased significantly in animals treated with 5.50 and 11.00 mg kg-1 body weight of dimethoate compared to control. The testicular histology of animals treated with high doses of dimethoate generally showed span of Sertoli cells destruction and disorganization of the germinal epithelium. The lumen of seminiferous tubules of treated rats was generally poor in sperm. The results of this study confirmed that dimethoate seriously deteriorate the male reproductive system resulting in decreased fertility.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.75.83 2014/02/14 - 12:43

The purpose of this review is to give the readers an insight about the risks and benefits of ‘quinapril’, a potent Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor (ACEI). Quinapril is a highly effective novel drug indicated for treatment of congestive heart failure and hypertension. Despite of the fact that safety profile is quite well with low incidence of adverse effects, an attempt has been made to minimize the risks and subsequently minimizing the adverse consequences of this competitive inhibitor, thereby increasing the benefits of this enzyme inhibitor in day to day clinical practice.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.68.74 2014/02/14 - 12:43

Allium sativum is cultivated in the northern part of Ghana and has gained widespread use as chemoprotective, in curing hypertension, impotence and erectile dysfunction. The multipurpose use together with its aphrodisiac activity has resulted in the widespread use of this plant medicine both in meals and as herbal medications. Safety assessment of this plant however is rare. The present study is designed to evaluate the toxic effect of the aqueous extract of Allium sativa on the prostate, heart, liver kidney and haematological parameters after a shorterm administration in male-sprague-dawley rats. The following doses were used in different groups of male Sprague-Dawley Rats: 5000, 3000 and 1000 mg kg-1. The following parameters were monitored: Clinical Chemistry, Gross and Histopathology (Heart, kidney, liver and prostate). No death was recorded at the highest dose of 5000 mg kg-1. ASE reduced levels of urea and creatinine but increased levels of liver enzymes ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin levels as compared to the controls. There was a statistically significant increase in WBC count (p<0.005) in all the doses except the median dose. There were no significant change in Red Blood Cell count (RBC) (p<0.003), Haemoglobin (HGB) (p<0.03), Haematocrit (HCT) p<0.0001), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) Other parameters remained relatively unchanged. Gross pathology did not reveal any abnormality. Histopathological analysis showed that the extract did not have any adverse effect on the integrity of these organs. The results were within histopathological limits and did not reveal any abnormality in the examined organs namely: The prostate, kidney, liver and heart which maintained their integrity after the dose administration. Observations were within histopathological limits. ASE is reasonably safe when administered by the oral route within dosages of 1000-5000 mg kg-1 in Sprague dawley rats. This research has provided the safety implications as to the use of this plant.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.53.67 2014/01/31 - 01:39

Diabetes mellitus gradually leads to dysfunction and failure of some vital organs specially the eyes, kidneys, pancreas, brain, heart, liver and lungs. The study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of apigenin and its mechanistic role in controlling damages of vital tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with apigenin and glipizide. Various biochemical changes, GLUT4 and CD38 protein expression patterns and histopathological alterations in some vital organs such as liver, kidneys and pancreas were investigated to compare the antidiabetic potentials of those two chemicals and to understand their capability to control the damages of the vital organs during diabetes. Effective control of blood glucose level along with the alteration of hepatic phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant defense enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level towards their normal values and enhanced GLUT4 translocation and downregulated CD38 expression by apigenin were observed. Apigenin was also found to prevent the deterioration of vital organs during diabetes. In conclusion, apigenin has predominant role in controlling blood glucose level along with the protection of vital organs eventually damaged during diabetes, by minimizing toxicities and associated diabetic complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and may explore as a potential antidiabetic agent in near future.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.39.52 2014/01/14 - 07:39

In this study, we examined the ameliorative action of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) against Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) induced testicular degeneration in albino rats. Adult male albino rats were given saline as a control group, TiO2 (1200 mg kg-1 BW), NAC (100 mg kg-1 BW) and co-treatment of NAC and TiO2 as a protective group for 3 months. Testicular tissues were extracted for changes in testicular gene expression and histopathology. Administration of TiO2 significantly increased mRNA expression of IL-6 and TNF-α that are normalized by NAC administration. TiO2 administration down regulated Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) while increased B-cell Lymphoma2 (BcL2) expressions. Co-administration of rats by NAC together with TiO2 normalized changes in GST and BcL2 expression. Expression of steroidogenesis related genes [Androgen Binding Protein (ABR), 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase (17β-HSD), cytochrome P450 17A (CYP17α) and aromatase] showed down regulation in TiO2 administered groups and normalized when NAC given together with TiO2. Moreover, TiO2 induced toxicity in testes that accompanied by degeneration in seminiferous tubules with congestion, oedema and cell disruption that are partially normalized by co-administration of NAC with TiO2. In conclusion, the present findings confirmed the benficial effect of NAC to prevent apoptosis of sertoli cells and testicular dysfunction induced by TiO2 in male albino rats.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.29.38 2013/12/31 - 11:45

A series of studies has been conducted to prove the Eurycoma longifolia Jack. root as an antimalarial. However, the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of E. longifolia Jack. root standardized extract and its lethal dose 50% (LD50) values is unknown. In vivo antiplasmodial activity was conducted on Plasmodium berghei infected Swiss mice as malaria model with 4-day suppression methods. Sixty mice were divided into 6 groups. Five groups as treatment groups received test material with 5 various doses and one group was given distilled water as control group. Parasite growth inhibition was calculated by comparing the parasitemia at treatment groups to control group. Effective dose that could inhibit parasite growth by 50% (ED50) was calculated by probit analysis based on the relationship between dose and the percentage of parasite growth inhibition. The results showed that E. longifolia Jack. root standardized extract have in vivo antiplasmodial activity in P. berghei infected Swiss mice with ED50 value of 28.78 mg kg-1. Acute toxicity testing was conducted on 60 mice, divided into 6 groups. Five groups received test materials with 5 various doses as a single dose orally. One other group was given distilled water as control group. Each animal was observed for the first 24 h and observation was continued for 14 days. The lethal dose 50% (LD50) was calculated by probit analysis based on the number of animal deaths that occurred within 24 h after the administration of the test material. The results showed that the LD50 value of E. longifolia Jack. root standardized extract was 6128.71 mg kg-1. Therapeutic Index was calculated as ratio of the LD50 and ED50 with results 212.95. It showed high therapeutic index which indicated that E. longifolia Jack. root standardized extract has low toxicity.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.24.28 2013/12/27 - 18:02

It was shown that hyperglycemia in diabetic patients is the main factor of diabetic peripheral neuropathies. Various pathways related to oxidative stress, vascular defect and defective endothelium dependent relaxation have been implicated in the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A substantial number of studies have shown that antioxidant treatment are promising therapeutics that can prevent or correct reduced motor nerve conduction in diabetic rats by acting on these mechanisms. This study was designed to investigate the possible role of insulin treatment along with or without vitamin E or L-arginine on diabetic neuropathy. This goal was accessed by examining nerve conduction, parameters of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation as well as the expression level of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the sciatic nerve of control and streptozotocine-induced diabetic rats. Data showed that diabetic rats showed increased levels of serum glucose (382.5%) and sciatic nerve lipid peroxidation Marker (MDA, 261.6%) with a concomitant decrease in the expression of sciatic nerve eNOS mRNA as compared to control rats. The nerve conduction studies of the sciatic nerves of these rats showed decrease conduction as evident by delayed NCV (63.6%) and low Amplitude of Muscle Contraction (AMC, 36.4%). Solitary insulin treatment (but not vitamin-E or L-arginine) corrected serum glucose to control values and corrected nerve conduction parameters in the sciatic nerve. However, treating diabetic rats with different doses of vitamin E (300 mg kg-1 and 600 mg kg-1) significantly reduced oxidative stress by decreasing MDA and increasing GPx activity, corrected NCV by reducing the latency and improving AMC and increased eNOS mRNA expression in sciatic nerve with a more profound effect to seen with the high dose (600 mg kg-1). However, the maximum potent ameliorating effect of the vitamin E on these parameters was seen when administered in combination with insulin. On the other hand, L-arginine treatment alone or in combination with insulin had no effect on the oxidative stress markers nor eNOS expression but significantly and maximally improved NCV through reducing the conduction latency and increasing AMC. This study supported the notion that diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a multifactorial complication, caused by hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and vascular impairment. It is concluded that conjugate treatment with vitamin-E, especially in higher doses, with insulin could be of great value. Moreover correction of impaired nerve blood flow by drugs that induce nitric oxide has proved to be efficient in the protection against and correction of experimental diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.13.23 2013/12/24 - 05:08

This study was undertaken to evaluate the hypoglycemic and hepatorenal protective effect of ethanolic extract of Chamomile recutita flowers in streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats. Before the beginning of the experiments, acute and subacute studies were carried out in control animals first to investigate the LD50 of this extract. In the experimental design, adult male albino rats were divided into five groups: (1) normal control, (2) control + extract, (3) diabetic control, (4) diabetic+extract and (5) diabetic+glibenclamide (200 μg kg-1). The extract was given to the desired groups at a final dose of 300 mg kg-1 and all treatments were administered orally for 4 weeks on daily basis. Serum glucose, insulin, activities of serum marker enzymes of liver function as well as markers of kidney function was measured. The oxidative stress was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and enzyme activities of Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) superoxide dismutase in both liver and kidney homogenates. The data showed that ethanolic flower extract of Chamomile recutita demonstrated high safety margin since the animals tolerated up to 10000 mg kg-1 body weight of the extract orally in the acute toxicity study and tolerated repeated doses up to 500 mg kg-1 for 28 days. Administration of the extract to control and diabetic rats caused significant decrease in glucose level in plasma without improving insulin levels and resulted in significant increases in SOD and GPx activities with a parallel decrease in lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) in the livers and kidneys. Furthermore, in diabetic rats, treatment with the extract resulted in significant decreases in the serum activities of liver enzymes including AST, ALT and ALP and in the levels of urea and creatinine. The hepatoprotective effect of the extract were confirmed by histological improvements in hepatic and renal tissue of the diabetic treated rats. However, the effect of the extract in diabetic rats was comparable to glibenclamide. This study demonstrates that Chamomile recutita flowers ethanolic extract has potent hypoglycemic, antioxidant and hepatorenal protective effects in diabetic rats.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.1.12 2013/12/09 - 19:17

The concern about safety of consumption of Green Tea (GT) supplements has become a scope of many studies. We and others have described earlier the effect of the administration of GT and its polyphenols on liver in a mouse model. In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of GT on HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were treated with different concentrations of GT with and without presensitization with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The viability of cells did not change at low and moderate concentrations of GT, while at very high concentration; GT caused the viability of the cells to decrease. A decrease in the viability of presensitized cells was observed after exposure to moderate and high doses of GT. Also, OX.LDL, CXCL16, TNF α, TGF ß, RAR and RXR were found to be over-expressed in these cells, while this over-expression was not observed in the cells upon treatment with GT without LPS or upon treatment with LPS alone. These results indicate that GT even at high doses does not cause oxidative stress. However, under inflammatory stress conditions it may cause oxidative stress which in turn may lead to liver toxicity.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2013.209.217 2013/12/03 - 18:32

Adiponectin is a protein synthesized from adipose tissue, increases peripheral glucose utilization in liver and skeletal muscle. Adiponectin expression and secretion are decreased during obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, the effect of insulin, metformin and dexamethasone on serum lipid profiles was examined in Type 2 Diabetic (T2D) rats. T2D was induced by feeding rats a high fat diet for 3 weeks plus medium dose of Streptozotocin (STZ, 35 mk kg-1 BW). Adiponectin, adiponectin receptors (AdipoR-1 and AdipoR-2), leptin, Peroxisome Prolifrator Activated Receptor gamma (PPAR-γ, Hormone Sensitive Lipase (HSL), Pyruvate Kinase (PK), enolase and Glucose Trasporter-2 (GLUT-2) expression in epididymal adipose and liver tissue were examined using RT-PCR. Results showed that metformin improved insulin resistance by normalizing serum lipid profiles in diabetic rats, while dexamethasone did not alter it. Metformin up-regulated adiponectin, AdipoR-1 and AdipoR-2 expression, while insulin and dexamethasone down-regulated them. Leptin expression was decreased while PPARγ, HSL, PK, enolase and GLUT-2 expression was increased by metformin administration. Dexamethasone failed to improve insulin resistance in T2D rats. In conclusion, metformin ameliorates T2D through controlling adiponectin expression and its consequent genes of lipids and glucose metabolism.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2013.197.208 2013/11/24 - 09:38

Antiretroviral drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus, they are used as combination regimens to achieve the highest possible benefit, tolerability, compliance and to diminish the risk of resistance development. Reports from preclinical and clinical studies have linked antiretrovirals with some toxicological effects which could be associated with redox imbalane (oxidative stress) as reported. This stimulated us to review relevant literature if there could be an established relationship between antiretroviral induced tixicological effects and redox imbalace. Available literature on antiretroviral associated toxicological effects and oxidative stress were comprehensively reviewed. Reports showed that antiretrovirals are associated with toxicological effects which includes hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, hematotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Reports in animal studies also showed that these toxicological effects could associated with oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species, depletion of antioxidants and antioxidants enzyme leading to mitochondria damage in the heart, kidney, liver and brain. In humans, this study also observed that antiretrovirals are also associated with lipid peroxidation, depletion of antoxidants and antioxidant enzymes which are elements of oxidative stress. Furthermore it was observed that supplementations with some antioxidants mitigated antiretroviral induced oxidative stress, mitochondria damage and toxicological effects. Antiretroviral drugs are associated with toxicological effects which may involve redox imbalance, but more studies are required to correlate antiretroviral toxicities and oxidative stress.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2013.187.196 2013/11/20 - 15:03

Diabetes is one of the major health problems around the world and the incidence of this metabolic disorder is on the increase. Current therapeutic interventions have not done much in preventing complications of diabetes. Therefore this study investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of Newbouldia laevis leaves (NLet) on lipid peroxidation and glycosylation of hemoglobin, which are pathological indicators of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (60 mg kg-1). Diabetic rats were then treated orally with NLet for 28 days. After the treatment, the concentration of Malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver, kidney and pancreas of the rats was estimated. Fasting blood glucose was determined and oral glucose tolerance test was also carried out. Other groups of STZ-diabetic rats were treated for 8 weeks and percentage glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured. Fasting blood glucose of treated diabetic rats significantly (p<0.05) decreased in a dose-dependent manner when compared with untreated diabetic control rats. After oral glucose load, blood glucose level reached a peak at 60 min. In both non-diabetic and diabetic rats, treatment with the extract significantly (p<0.01) reduced the blood glucose level at 120 and 180 min. The percentage total hemoglobin glycated in diabetic rats significantly reduced (p<0.05) after the 8-week treatment with NLet. MDA concentration in the liver, kidney and pancreas of diabetic rats was also dose-dependently reduced by the extract. At 300 and 500 mg kg-1, the reduction was significant (p<0.05) compared with the diabetic control. The effects of NLet were comparable to those observed with glibenclamide. The results of this study suggest that NLet can prevent the complications of diabetes that result from glycation of hemoglobin and lipid peroxidation.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2013.179.186 2013/11/14 - 09:42

Diabetes mellitus and hepatocellular carcinoma both have detrimental impact on health worldwide. Type II diabetes and liver cancer share many causative factors, but biological correlation between the two diseases still remains elusive. The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of induction of diabetes during the development of hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Rats were divided into four groups namely, normal control, diabetic control, carcinogen control and carcinogen treated rats treated with streptozotocin (to make them diabetic). Hepatocarcinogenesis was initiated in rats by diethylnitrosamine (200 mg kg-1 body weight, single i.p. injection on day 0 only). Then 2-acetylaminoflourene (0.5% w/w) was given daily in diet for 18 weeks to promote the carcinogenesis. On the 16th week, streptozotocin (65 mg kg-1 body weight, single i.p. injection) was administered to initiate diabetes in rats. On the 20th week, animals were sacrificed and various biochemical changes and histopathological alterations in liver were investigated. Carcinogen treated rats made diabetic had significantly lower cytochrome P-450 content as compared to diabetic control rats and had slightly elevated cytochrome P-450 level as compared to that of carcinogen control rats. Marked enhancements of UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, glutathione S-transferase activities and lipid peroxidation levels were observed in carcinogen treated rats made diabetic as compared to those activities and levels in diabetic control and carcinogen control rats. Histopathological investigation of hepatic tissue has favoured the rapid progress of development of hepatocellular carcinoma in carcinogen treated rats made diabetic. In conclusion, induction of diabetes during the development of hepatocellular carcinogenesis inevitably promotes the progression of the later disease.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2013.170.178 2013/11/05 - 11:58

The present research is aimed to characterize the potential efficiency of two chelators after chromium(VI) administration for 60 days following two doses of 15 and 30 mg kg1 chromium(VI) per body weight daily to male rats. However, the hypothesis that the two chelators might be more efficient as combined therapy than as single therapy in removing chromium(VI) from bood serum was considered. In this way, two known chelators deferasirox and deferiprone were chosen and tested in the acute rat model. Two chelators were given orally as a single or combined therapy for a period of one week. Chromium(VI) and iron concentrations in blood were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy method. Chromium is one of the most widely used industrial metals. Several million workers worldwide are estimated to be exposed to chromium compounds in an array of industries. Chromium(VI) is more readily absorbed by both inhalation and oral routes. Ingestion of large amounts of chromium(VI) can lead to severe respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hepatic and renal damage and potentially death. The combined chelation therapy results show that deferasirox and deferiprone are able to remove chromium(VI) ions from bood while iron concentration returned to the normal level and symptoms are also decreased.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2013.164.169 2013/10/30 - 19:12

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in Middle East countries. Despite the continuous efforts to increase the public awareness of breast cancer via campaigns and public screening programs, breast cancer screening rate remains low. The participation of community pharmacists in the communication and dissemination of breast cancer screening information should have a significant positive impact. The objectives of this study were to assess the degree of community pharmacists’ participation in breast cancer health promotion activities in United Arab Emirates (UAE), to evaluate their attitudes towards the involvement in breast cancer health promotion and receiving breast cancer continuous education, to assess their breast cancer knowledge. The study objectives were addressed in a cross-sectional survey distributed to community pharmacists in Sharjah, Dubai and Ajman Emirates (UAE). The extent of community pharmacists’ participation in breast cancer health promotion activities, the community pharmacists’ interest and comfort in providing breast cancer health promotion, their breast cancer knowledge, their interest in receiving breast cancer continuous education, their attitudes and beliefs towards breast cancer health promotion and their perceived barriers for integrating breast cancer health promotion activities into their daily practice. Over a 24-week period, we collected 275 surveys out of 335 pharmacists approached (82% response rate). Ninety-six percent indicated that they never invited healthcare professionals to provide breast cancer education in the pharmacy, 67% said that they never distributed breast cancer educational materials and 47% reported that they never counseled patients about breast cancer. Nevertheless, more than 75% were highly interested in being engaged in breast cancer health promotion activities. In addition, 87% believed that discussing breast cancer awareness with female patients in the pharmacy was beneficial to patients. Yet pharmacists perceived many barriers for integrating breast cancer health promotion into their daily practice including lack of educational materials (87%) and lack of enough time (74%). Moreover, their breast cancer knowledge mean score was 51% with 87% expressing a high interest in receiving breast cancer continuous education. Despite their low participation in breast cancer health promotion, the mainstream of pharmacists was interested in educating patients about breast cancer. However, low breast cancer knowledge and other barriers can prevent actualizing this role.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2013.155.163 2013/10/29 - 20:41

Pathological experiments should be considered following oral administration of ZnO. Effect of different doses of ZnO nanoparticle on LDH in oral method showed significant differences in control group (p<0.05) at high dose. Levels of IgG, TNF-α and IL-6 also elevated after administration of ZnO. The level of GSH decreased significantly. Lung damages included hyperemia and bleeding, atelectasis, light emphysema, pribronchiolitis, perivasculitis of lymphocyte in intensive level, pneumonia and increased secretion of exudates into bronchial. There was a significant difference in perivasculitis and pribronchiolitis among different doses of ZnO as compared with the control group (p<0.05). The result of this study showed that increasing doses of nanoparticles could cause significant damages to the lung tissue and to increase LDH, IgG, TNF-α and IL-6 and emphasizes that exposure to high concentration of ZnO could cause irreversible damages to different organs including lung and threaten the human health. This finding could be important as a health hazard to those who are in continuous exposure to ZnO nanoparticles.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2013.148.154 2013/10/23 - 18:11

Pathological experiments should be considered following oral administration of ZnO. Effect of different doses of ZnO nanoparticle on LDH in oral method showed significant differences in control group (p<0.05) at high dose. Levels of IgG, TNF-α and IL-6 also elevated after administration of ZnO. The level of GSH decreased significantly. Lung damages included hyperemia and bleeding, atelectasis, light emphysema, pribronchiolitis, perivasculitis of lymphocyte in intensive level, pneumonia and increased secretion of exudates into bronchial. There was a significant difference in perivasculitis and pribronchiolitis among different doses of ZnO as compared with the control group (p<0.05). The result of this study showed that increasing doses of nanoparticles could cause significant damages to the lung tissue and to increase LDH, IgG, TNF-α and IL-6 and emphasizes that exposure to high concentration of ZnO could cause irreversible damages to different organs including lung and threaten the human health. This finding could be important as a health hazard to those who are in continuous exposure to ZnO nanoparticles.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2013.148.154 2013/10/23 - 18:11

The present study was directed to evaluate the toxic effects of orally administered titanium dioxide naonparticles (TiO2) on liver of male albino rats and to evaluate the ameliorative effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Forty adult male albino rats were divided into 4 groups; control group, NAC group, TiO2 group and TiO2/ NAC group. Rats were administered either TiO2 (1200 mg kg-1 BW) or NAC (100 mg kg-1 BW) alone or together for 9 months. Blood was taken to evaluate serum changes in GPT, GOT and MDA levels. Liver tissues were examined for changes in MDA, GSH and changes in liver histopathology. Administration of TiO2 increased serum GPT, GOT and decreased MDA levels. Co-treatment of rats with NAC and TiO2 improved such significant changes induced by TiO2 alone. Moreover, significant time dependent increase in MDA and decrease in GSH levels in liver tissues were recorded. Liver histopathology showed vacuolar, hydropic degeneration and cell death of some hepatic cells. In conclusion, results confirmed the protective effect of NAC in amelioration of the biohazard effects induced by TiO2 in rats.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2013.141.147 2013/09/26 - 20:55

The present study aimed to evaluate the potential efficiency of Deferasirox (DFX) and Desfferioxamine (DFO) as chelating agents in removing lead from rats as a biological model. Two different doses of lead (II) chloride (40 and 80 mg kg-1 body weight) were used for 45 days. After this period, all rats showed toxicity symptoms through loss of hair, greenish mottling on the liver, appearance of red dots around eyes and weakness. After lead administration, chelation therapy was done in removing the toxic metal from the biological system. The abilities of DFX and DFO chelators in removal of lead from the body were studied for 10 days. Lead and iron concentrations in different tissues were measured by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS). Our results showed that two chelators can be more effective as combined therapy than as single therapy in removing lead from the body and also, toxicity symptoms are decreased. It could be concluded that DFX and DFO chelators could be used for the treatment of complication of lead intoxication symptoms.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2013.134.140 2013/09/24 - 22:53

Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oil of Juniperus communis (L.), originated from east part of Kosova, was investigated. The essential oil from berries of J. communis (L.), obtained by hydro-distillation was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of J. communis (L.) are investigated and results are submitted for their activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Hafnia alvei and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Applying the agar disc diffusion technique, we measured diameters of the inhibition zone around discs, which are previously wetted with DMF solution of the essential oil with three different concentrations, 1, 3 and 5 mg mL-1. Analysis of the oil resulted in the identification of 41 peaks, representing 96% of the oil. Berry essential oil composed mainly of monoterpenoids which amounted to 83%, of which 69.4% was monoterpene hydrocarbons. The main monoterpene hydrocarbons were α-pinene (36.2%) and β-myrcene (21.1%). The sesquiterpene accounted for about 13.4% of the total oil composition. Germacrene D (2.2%), α-cadinol (1.6%), α-humulene (1.5%), spathulenol (1.4%), epi-α-bisabolol (1.3%) and germacrene B (1.1%) were the main constituents of the sesquiterpenes. The inhibition zone depends from concentrations and also from sort of bacteria. The inhibition zones differ from 0-39 mm. The present work presents the chemical composition of the hydrodistilled oil of J. communis (L.) from East part of Kosova and the results are compared to those reported in the literature. This study demonstrates the occurrence of α-pinene chemotype of J. communis (L.) from east part of Kosova. The essential oil of J. communis (L.) growing wild in Kosova, showed moderate to high activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Hafnia alvei. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is resistant to the essential oil of J. communis (L.) growing wild in east part of Kosova.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2013.128.133 2013/09/23 - 19:07

Mature cell release takes place through the hypothetical barrier- the bone marrow-blood barrier. It consists of blood vessels and cells that surround them. Such cells are, among others, megakaryocytes. They are involved in the release of platelets or other cellular components of blood. The amount and the development of megakaryocytes and thus the maturity of barrier depends on many factors. One of them is IL-6, which gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 7 (7p15-p21). The study was performed on wild-type mice (C57B4/6J) and on mice lacking the gene encoding IL-6 (IL-6 KO-C57B4/6J IL-6tm1 Kopf-/-). Bone marrow of all animals in both groups has been collected, fixed and stained. Megakaryocytes were identified in each microscopic specimen using immunohistochemical reaction with the CD61 antibody. Then all specimens were subjected to histomorphometric analysis. Statistically significant differences in the total number and size of magakariocytes was noted, which affects bone marrow-blood barrier functions. This could be used in the conventional treatment of cancer, respiratory diseases and coagulation disorders and in the treatment using nanoparticles.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2013.120.127 2013/09/19 - 17:02

Cytophostemma glaucophilla aqueous extract is used in Kogi and Kwara States of Nigeria to treat Kwashiorkor and to boost immunity. As part of the effort to evaluate its effect on stress, it was screened for adaptogenic potentials. This investigation was conducted using albino rats to determine the ability of this plant to increase non specific resistance against physical, biological and chemical stressors. Showed that, the extract significantly (p<0.05) and dose dependently protected the rats from cold immobilization induced stress ulcers; the extract inhibited ulceration by 21.30% at a dose of 100 mg kg-1 and 56.09% at a dose of 500 mg kg-1 when compared with the control treatments (0.85% NaCl; 5 mL kg-1). The extract protected the animals from bacterial induced mortality and morbidity and significantly (p<0.05) reduced infection-induced leucocytosis in the rats and also alleviated the hepatic degenerative changes associated with ciprofloxaxin. Findings have shown remarkable ability of the extract to increase non specific resistance to physical, biological and chemical stressors and could qualify as an adaptogen.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2013.89.94 2013/09/05 - 17:41

To establish the wound healing activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of roots of Morus alba. Two models were performed to evaluate the wound healing activity i.e., Incision and Excision model. In incision model the parameter which was carried out was breaking strength of wounded skin. In excision model percentage wound contraction and period of epithelialization was established for both the extracts. Reference standard drug was Aloe vera ointment for comparison with other groups. From the observation in both the models, Aq. extract of Morus alba was found to have greater wound healing activity in terms of breaking strength in incision model and percentage wound contraction, period of epithelialization was highest in excision model compared with other groups. In conclusion, our findings suggest that aq. extract of Morus alba possess better healing ability than the ethanolic extract.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2013.95.101 2013/09/05 - 17:41

Now a day’s people use herb or herbal remedies along with their medication in long term treatment of various disease. Concomitant use of herb and drug can interact with each other may cause herb drug interaction. The present study was designed to investigate the possible herb drug interaction between Momordica Chrantia Fruit Juice (MCFJ) and metformin. Metformin was given orally in two different doses of 50 mg kg-1 and 100 mg kg-1. Momordica chrantia fruit juice was administered at a dose of 20 mL kg-1. The Blood glucose was estimated at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Body weight of the rats of all the groups was recorded before and after the study period of 28 days. All the treatment shows significant (p<0.01) hypoglycemic effect. The hypoglycemic effect observed with combination of metformin and MCFJ was more than either drug alone. MCFJ alone or also in combination with metformin improve the body weight of diabetic rats. It is concluded that MCFJ along with metformin produce synergistic effect which may be beneficial or harmful so patients should take care when taking MCFJ along with metformin.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2013.102.106 2013/09/05 - 17:41

Gastric ulcer healing is a complex process that is regulated by several promoting factors including COX-2 and iNOS. Diabetes mellitus is usually associated with delayed gastric ulcer healing. Hence, the current study was designed to investigate the effect of sitagliptin (dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor) on gastric ulcer healing and expression of iNOS and COX-2 in rat stomach.The study was conducted on 30 rats divided into three equal groups. Group 1 served as normal control group. Gastric ulcer was induced, by serosal application of acetic acid, in group 2 (ulcer model group) and group 3 (sitagliptin-treated group). Sitagliptin was administrated from day 3 to day 10 in group 3. All rats were sacrificed on day 10 and stomachs were removed for pathological examination and immunohistochemical assessment of COX-2 and iNOS expression. Pathological examination revealed that gastric ulcer healing was significantly impaired in the sitagliptin-treated group as evidenced by the significantly larger ulcerated area and ulcer base maturation impairment.COX-2 and iNOS expression as well as mean MVD were significantly diminished in the sitagliptin-treated group as compared to the ulcer model group. A significant positive correlation was found between COX-2 and iNOS implying their synergistic action. We conclude that sitagliptin significantly impairs gastric ulcer healing in rats possibly through inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression. Our results raise the question of whether sitagliptin is advisable in diabetic patients with pre-existing gastric ulcer. Our preliminary experimental findings need to be substantiated by future human studies.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2013.107.119 2013/09/05 - 17:41

We investigated the in vivo activity of extract of Xetospongia sp against Plasmodium berghei Strain ANKA and acute toxicity in mice. The ethanolic extracts of the Xetospongia sp (50-400 mg kg-1 day) were screened for blood schizonticidal against P. berghei strain ANKA in mice during early and established infections. Acute toxicity of extracts of Xetospongia sp at the dose 5000 mg kg-1 on mice administeredorally exhibited no toxicity, as evident in that fact that no histopathological changes were observed in some essential organs, such as liver, heart, digestive tract and kidney. The ethanolic extracts (50-400 mg kg day-1) exhibited a significant antimalarial activity both in the 4-day early infection test and in the established infection and they were found to be relatively safe up to a dosage of 5000 mg kg-1, with an LD50 value of >500 mg kg-1.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2013.83.88 2013/09/03 - 04:35

The present study was conducted to evaluate the adverse effect of exposure to Diazinon (DIA) and Paracetamol (PARA) and their combination of male rats. Rats were orally administered PARA at a dose of 66.66 mg a.i. kg-1 body weight (maximum administration dose) and DIA at a dose 12.50 mg a.i. kg-1 b.wt. (1/100 LD50) for 28 consecutive days. Significantly, decreased of body weights were observed in all treated groups, while significant increase in relative liver weight were recorded in DIA and DIA+PARA-treated groups compared to control rats. Liver dysfunction enzymes (e.g., aspartate aminotransferase, AST; alanine aminotransferase, ALT; alkaline phosphatase, ALP and lactate dehydrogenase, LDH) and Lipid Peroxidation Level (LPO) were increased in DIA, PARA and DIA+PARA-treated groups. Treatment of DIA and DIA+PARA caused significant decrease in the activity of serum Cholinesterase (ChE). PARA, DIA and PARA+DIA treatments caused histopathological changes and decreases in DNA content in liver cells of rats. The severities of such observations were more pronounced in their combined exposure. We can conclude that both paracetamol at maximum administration dose and diazinon caused biochemical and histopathological alteration in the liver of male rats. The severities of such observations were more pronounced in their combined exposure. The data may throw light on the problem of simultaneous exposure to OPIs and commonly used drugs especially among agriculture sector workers in developing countries, where the handling of drugs (e.g., PARA) is mainly without medical prescription. Further studies, applied to pregnant women, newborns and childhood may be of great significance.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajptsp.2013.83.95 2013/07/15 - 20:30