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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

American Journal of Microbiology

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2014.35.36 2014/10/04 - 23:19

Pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical technologies for recovery of metals from low grade ores require high energy and capital costs. Use of microorganisms in leaching of mineral ores is gaining importance due to the implementation of stricter environmental rules. Microbes convert metal compounds into their water soluble forms and are biocatalysts of leaching processes. This study was performed to isolate and characterize iron solubilizing fungi from low grade iron ore for bioleaching process. Soil samples from iron mine area were used for isolation of iron solubilizing fungi and two fungal species (NTS-1 and NTS-2) were obtained from enrichment culture method. Bioleaching experiments were carried out in batch culture to determine the iron solubilising efficiencies of the isolates. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to determine the solubilized iron concentration and strain NTS-2 exhibited 40% higher iron solubilization than strain NTS-1. The strain was subjected to 18S-ITS sequence of rRNA studies and the phylogenetic analyses justify a taxonomic position for the strain as a member of Penicillium verruculosum. The isolated strain could be used in solubilizing iron from low grade ores as an efficient, economical and eco-friendly alternative to conventional operations.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2014.29.34 2014/09/25 - 22:05

Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health problem in endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa and has important consequences on birth outcome. There are subtle and substantial changes in hematological parameters of malaria in pregnancy. This work is designed to ascertain the impact of malaria in pregnant women visiting Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki II. Out of the 100 pregnant women screened for malaria, 44 (44.0%) were positive for malaria parasite. Of the 44.0% pregnant women positive for malaria parasite, the age range of 26-30 years (31.8%) were more infected with malaria parasite, followed by 21-25 years (22.7), while 41-45 (4.5%) years were the least infected. Pregnant women with no formal education were most infected (36.4%), followed by primary education (27.3%), while secondary education showed the lowest rate of malaria in pregnancy (13.6%). Housewives reported the highest cases of malaria in pregnancy, while student reported the lowest (9.2%). Married women showed the highest cases of malaria in pregnancy (79.5%), while widow reported the lowest (2.3). Christian reported in the highest cases of pregnancy in malaria (46.0%) and Muslim the least (40.0%). The mean values of the haematological parameters of pregnant women with respect to parasitaemia were Heamoglobin (9.78±37.45 g/dL), Packed cell volume (31.56±2721.14%), White blood count (8.58±50.06×103/mm2), Neutrophils (57.96±1004.97%), Lymphocyte (28.24±1392.97%), Mesophils (7.28±110.49%), Eosinophils (3.62±1156.91%) and Platelets (141.88±133873.07×109/l). This study have shown that the adverse consequences of malaria in pregnancy has great impact on heamatological parameters which may affect not only the neonate and infant but also increase the risk of non communicable diseases when the child grows into an adult and the risk of low birth weight in the next generation.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2014.13.19 2014/08/17 - 14:03

Mastitis is one of the most economic disease affecting dairy cows worldwide. Identification of mastitis pathogens still depends principally on culture and phenotypical method, which is a difficult and time-consuming. Newly, microbiologists have focused their attention on the use of Mass Spectrometry (MS) for microbial identification, especially Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight (MALDI-TOF). Therefore, this study was designated to evaluate the ability of MALDI-TOF to identify some contagious mastitis pathogens comparing with phenotypical methods such as API panels and VITEK 2 system. A total of one hundred twenty of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS) and Streptococcus agalactiae (Strept. agalactiae) strains isolated from milk of cows affected by clinical and subclinical mastitis were used in the study. According to the results, ~95% of S. aureus, 100% of CNS and Strept. agalactiae were correctly identified by MALDI TOF MS. All S. aureus isolates were then confirmed by a nuc-based PCR technique. While ~92% of S. aureus, 87% of Strept. agalactiae and 76% of CNS were identified by VITEK 2 system. Moreover, ~89% of S. aureus, 80% of Strept. agalactiae and 72% of CNS were identified by API system. In brief, the results demonstrated that MALDI-TOF is a fast and truthful technique which has the capability to replace conventional identification of several bacterial strains usually isolated in clinical laboratories of microbiology. Therefore, it is recomended that MALDI-TOF MS technology can be regularly used in veterinary laboratories for identification of different species of bacteria, particularly when failure of phenotypic methods forces clinical microbiologists.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2014.3.12 2014/08/17 - 14:03

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2014.1.2 2014/08/17 - 14:03

Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health problem in endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa and has important consequences on birth outcome. There are subtle and substantial changes in hematological parameters of malaria in pregnancy. This work is designed to ascertain the impact of malaria in pregnant women visiting Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki II. Out of the 100 pregnant women screened for malaria, 44 (44.0%) were positive for malaria parasite. Of the 44.0% pregnant women positive for malaria parasite, the age range of 26-30 years (31.8%) were more infected with malaria parasite, followed by 21-25 years (22.7), while 41-45 (4.5%) years were the least infected. Pregnant women with no formal education were most infected (36.4%), followed by primary education (27.3%), while secondary education showed the lowest rate of malaria in pregnancy (13.6%). Housewives reported the highest cases of malaria in pregnancy, while student reported the lowest (9.2%). Married women showed the highest cases of malaria in pregnancy (79.5%), while widow reported the lowest (2.3). Christian reported in the highest cases of pregnancy in malaria (46.0%) and Muslim the least (40.0%). The mean values of the haematological parameters of pregnant women with respect to parasitaemia were Heamoglobin (9.78±37.45 g/dL), Packed cell volume (31.56±2721.14%), White blood count (8.58±50.06×103/mm2), Neutrophils (57.96±1004.97%), Lymphocyte (28.24±1392.97%), Mesophils (7.28±110.49%), Eosinophils (3.62±1156.91%) and Platelets (141.88±133873.07×109/l). This study have shown that the adverse consequences of malaria in pregnancy has great impact on heamatological parameters which may affect not only the neonate and infant but also increase the risk of non communicable diseases when the child grows into an adult and the risk of low birth weight in the next generation.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2014.11.17 2014/07/17 - 10:23

Mastitis is one of the most economic disease affecting dairy cows worldwide. Identification of mastitis pathogens still depends principally on culture and phenotypical method, which is a difficult and time-consuming. Newly, microbiologists have focused their attention on the use of Mass Spectrometry (MS) for microbial identification, especially Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight (MALDI-TOF). Therefore, this study was designated to evaluate the ability of MALDI-TOF to identify some contagious mastitis pathogens comparing with phenotypical methods such as API panels and VITEK 2 system. A total of one hundred twenty of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS) and Streptococcus agalactiae (Strept. agalactiae) strains isolated from milk of cows affected by clinical and subclinical mastitis were used in the study. According to the results, ~95% of S. aureus, 100% of CNS and Strept. agalactiae were correctly identified by MALDI TOF MS. All S. aureus isolates were then confirmed by a nuc-based PCR technique. While ~92% of S. aureus, 87% of Strept. agalactiae and 76% of CNS were identified by VITEK 2 system. Moreover, ~89% of S. aureus, 80% of Strept. agalactiae and 72% of CNS were identified by API system. In brief, the results demonstrated that MALDI-TOF is a fast and truthful technique which has the capability to replace conventional identification of several bacterial strains usually isolated in clinical laboratories of microbiology. Therefore, it is recomended that MALDI-TOF MS technology can be regularly used in veterinary laboratories for identification of different species of bacteria, particularly when failure of phenotypic methods forces clinical microbiologists.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2014.1.10 2014/05/31 - 16:00

Mastitis is one of the most economic disease affecting dairy cows worldwide. Identification of mastitis pathogens still depends principally on culture and phenotypical method, which is a difficult and time-consuming. Newly, microbiologists have focused their attention on the use of Mass Spectrometry (MS) for microbial identification, especially Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight (MALDI-TOF). Therefore, this study was designated to evaluate the ability of MALDI-TOF to identify some contagious mastitis pathogens comparing with phenotypical methods such as API panels and VITEK 2 system. A total of one hundred twenty of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) and Streptococcus agalactiae (Strept. agalactiae) strains isolated from milk of cows affected by clinical and subclinical mastitis were used in the study. According to the results, ~95% of S. aureus, 100% of CNS and Strept. agalactiae were correctly identified by MALDI TOF MS. All S. aureus isolates were then confirmed by a nuc-based PCR technique. While ~92% of S. aureus, 87% of Strept. agalactiae and 76% of CNS were identified by VITEK 2 system. Moreover, ~89% of S. aureus, 80% of Strept. agalactiae and 72% of CNS were identified by API system. In brief, the results demonstrated that MALDI-TOF is a fast and truthful technique which has the capability to replace conventional identification of several bacterial strains usually isolated in clinical laboratories of microbiology. Therefore, it is recomended that MALDI-TOF MS technology can be regularly used in veterinary laboratories for identification of different species of bacteria, particularly when failure of phenotypic methods forces clinical microbiologists.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2013.32.41 2014/04/24 - 17:35

Actinomycetes are a gram-positive, filamentous subgroup of bacteria most known for antibiotic production. In fact, most of the antibiotics available today have originated from actinomycetes, namely from the genus Streptomyces. Novel bacteria with antimicrobial activities have been discovered from bacterial screen studies for decades and there is still much more yet to be unearthed. One hundred seventy five strains of actinomycetes were isolated from 38 different soil samples from different locations in Patna, India. Potential antibiotic producers were screened against four test microorganisms (Escherichia coli MTCC 739, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96, Streptomyces lividans TK23 MTCC 4 and Candida albicans MTCC 227). The bioassay revealed that about 26% of actinomycetes isolates were active against at least one of the test microorganism. Characterization of a selected isolate has led to identification of a unique strain of actinomycetes (MP 525) showing broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal properties. The strain MP 525 has been morphologically characterized as Streptomyces sp. and deposited at MTCC, Chandigarh, India with accession number 8723. The 16S rRNA gene of the strain Streptomyces sp. US7 MTCC 8723 was sequenced and the DNA sequence was deposited at NCBI, Bethesda (GenBank accession. No. HQ659005). On the basis of λmax values of culture filtrates, it has been suggested that the strain might be producing LL-E19085-like antibacterial and a flavone glycoside-like antifungal antibiotics, which can be further exploited for industrial and biological applications.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2013.24.31 2013/06/25 - 16:54

In the current era of New Delhi Metallo-betalactamase-1 (NDM-1) infections and a dry antibiotic pipeline, managing infections caused by Multi-Drug Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial infections (MDR-GNBs) presents a great challenge to physicians in the developing world. Tigecycline, a broad spectrum glycylcycline is a one among the few treatment options against MDR-GNBs. However it has been studied mostly in the western world, where the prevalence of MDR-GNB infections is less than the developing world. In this study, we report the in vitro activities of tigecycline and selected antimicrobials against gram-negative bacterial isolates. We evaluated the in vitro activity of tigecycline against 80 gram-negative bacterial isolates and compared its susceptibility against Cefoperazone-Sulbactam (CS), imipenem and colistin in a tertiary care hospital in South India. Tigecycline showed 100% activity against E.coli, similar to colistin and better than impenem and cefoperazone-sulbactam. However only 80% of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates remained susceptible to tigecycline and colistin had higher in vitro activity against Acinetobacter. Tigecycline is a good option for the management of MDR E.coli and an alternative option against Acinetobacter infections in India. However the decline in susceptibility of tigecycline against K.pneumoniae is a worrisome phenomenon.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2012.34.36 2013/06/25 - 16:54

To present the efficacy and safety of Metronidazole and co-trimoxazole in the treatment of diarrhea caused by Entamoeba histolytica, cyst and trophozyed in patients presented to the emergency department and emergency pediatric clinic in Queen Alia Hospital (Jordan). A strategy for diagnosis Entamoeba histolytica was evaluated by studying 181 patients aged 2-50 years. Between the 1st of May 2009 and the beginning of May 2010, 181 patients with intestinal amoebiasis were recruited for this study from the Emergency Department and emergency Pediatric Clinic at Queen Alia Military Hospital. After doing stool analysis for every patient, Metronidazole 500 mg three times was given to the adult group and 40 mg kg-1day in three divided doses for the pediatric group for 10 days and two tablets twice daily for adults and 5 mL twice daily for children for ten days of co-trimaxazole, with follow up stool analysis after one week of treatment. Out of 181 patients (81) patients were adult’s age (14-50 years) and (100 patients) were children aged (2-14 years). About 5.5% of the patient showed the amoebic trophozoite in their stool while the remaining showed only the amoebic cysts. Over all metronidazole and co-trimoxazole produced a clinical response rate of 95% in both adults and children group after 10 days course of Metronidazole. Our findings demonstrated the efficacy of 10 day of course Metronidazole and co-trimoxazole in eradication intestinal amoebiasis for which the causative organism is identified by simple stool examination.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2012.31.33 2013/06/25 - 16:54

Most of every part of bamboo plants had economical value. The wood is used as building and furniture, the shoot is processed as health foods and medicines, the root and culms are used as traditional medicine. The leaf has been believed that it could heal diarrhea in piglets, rabbit, poultry and calves. This research was designed to investigate the inhibition activity of apus bamboo leaf extracts against four strains pathogenic Escherichia coli. The leaf of apus bamboo (G. apus) was extracted in methanol, ethanol and methanol-ethanol (1:1), subsequently dried and assayed for their antibacterial activity using diffusion and dilution. Among three solvents used in this study, ethanol was the best with a yield of 18.74% and its effectivity was about 0.44% compared to tetracycline. The bioactive compounds in the extract were fatty acids, esters and alcohols.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2013.1.8 2013/06/20 - 20:38

Malaria, syphilis and Hepatitis B during pregnancy are detrimental to the life of the pregnant women and the foetus. In this study, we documented the prevalence of the three diseases among pregnant women attending selected Comprehensive Health Care centers in Osogbo, Nigeria using serological kits of the 200 participants who consented to participate in the study, 26 (13%) were positive for malaria while 6 (3%) were positive for Hepatitis B. The co-infection of malaria and Hepatitis B was found only in two participants (1%) while none of the participants was positive for syphilis. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of malaria and Hepatitis B in relation to age (p>0.05). All the participants had good knowledge that mosquitoes transmit malaria but only 29 (14.5%) claimed to be sleeping under insecticide treated bed-net, About 169 (84.5%) relied solely on insecticide spray of the room and 2 (1%) did not practice any mosquito control measures. The results suggest the low prevalence of malaria, Hepatitis B and syphilis at the study area. However, early surveillance and adequate public health education will be immeasurable in safe-guiding the pregnant women from the detrimental effects of these infections.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2013.20.23 2013/06/20 - 20:38

Computers are ubiquitous and have been shown to be contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria in some communities. There is no economical way to test all the keyboards and mouse out there, but there are common-sense ways to prevent bacterial contamination or eliminate it if it exists. In this study, swabs specimens were collected from surfaces of 250 computer keyboards and mouse and plated on different bacteriological media. Organisms growing on the media were purified and identified using microbiological standards. It was found that all the tested computer keyboards and mouse devices, were positive for microbial contamination. The percentages of isolated bacteria (Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp.) were 43.3, 40.9, 30.7, 34.1, 18.3, 18.2, 7.7 and 6.8% for computer keyboards and mouse respectively. The isolated bacteria were tested against the 6 different disinfectants (Dettol, Isol, Izal, JIK, Purit and Septol®). Antibacterial effects of the disinfectants were also concentration dependent. The agar well diffusion technique for determining Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was employed. The Killing rate (K) and Decimal Reduction Time (DRT) of the disinfectants on the organism were also determined. The overall result of this study showed that Dettol®, followed by JIK® was highly effective against all the bacterial isolates tested while Septol and Izal® were least effective. Isol and Purit® showed moderate antibacterial effects. Keyboards and mouse should be disinfected daily. However, it is recommended that heightened surveillance of the microbial examination of computer keyboards should be undertaken at predetermined intervals.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2013.9.19 2013/06/20 - 20:38

To present the efficacy and safety of Metronidazole and co-trimoxazole in the treatment of diarrhea caused by Entamoeba histolytica, cyst and trophozyed in patients presented to the emergency department and emergency pediatric clinic in Queen Alia Hospital (Jordan). A strategy for diagnosis Entamoeba histolytica was evaluated by studying 181 patients aged 2-50 years. Between the 1st of May 2009 and the beginning of May 2010, 181 patients with intestinal amoebiasis were recruited for this study from the Emergency Department and emergency Pediatric Clinic at Queen Alia Military Hospital. After doing stool analysis for every patient, Metronidazole 500 mg three times was given to the adult group and 40 mg kg-1day in three divided doses for the pediatric group for 10 days and two tablets twice daily for adults and 5 mL twice daily for children for ten days of co-trimaxazole, with follow up stool analysis after one week of treatment. Out of 181 patients (81) patients were adult’s age (14-50 years) and (100 patients) were children aged (2-14 years). About 5.5% of the patient showed the amoebic trophozoite in their stool while the remaining showed only the amoebic cysts. Over all metronidazole and co-trimoxazole produced a clinical response rate of 95% in both adults and children group after 10 days course of Metronidazole. Our findings demonstrated the efficacy of 10 day of course Metronidazole and co-trimoxazole in eradication intestinal amoebiasis for which the causative organism is identified by simple stool examination.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2012.39.41 2013/06/12 - 18:22

In the current era of New Delhi Metallo-betalactamase-1 (NDM-1) infections and a dry antibiotic pipeline, managing infections caused by Multi-Drug Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial infections (MDR-GNBs) presents a great challenge to physicians in the developing world. Tigecycline, a broad spectrum glycylcycline is a one among the few treatment options against MDR-GNBs. However it has been studied mostly in the western world, where the prevalence of MDR-GNB infections is less than the developing world. In this study, we report the in vitro activities of tigecycline and selected antimicrobials against gram-negative bacterial isolates. We evaluated the in vitro activity of tigecycline against 80 gram-negative bacterial isolates and compared its susceptibility against Cefoperazone-Sulbactam (CS), imipenem and colistin in a tertiary care hospital in South India. Tigecycline showed 100% activity against E.coli, similar to colistin and better than impenem and cefoperazone-sulbactam. However only 80% of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates remained susceptible to tigecycline and colistin had higher in vitro activity against Acinetobacter. Tigecycline is a good option for the management of MDR E.coli and an alternative option against Acinetobacter infections in India. However the decline in susceptibility of tigecycline against K.pneumoniae is a worrisome phenomenon.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2012.42.44 2013/06/12 - 18:22

Actinomycetes are a gram-positive, filamentous subgroup of bacteria most known for antibiotic production. In fact, most of the antibiotics available today have originated from actinomycetes, namely from the genus Streptomyces. Novel bacteria with antimicrobial activities have been discovered from bacterial screen studies for decades and there is still much more yet to be unearthed. One hundred seventy five strains of actinomycetes were isolated from 38 different soil samples from different locations in Patna, India. Potential antibiotic producers were screened against four test microorganisms (Escherichia coli MTCC 739, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96, Streptomyces lividans TK23 MTCC 4 and Candida albicans MTCC 227). The bioassay revealed that about 26% of actinomycetes isolates were active against at least one of the test microorganism. Characterization of a selected isolate has led to identification of a unique strain of actinomycetes (MP 525) showing broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal properties. The strain MP 525 has been morphologically characterized as Streptomyces sp. and deposited at MTCC, Chandigarh, India with accession number 8723. The 16S rRNA gene of the strain Streptomyces sp. US7 MTCC 8723 was sequenced and the DNA sequence was deposited at NCBI, Bethesda (GenBank accession. No. HQ659005). On the basis of λmax values of culture filtrates, it has been suggested that the strain might be producing LL-E19085-like antibacterial and a flavone glycoside-like antifungal antibiotics, which can be further exploited for industrial and biological applications.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2012.31.38 2013/06/10 - 20:36

Human skin comprises a large number of distinguishable ecological niches. To describe fully the human skin microbiome, it will be necessary to identify the bacteria in each niche and to distinguish the commensal bacteria from the temporary residents. To contribute to the description of the human skin microbiome and employing a gene-based technology, we have identified the bacteria in two niches: the front and back of the base of the neck and over the course of one year. There were 50 volunteers and a total of 232 neck skin swabs. Roche 454 Tag pyrosequencing was employed to sequence a short hypervariable sequence region (V6) of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. To identify the bacteria corresponding to the front and back of the neck for each volunteer, the “Classifier” software in the “Pyrosequencing” section of the Ribosomal Database Project was employed. The bacteria on virtually all 232 neck skin swabs were classified into bacterial Class. The skin microbiome of these two niches was composed principally of a mixture of five Classes of bacteria: Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. The fraction of each Class could change over time. We could not distinguish the skin microbiome from the front of the base of the neck from the back of the base of the neck. At these two positions, we could not distinguish the male from the female skin microbiome. The principal variable was the time point. We concluded that the skin microbiome at the front and back of the base of the neck was composed principally of a mixture of five Classes of bacteria. The proportion of each Class could change over time.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2012.18.30 2013/06/09 - 17:23

Problem statement: Do naturally group-living bacteria express genes the same way as they do in lab grown pure cultures? An intriguing question. Listeria monocytogenes, a dreaded pathogen has been and continues to be a subject of study with reference to gene expressions. However, all studies concerning the gene expression of L. monocytogenes have been done on pure culture states. Our objective was to study L. monocytogenes in a co-cultured state and thereby substantiate that microbes in their natural state of existence are different in their expression than that of the purely cultured lab grown forms. Approach: In this study we have focused on the transcriptional and growth response of L. monocytogenes to the presence of Bacillus subtilis to its niche as planktonic cells and in biofilms. Transcriptional response with reference to Antibiotic Resistance and Synthesis, was studied to elaborate on the differences in gene expression in L. monocytogenes as planktonic cells and in biofilm, co-cultured with B. subtilis. Results: Majority of genes responsible for antibiotic resistance that were up-regulated in co-cultured broth were down regulated in co-cultured biofilm. Conclusion: Our observation provides evidence to L. monocytogenes being suppressed by B. subtilis, however in Biofilms both the species seemed to cooperate with each other towards community living.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2012.7.17 2012/03/29 - 17:22

Problem statement: Systems biology is an emerging field of science. The branch of system science was conceived and proposed by a biologist at the very beginning, at the conceptual birth of the branch. Systems biology a holistic approach to biology, still remains a field less opted by researchers and science personnels in general. Conclusion/Recommendations: In this review, we try to revisit this intriguing branch science since its birth in order draw the attention of the science professionals at large.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2012.1.6 2012/03/22 - 17:18

Problem statement: Resistance to third generation cephalosporins due to acquisition and expression of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) among Gram-negative bacteria is on the increase. Infections involving extended spectrum beta lactamase bacteria are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, infections due to ESBL isolates continue to pose a serious challenge to infection management worldwide. Since screening for ESBL is not a common practice in hospitals in Enugu state, this study was undertaken to characterize ESBL genes in K. pneumoniae strains from intensive care unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu. Approach: Over a period of 29 months, 57 patients out of 140 receiving treatment in the intensive care unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospitals Enugu were found to be infected with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing strains of K. pneumoniae. Species identification of K. pneumoniae strains was performed by Standard Microbiology methods and re-confirmed by MALDI-TOF technology. Phenotypic characterization of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) was determined by double disc synergy test and presence of ESBL genes was determined by specific PCR. Results: All ESBL producers were positive in a PCR for blaCTX-M-1 cluster and on sequencing, blaCTX-M-15 were found to be present. Genotypic characterization of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing K. pneumoniae showed that all isolates carried CTX-M-15and SHV genes, 41(71.9%) carried aac (6¡¦)-Ib-cr and blaOXA-1, 19(33%) carried blaTEM. ISEcp1 was found upstream and ORF 477 downstream of blaCTX-M. in all strains. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis grouped the strains into two clonal groups- A and B and majority of the strains belong to clonal group A (n = 42). Conclusion: This study shows for the first time the presence of ESBL genes in K. pneumoniae from the ICU of UNTH Enugu and therefore strongly butresses the need for regular screening for ESBL-producing bacteria in clinical specimen in ICU and other wards in Nigerian hospitals.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2011.35.39 2012/03/06 - 23:27

Problem statement: Human skin is a large (~ 1.75 m2) organ containing a large number of ecologically distinct sites. These sites harbor a variety of distinct microbiomes. One challenge is to define the microbiome at every site. We chose two interesting sites: the base of the Front of the neck and the base of the Back of the neck (the nape) and enrolled forty volunteers. These two sites are interesting because the bacteria therein must interact with the skin and its microbiome and with clothing and hair and the external environment. Approach: The volunteers took their own neck swabs. Total DNA was prepared from each swab. That DNA was employed as a template in separate PCR reactions to amplify the V6 and V3 regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The V6 and V3 regions were pyrosequenced using Roche 454 Life Sciences technology. To identify the bacteria, the sequences were compared to the data in the Ribosomal Database Project. Results: From the sequences of the V6 region, it was found that all of the swabs contained at least 1% of the reads as Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. The substantial majority of the swabs contained at least 1% of the reads as Alphaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Betaproteobacteria. About half of the swabs contained at least 1% of the reads as Flavobacteria and Sphingobacteria. A few swabs contained Clostridia or Cyanobacteria at least at the 1% level. The Class of Gammaproteobacteria was supported by the most reads for 94% of the swabs. Conclusion: As a measure of bacterial diversity, the Shannon Diversity Index was computed from the V6 data for each swab and considered as a function of the number of reads. The Front and Back curves were indistinguishable. To determine how close the data were to saturation, the Chao1 curves for the Front and Back swabs were constructed. The two curves were indistinguishable. Neither curve appeared close to saturation.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2011.25.34 2012/02/24 - 07:45

Problems statement: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ficus benghalensis and Ficus racemosa against three bacterial strains that is Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. Approach: The different concentrations viz. 25, 50 and 75 mg mL-1 of aqueous as well as ethanolic extract solutions of roots of Ficus benghalensis and Ficus racemosa were tested against above three bacterial strains. The effects were compared with that of a standard antibiotic-loaded disc, ampicillin (10 mcg/disc) of Himedia Labs. Finally, the plates were incubated with lids closed at 37°C for 24 h. Discs were observed for zones of inhibition by measuring the Diameter of Inhibition Zone (DIZ) using a ruler. Results: Ficus racemosa ethanolic extract showed maximum inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus when compared with Ficus benghalensis ethanolic extract. However standard drug ampicillin showed maximum antimicrobial activity compared with both the plants. Conclusion: In conclusion, it was clearly observed that ethanolic extract of both the plants were having good antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2011.21.24 2012/01/25 - 21:00

Problem statement: Mosquito is a very common vector of several tropical diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue and chikungunya. Till todate, many xenobiotics have been used to control mosquito population and protect people from mosquito born diseases but increasing rate of resistance against these xenobiotics is a major concern in the disease control management. In contrast, extensive use of these xenobiotic may lead to cause opurtunistic disease like cancer. Therefore, biological control can thus be an effective and environmental friendly approach, which can be used as an alternative to minimize the mosquito population. Fungi and fungus-derived products are highly toxic to mosquitoes, yet have low toxicity to nontarget organisms. Aspergillus niger is a cosmopolitan fungus which is primarily isolated from soil and decomposing plant materials. Approach: In the present investigation, this fungus was cultured on Czapek Dox Broth (CDB) for extracellular metabolites production. The A. niger was maintained at 25°C under 75 ± 5% humidity for 15 days. The extracellular metabolites were filtered through Whatman no.-1 filter papers. The purification of crude metabolites was done with different ratio of ethanol and metabolites (ethanol: metabolites = 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, 3:7, 2:8 and 1:9, respectively) using column chromatography. All fractions were applied for larvicidal efficacy against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. The larvicidal efficacy was performed at six-log concentrations for 24, 48 and 72h. Results: The mortalities values were obtained by probit analysis. One potential ratio was selected for efficacy study among all ratios. The 2:8 ratio was found effective against the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi. Whereas, a 4:6 ratio was found effective against the larvae of Ae. aegypti. The larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were found highly susceptible to the purified metabolites of A. niger than the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti. Conclusion: The metabolites of A. niger may be environmental safer and a biocontrol agents for mosquitoes population in tropical countries where these vectors are significant.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2011.15.20 2011/12/21 - 14:41

Problem statement: Cyclodextrin complexation has previously been shown to improve the solubility and dissolution properties of trimethoprim; however, no report provides an account of the effect cyclodextrin complexation has on the antibacterial activity of this agent. Approach: â-cyclodextrin and 2-hydroxypropyl â-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of trimethoprim were prepared and confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The in-vitro antibacterial activity, in terms of minimum inhibitory concentrations, of cyclodextrin-drug complexes were compared to uncomplexed free trimethoprim by a broth-microdilution method against several sensitive and resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The effect of complexation on the apparent permeability coefficients was also determined using a Caco-2 permeability assay to account for potential alterations in bioavailability that could influence in-vivo antibacterial activity. Results: Inclusion complexation of trimethoprim with both unsubstituted and hydroxylated versions of â-cyclodextrin produced a reduction in the MIC80 required to inhibit the growth of S. aureus ATCC 29213, S. pneumoniae ATCC 4961, S. epidermidis ATCC 14990 and E. coli ATCC 25922 (p>0.05). The effect was limited to bacteria normally susceptible to trimethoprim. Neither complex negatively affected the antibacterial activity of trimethoprim. Hydroxypropyl-â-cyclodextrin and â-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes significantly (p<0.01) increased the apparent intestinal permeability of trimethoprim by 39.8 and 56.1%, respectively. Considering the effect cyclodextrin inclusion complexation has on the antibacterial activity of trimethoprim, the improved intestinal permeability of these complexes has the potential to improve the in-vivo antibacterial activity of the agent by enhancing the steady-state concentration of the drug when dosed orally. Conclusion: These results would suggest that physical complexation with either of these cyclodextrins would provide a feasible strategy to improve the pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic properties of trimethoprim.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2011.1.8 2011/10/26 - 12:42

Problem statement: The maturation of tobacco is a very important period of tobacco production. Until recently, there are no many reports on tobacco rhizospheric culturable fungi, especially at the mature stage. Approach: Five rhizosphere soils of tobacco and five non-rhizosphere soils of tobacco were collected in Yanbian county, Panzhihua. Sixty-one fungal strains isolated from these soil samples were analyzed by 18S rDNA PCR-RFLP. And 14 representative strains of them were chosen for 18S rDNA sequencing. Results: The results indicated that most of the quantity of fungi of most rhizosphere soils was bigger than rhizosphere’s. All strains can be clustered together at similar of 67% in the analyzing of 18S rDNA PCR-RFLP. The strains came from one sample were not always clustered together always, whereas the strains which came from rhizosphere soils or non-rhizosphere soils often clustered together. Conclusion: The results of 18S rDNA sequencing showed that dominant fungal species of non-rhizosphere soils were more abundant than rhizosphere. The culture-dependent fungal quantity, community structure and diversity of rhizosphere soil of mature tobacco were affected by the worsening environment of later stage of tobacco.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2011.9.14 2011/10/26 - 12:42

Problem statement: Condoms are widely used birth control measures which are made of natural latex or synthetic materials like polyurethane or polyisoprene as matrix with lubricants added to make them ready to use commodities. Absence of sterilization method along with presence of lubricant like petroleum jelly (that are applied on the outer surface), prompted the investigators to look for microbes from the surface of male condoms. Approach: The culture based method was used for the study. This study reports the isolation and preliminary characterization of microbes from unused new condoms of ten different brands available in the chemist’s shop in Kolkata, India. Results: The microbial count varies between 0-3

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&times;1010 in samples obtained from different batches. Thirty four microbial isolates were selected for their colony and cell morphology as well as biochemical characterization. Ten among them were picked up for antibiotic sensitivity testing, quorum sensing behaviour and swimming and swarming behavior while six of them were characterized at the molecular level (16S rDNA). Most of the isolates were lipase producing. 10Gray of 60Co gamma ray was found to be effective to decontaminate the condoms. Conclusion/Recommendations: The growth due to contamination might be supported by the lubricant. Hence it is time to consider seriously the need to maintain aseptic conditions during manufacturing.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2010.14.22 2011/06/01 - 05:07

Problem statement: Soluble sulfate load in effluent is a crucial problem from mining
industries. The study involved isolation of efficient Sulfate Reducing Bacterial (SRB) consortium from
hot water spring for bioremediatrion of sulfate contaminated waste water. Approach: The enriched
bacterial consortium was isolated in medium DSMZ 16695. The sulfate reduction efficiency was
measured by turbidometric method. The Km and Rmax value of the consortium was determined. It was
immobilized in 10L bioreactor and the sulfate reduction was measured in presence of media and mine
effluent. Results: The consortium was found to reduce 2000ppm of sulfate in 36h under optimum
condition. The Km of 1.1530 ppm and Rmax value of 0.030h−1 was obtained under optimum conditions
of pH-7.5 at 40

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&deg;C with 2% inoculum. Consortium immobilized under ambient condition in a 10L
packed bed reactor yielded about 21-41% reduction of soluble sulfate in synthetic medium prepared
using effluent water and tap water respectively. Conclusion: This study reports for the first time the
use of efficient SRB consortia from hot water spring for bioremediation of mine effluent.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2010.23.29 2011/06/01 - 05:07

Problem statement: Fish is largely consumed in the north-eastern part of India resulting in
the generation of huge amount of fish viscera in the market places. These waste generated is not
properly managed for disposal. Under such circumstances it is necessary to properly utilize this waste
regenerating the possibility of environment friendly disposal. Besides, industrially and commercially
useful biological products like enzymes can be obtained from these sources which, therefore, can
benefit the human society through proper exploitation utilizing modern technological innovations.
Although there are well established commercially viable protocols for large scale production of

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&alpha; -
amylase, but it is a known fact that it requires extensive infrastructure including microbial culture
laboratory and large scale processes for providing optimum conditions to industrially important
microbes for the production of enzymes at an industrial scale. This requires huge expanses in terms of
money and time. Approach: In the present investigations, we report the development of optimized
parameters for the extraction of

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&alpha; -amylase from the viscera of Labeo rohita (Ham.) after isolation and
screening of amylolytic bacteria from the viscera of Labeo rohita (Ham.). The potent amylolytic
bacterial isolate was subjected to solid substrate fermentation to enhance the production of

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&alpha; -amylase.
Results: Optimization of different parameters during solid state fermentation enhanced the expression
of the enzyme activity from 24.75-60.2 Unit g−1. Out of 15 amylolytic bacterial isolates obtained in the
following studies, Bacillus megaterium showed the highest amylolytic activity (11 Unit g−1) when
wheat bran was used as the carbon substrate during fermentation for 5 days at 37

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http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2010.30.35 2011/06/01 - 05:07

Problem statement: Epiphytic population is an intrinsic part of the leaf surface. The effect
of stress like insect infestation is not well understood. The aim of the study was to determine possible
effects of insect infestation on bacteria community. Approach: The leaf surface microbial profile of
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis (L.) was investigated using a culture-dependent approach under normal
and infested condition. Results: The presence of mostly novel Gram-negative bacilli on the leaf
surface of B. chinensis was evident, with maximum identity with members of the phyla Firmicutes and
Actinobacteria at the 16S rDNA level, as evident from GenBank accession numbers FJ231349 to
FJ231355. The specialist aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) was used as a model to study the effect of
insect infestation on the epiphytic leaf surface microbial populations in B. chinensis. Plants infected
with aphids had significantly higher bacteria counts than non-infested plants. Conclusion: These
differences were up to 10,000-fold within three days post infestation. This increase is probably due to
the secretion of honeydew, which acts as an additional carbon source for the pre-existing microbes.
However, aphid infestation had no effect on the qualitative variation of microbes on the plants, which
rules out the abundance of microbial population on the leaf as a contribution of the aphids alone.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2010.36.41 2011/06/01 - 05:07

Problem statement: Shigellosis is a common infectious disease especially in
underdeveloped countries. The bacteria are primarily transmitted through the faecal-oral route. The
inflammatory process of acute Shigella infection affects the colon and is characterized clinically by
fever, cramping abdominal pain with frequent loose stools that might contain mucus, pus and blood.
Approach: This study determined the susceptibility of Shigella isolates to antibiotics. Afterward,
plasmid isolation from pathogenic Shigella will carried out to achieved information concerning to the
presence of plasmid DNA in Shigella isolates. Plasmid curing will be done to seek correlation between
resistance to antibiotics and plasmid occurrence in Shigella. Results: We found that the incidence of
diarrhea in male is almost similar to female. The distribution of Shigella spp., in male more than in
female represented 54.54 and 45.46% respectively. Conclusion: Approximately 89.5% of the diarrhea
cases had no bacterial pathogen, suggested of probability of viral infection.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2010.1.8 2011/01/11 - 03:45

This in vitro cell-based study identified the contributing role of pyocyanin in the resistance
of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to ciprofloxacin. Problem statement: P. aeruginosa is the major
pathogen in the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung with pyocyanin being a critical component of its virulence.
Prevalence is high and, once acquired, chronic infection is difficult to eliminate. Ciprofloxacin remains
a crucial oral agent effective against P. aeruginosa, but resistance is increasingly reported. Approach:
Here we examined the extent to which exogenously added pyocyanin affected P. aeruginosa
susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and the contribution of altered efflux activity and biofilm production
with the aim of ultimately increasing sensitivity. Results: Metabolic conversion of resazurin to
resorufin was used as an index of bacterial cell growth while fluorescent measurement of acriflavine
efflux and crystal violet staining was used as markers of efflux activity and biofilm production,
respectively. Pyocyanin (100 µM) added exogenously decreased susceptibility of two P. aeruginosa
strains, PAO1 and ATCC 27853 to ciprofloxacin at 125 and 500 µg L-1, respectively. Exogenously
added pyocyanin decreased efflux activity in both strains while biofilm production was significantly
increased. Conclusion: We conclude that increased biofilm production may contribute to the observed
decreased susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin is a crucial orally effectively
agent against P. aeruginosa with resistance being increasingly reported. This initial study highlights a
potential mechanism that may underlie this resistance which may be of clinical interest. Further studies
using additional antibiotics and the pyocyanin precursor 1-hydroxyphenazine are required.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajmsp.2010.9.13 2011/01/11 - 03:45