Skip to Content

Instrukcja korzystania z Biblioteki

Serwisy:

Ukryty Internet | Wyszukiwarki specjalistyczne tekstów i źródeł naukowych | Translatory online | Encyklopedie i słowniki online

Translator:

Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

American Journal of Infectious Diseases

Essential Oils (EO) produced by medicinal plants have been traditionally used for respiratory tract infections and are used nowadays as ethical medicines for colds. Although several studies of Eucalyptus Globulus Labill. Essential Oil (EGEO) have been reported, there are no reports describing vapour activity of EGEO against bacterial respiratory tract pathogens. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the Algerian EGEO against some respiratory tract pathogens by disc diffusion and vapour diffusion methods at different concentrations. Chemical composition of the EGEO was analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Fresh leaves of E. globulus on steam distillation yielded 0.96% (v/w) of essential oil whereas the analysis resulted in the identification of a total of 11 constituents, 1.8 cineole (85.8%), α-pinene (7.2%) and β-myrcene (1.5%) being the main components. By disc diffusion method, EGEO showed potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive more than Gram-negative bacteria. The Diameter of Inhibition Zone (DIZ) varied from 69 mm to 75 mm for Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis (Gram +) and from 13 to 42 mm for Enterobacter sp and Escherichia coli (Gram-), respectively. However, the results obtained by both agar diffusion and vapour diffusion methods were different. Significantly higher antibacterial activity was observed in the vapour phase at lower concentrations. A. baumanii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most susceptible strains to the oil vapour with DIZ varied from 38 to 42 mm. Therefore, smaller doses of EO in the vapour phase can be inhibitory to pathogenic bacteria. Else, the DIZ increased with increase in concentration of the oil. There is growing evidence that EGEO in vapour phase are effective antibacterial systems and appears worthy to be considered for practical uses in the treatment or prevention of patients with respiratory tract infections or as air decontaminants in hospital. The present study indicates that EGEO has considerable antimicrobial activity, deserving further investigation for clinical applications.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2014.105.117 2014/09/05 - 20:47

Currently various countries in Africa, including Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Nigeria, are facing disaster due to Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), which is primarily caused by Ebola virus. 2014 outbreak of Ebola associated viral haemorrhagic fever has 55-60% fatality rate. The incubation period of Ebola is below 21 days; once the appearance of symptoms starts the person will be infective. As there is no specific vaccine, antiviral or drugs for treating Ebola resulting in large number of deaths. Most of the recent outbreaks occurred in remote areas of West Africa. Poverty, lack of awareness, access to health centres, human habitats taking its toll in spreading the disease in large scale. Few nucleotide analogues, protease inhibitors, receptor binding, monoclonal antibodies and anticoagulant therapies are exhibiting promising role in inhibiting the Ebola virus in various (in vitro and in vivo) models.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2014.100.104 2014/09/05 - 20:47

Hand washing in between patient care by health workers is the single most important measure against occurrence and spread of nosocomial infections within health facilities. This study was done to observe health workers hand washing practices in two critical Paediatric wards of a specialist hospital. Trained observers observed and recorded health workers’ hand washing compliance while carrying out their routine patient care. Other information recorded included the time of observation and health workers’ occupation and rank. Data was fed in to excel spread sheet and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. A total of 150 health workers were observed in this study. There were 116 (77.3%) females and 34 (22.7%) males giving a male: Female ratio of 1: 3.4. There were 86 (57.3%) doctors and 64 (42.7%) nurses. During the period of observation, soap with running water was found in only 39 (26.0%) occasions. Common cotton towel was found in 78.7% of the period of observation as the only available hand drying facility. Doctors’ hand washing rates before and after patients contact were 17.4 and 64.0% respectively. Doctors’ hand washing rates before and after simple procedures ranged from 0 to 56.5 and 60.6 to 100% respectively. Nurses’ hand washing rates before and after simple procedures ranged from 1.3 to 28.6% and 19.7 to 88.4% respectively. Health workers (doctors and nurses) hand washing rates on entering the wards was 4%. Hand washing rate before leaving the wards was 74.7%. Majority of the health workers dried their hands with non-disposable common cotton towels on 72.0% of the occasions. Hand washing rates was very low before patient contact and before simple procedures.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2014.95.99 2014/07/11 - 18:11

In the present investigation, we investigated the in vitro interaction of ceftriaxone plus sulbactam with disodium edetate, a Non Antibiotic Adjuvant (NAA) against selected clinical isolates and in vitro susceptibility studies were also performed. The isolates were tested against a range of ratios of ceftriaxone and sulbactam using a microdilution checkerboard method. Having determined the appropriate ratios of ceftriaxone plus sulbactam, effect of various concentration of disodium edetate were also studied using the microdilution checkerboard method. All the results were analysed with the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) indices. Susceptibility studies were carried out according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods. Results of this study demonstrated that 2:1 ratio of ceftriaxone and sulbactam was the more synergistic with FIC index values 0.4281, 0.4023, 0.4124 and 0.4325 for E. coli, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae. The synergicity of ceftriaxone and sulbactam was enhanced significantly with increasing concentration of disodium edetate and produced the lowest FIC index (<0.2) at 10 mM of disodium edetate in all positive controls as well as clinical isolates. Further, the synergy between ceftriaxone plus sulbactam with disodium edetate (Elores) was confirmed by broth dilution, time kill curve and agar diffusion methods. In broth dilution method, Elores (ceftriaxone+sulbactam+disodium edetate) produced 4 to 5 fold lower MIC when compared with ceftriaxone plus sulbactam. Approximately 104 log of killing reduction was observed with synergistic ratio of Elores in time kill curve study. This study suggest that Elores could be an alternative regimen in combating antibiotic resistance among multi drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.94.103 2014/07/04 - 22:33

Empiric combination antibiotic therapy is often used to treat severe P. aeruginosa infections. Combination antibiograms have been employed to assist clinicians in selecting the most effective two-drug antibiotic regimens. The objectives of this study were to develop a combination antibiogram in order to compare beta-lactam monotherapy versus dual-therapy with a fluoroquinolone or aminoglycoside, identify optimal combination regimens, describe the differences between combination therapies with an aminoglycoside versus a fluoroquinolone and to evaluate susceptibility rates based on the source of infection and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or non-ICU location. A retrospective observational study at a Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital in the Southwestern region of the U.S. was conducted. P. aeruginosa isolates were collected between January 2008 and February 2012 in hospitalized veterans. A total of 374 isolates were included, of which 61 (16%) were obtained from the ICU. Susceptibility rates for monotherapy with a beta-lactam ranged from 83.7 to 90.6%. Collectively, all P. aeruginosa isolates benefited in coverage with the addition of a fluoroquinolone or an aminoglycoside to one of the beta-lactams considered for monotherapy (p<0.01 for each comparison). Monotherapy with a beta-lactam could be considered for mild to moderate wound infections which had beta-lactam susceptibility rates greater than 90% and the addition of a fluoroquinolone did not significantly extend the spectrum. Combination susceptibility rates ranged from 89.0 to 99.2%. Dual therapy of a beta-lactam with amikacin or tobramycin resulted in significantly better coverage than with a fluoroquinolone (p<0.03 for all combinations). For severe infections dual therapy with tobramycin or amikacin may be preferred over fluoroquinolones, but the risks versus benefits of aminoglycoside therapy must be weighed for each patient. In conclusion, combination antibiograms are useful for evaluating the treatment of P. aeruginosa. Choosing the ideal antibiotic regimen ultimately deals with many factors and results of this combination antibiogram are only specific to this institution.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2014.88.94 2014/06/16 - 13:37

Mycoplasma hominis is one of the well known genital mycoplasma agent that has been recognized as potentially pathogenic species and associated with various infectious diseases in adult men and woman. The organism could cause pelvic inflammatory disease, postpartum, postabortion fever and pyelonephritis. The Aim of this prospective study was to detemine the occurrence and prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis in patients with urinary tract infections, since they are usually not detected by routine microbiological examination of urine samples in laboratory department. For this purpose, Culture method was to be attempted as the current laboratory methods of choice for detection urogenital mycoplasmas infections. This study was designed as a case-control study in which a total of 100 patients with mean age of the of 42.78±22.49 (95% CI = 39-49.17) in case group as well as a mean age of 48.18±18.81 ((95% CI = 42.83-53.53) in the control group. The patients of both sexes were investigated for the presence of M. hominis and they were admitted to the urology department at asser central hospital in Abha (a city in southwest region of Saudi Arabia), during over a period of one year (February, 2013-March, 2014). A detailed history with specific urinary symptoms and signs was obtained as a result. These patients were divided into two groups: The first group (or case group) and the second group (or control group): The case group, included 50 symptomatic patients who had been admitted in hospital and they were examined for the presence of one or more of the following specific urinary symptoms and signs: Urinary frequency, dysuria, suprapubic/pelvic pain. Unlike the case group, the control group included 50 asymptomatic patients who were free of any specific urinary symptoms and they were matched by the first group for their age index. First voided urine specimens were tested using urine microscopy, culture for M hominis was performed and the isolates were identified serologically by growth inhibition test (disc method). In the case group, 8 cases out of 50 and in control group 1 out 50 were positive for M. hominis infection. The incidence of M. hominis was higher and statistically significant among case symptomatic patients group (8/50, 16%) than control asymptomatic patients group patients (1/50, 2%). On applying tests of significance to the observed data for isolation of Mycolplasma hominis among cases and controls, the values were found to statistically significant. Chi-square test with Yate's correction [χ2 4.396; p value 0.036] and the Fisher's exact test (2 tailed) [p value = 0.0309] indicated the relevance of the findings. The Relative Risk (RR) for the occurrence of Mycoplasma hominis infection was estimated to be 8 (95% C.I = 1.0386 -61.6235). The odds ratio was determined to be 0.1071 (95% CI = 0.129-0.892) and the risk ratio was 0.2063 (95% CI = 0.0322-1.3224). This is the first report study for the detection of M hominis in patients with urinary tract infections performed in Saudi Arabia. Infection caused by M hominis was associated with higher incidence rate in patients with symptomatic urinary tract diseases. Further work studies is needed for their rapid detection of these organism in urine samples using other diagnostic methods such as PCR. Further knowledge of the role and the effect of this pathogen in patients with urinary tract infections can be a prospective field of study.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2014.77.83 2014/05/14 - 23:25

This study discusses the strategies that have proven successful in improving adherence to hand hygiene policies among health care providers working in acute care, inpatient settings. Review of literature suggests that while some efforts to improve hand hygiene compliance have focused on environmental engineering other efforts have focused mostly on broad-based educational and motivational initiatives, such as online educational programs and staff training. Both environmental engineering and educational interventions have resulted in improvements in compliance rates, ranging from 25.4 to 97%. Hospitals and healthcare facilities that already use these strategies should continue to do so while evaluating factors that may lead to further improvements. Hospitals and facilities that do not already have these strategies in place should adopt them to help curb the transmission of microbes. These strategies may include random audits, well-written protocols, visual reminders, training for new staff and regular continuing education for current staff.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2014.84.87 2014/05/14 - 23:25

There is some published evidence which suggests that the clinical outcomes and pathogens associated with Acute Pyelonephritis (AP) differ between diabetics and non-diabetics. However, current guidelines do not make treatment distinctions based on Diabetes Mellitus (DM) status. The objectives of this study were to identify the microbiological and clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with AP and investigate differences between patients with and without DM. A retrospective cohort study of adult patients admitted with AP at The Brooklyn Hospital Center was conducted. Patient information was accessed through the hospital’s electronic medical record system and patients were identified through primary discharge diagnosis ICD-9 codes for AP within the past three years. Patients were then screened for DM; all DM patients were randomly matched in a 2:1 manner to patients without DM admitted with AP during the same time period. A total of 48 patients were included in this analysis, 16 with DM and 32 without DM. There was a significantly greater median length of stay among diabetics (6 (3-8) Vs. 3 days (2-5), P = 0.02). There was a greater rate of antimicrobial resistance among DM patients, with a significantly greater rate of infection by Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms (MDRO) (4/16 [25%] Vs. 1/32 [3%], P = 0.036). Escherichia coli was the overall most common uropathogen, in 50% of the DM patients and 53% of the non-DM patients. Ceftriaxone monotherapy was the most commonly used empiric regimen in both groups (10/16 [63%] Vs. 19/32 [59%]) and there were similar rates of ceftriaxone sensitivity (8/10 [80%] Vs. 19/19 [100%]). Patients with DM were at greater risk of infection from MDRO and required longer lengths of hospitalization than patients without DM. Further investigation is warranted to guide effective empiric treatment of AP among patients with DM.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2014.71.76 2014/05/07 - 18:20

Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most neglected tropical diseases worldwide. The diagnosis and treatment of this disease is quite complex. Sodium Antimony Gluconate (SAG) which used to be a very effective treatment has now developed resistance and is potentially a cardio-toxic drug. Pentamidine has now been discarded because of adverse effect of diabetes mellitus. Amphotericin-B is an effective drug but can cause nephrotoxicity. Miltefosine is a new oral effective drug which has recently been introduced in the kala-azar elimination program in the Indian subcontinent. Paromomycin is an injectable aminoglycoside which is quite cheap but can cause ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Sitamaquine, an oral antimalarial drug is still in phase-II trial stage. Combination Therapy is been tried with good results. Single dose Ambisome (liposomal Amphotericin-B) though costly is a very good alternative.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2014.68.70 2014/05/07 - 18:20

Dengue fever is a zoonosis maintained in nature by mosquitoes transmitting virus between non-human primate species, most of which develop clinically in apparent infection. It has been found to be endemic in Africa and beyond. A survey for Dengue virus IgM antibody was carried out in Ogbomoso (urban and rural areas) using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (WKEA Med Supplies Corp, Dengue fever virus ELISA Kit (China),) to determine the seroprevalence and true incidence of dengue virus in Ogbomoso. A total of 186 apparently healthy individuals were recruited into the study. The sera of 93 subjects who consented to participate were collected. The mean age of the subjects tested was 37.6±1.67. Anti-Dengue virus IgM antibodies were found in 16/93, (17.2%). The highest prevalence of anti-Dengue 28.6% was found in persons whose ages were between 0-15 years, males (18.9%), civil servants (26.3%) and urban dwellers (21.3%). The findings from this study show that there is primary infection of this virus in Ogbomoso and suggest the need for preventive and control measures against dengue fever virus.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2014.64.67 2014/05/03 - 15:42

Dengue fever is a zoonosis maintained in nature by mosquitoes transmitting virus between non-human primate species, most of which develop clinically in apparent infection. It has been found to be endemic in Africa and beyond. A survey for Dengue virus IgM antibody was carried out in Ogbomoso (urban and rural areas) using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (WKEA Med Supplies Corp, Dengue fever virus ELISA Kit (China),) to determine the seroprevalence and true incidence of dengue virus in Ogbomoso. A total of 186 apparently healthy individuals were recruited into the study. The sera of 93 subjects who consented to participate were collected. The mean age of the subjects tested was 37.6±1.67. Anti-Dengue virus IgM antibodies were found in 16/93, (17.2%). The highest prevalence of anti-Dengue 28.6% was found in persons whose ages were between 0-15 years, males (18.9%), civil servants (26.3%) and urban dwellers (21.3%). The findings from this study show that there is primary infection of this virus in Ogbomoso and suggest the need for preventive and control measures against dengue fever virus.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2014.64.67 2014/05/03 - 15:42

In the present study, anaerobic clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica were obtained from different clinical specimens and were subjected to molecular typing to detect the gene encoding metronidazole resistance in these isolates. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of drugs was tested against the selected clinical isolates. A total of 53 clinical isolates involving 18 obligate and 35 facultative anaerobic bacteria were recovered from clinical samples of 67 patients who were suspected to have anaerobic infection. A disk diffusion method was employed to screen for metronidazole-resistance among these isolates. PCR assay was used to detect the metronidazole resistant gene (nim). Susceptibility studies in metronidazole resistant clinical isolates as well as positive controls were performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. According to disc diffusion method, of 53 isolates, 21 isolates (39.6%) were found to be metronidazole resistant. Further screening of these isolates with PCR revealed only 13 isolates (24.5%) carry nim gene. Out of which 7 were of B. fragilis, 3 were of Y. enterocolitica, 2 were of E. coli and 1 was of S. aureus. The highest number of metronidazole resistant isolates were found in abscess (7) followed by intra-abdominal infection (5) and bone and joint infection (1). When metronidazole resistant isolates were subjected to screen for the presence of nim gene, all isolates were found to carry nim gene. According to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data, among the tested antibacterial agents, Mebatic emerged as the most active antibacterial against metronidazole resistant isolates of B. fragilis, E. coli, S. aureus and Y. enterocolitica with MIC values 0.125 to 1.0 µg mL-1. Similarly, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test (AST) data also revealed that Mebatic was most efficacious in the metronidazole resistant organisms. From the above results, it is evident that Mebatic has enhanced in vitro antibacterial activity compared to other drugs in metronidazole resistant isolates thus can be a potent antibacterial agent for the treatment of infections caused by metronidazole resistant organisms.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2014.56.63 2014/04/12 - 15:22

Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) or Kala-Azar (KA) is highly endemic in the Indian subcontinent particularly in Bihar. Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a known reservoir for leishmania parasites for transmission of VL. The kala-azar elimination program was launched by the government of three countries of the Indian subcontinent in the year 2005, which aims to eliminate kala-azar by 2015 and PKDL by 2018. PKDL diagnosis and management has not been addressed properly. In this case report we have described a case of PKDL with ulcer and atypical presentation who was subsequently diagnosed by demonstration of Leishmania donovani bodies in the skin snips through microscopy, kinetoplast-DNA nested PCR and clinically. The patient was treated with miltefosine capsules in the dose of 50 mg twice-a-day for twelve-weeks and responded completely. This case report assumes great importance as prompt diagnosis and treatment of PKDL is essential in the kala-azar elimination program.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2014.50.55 2014/04/03 - 21:13

Diseased tomato samples were collected from green house was evaluated for isolation, pathogenicity and biochemical tests. The symptoms of the infected tomato plants were as sudden wilting after curled on leaves and necrotic streak regions developed at the crown and base of the stem and the cavities deepen and expand up and down, brown discoloration and necrosis occurring on xylem and phloem vasculer. All of ages of tomato plant were susceptible to bacteria when the weather condition favorable and immediately, seen collapse symptom on tomato plant at once fail and die. The bacterium was isolated from diseased plant in all regions on nutrient Agar; a yellow bacterium was isolated from infected tomato plant in green houses and fields in Abu-Ghraib, Rashiedia and Qanat Al-Geiaysh nurseries in Baghdad provinces of Iraq. The bacterium was found gram positive, rod-shaped, non-motile and capable an aerobic growth and based on the morphological and biochemical characteristics revealed that this bacterium belongs to: Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. (smith) pathogenicity and hypersensitivity of the bacterium Cmm showed the disease index were 18.33, 6.66, 16.66, 5, 0% for tomato seedlings were inoculated treatments as the wounding roots, without wounding roots, crown of the stem, petiole and control respectively.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2014.44.49 2014/02/20 - 14:29

DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase catalyzes the supercoiling of relaxed closed circular DNA. In this report we evaluated the in vitro inhibitory effect of non antibiotic adjuvant compounds disodium edetate and sodium citrate against supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA gyrase. Further, we assessed the effect of different drugs alone and in combination with one or more adjuvants in overcoming FQ resistance. A total of twelve DNA gyrase mutant strains three of each Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were used in the study. MICs of drugs were determined by the agar dilution method following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Potentox was the most active against all the selected mutants of with MIC values ranging 16-32 μg mL-1. DNA gyrase showed optimum supercoiling activity at 60 mM Mg2+. DNA gyrase inhibition was observed with low concentrations of disodium edetate and 50 and 100% inhibition on DNA gyrase activity was noted at approximately 4.2 and 10 mM disodium edetate. On the other hand, 50 and 100% inhibition of DNA gyrase was found at 65 and 140 mM sodium citrate. Furthermore, results revealed that Potentox inhibited the supercoiling activity of DNA gyrase at half of MIC of drug whereas other comparator drugs except gatifloxacin did not inhibit significantly the supercoiling activity of mutants as well as positive control. Potentox and gatifloxacin inhibited DNA gyrase and supercoiling at lower concentration and were the most effective. Although DNA gyrase from mutants was highly resistant to quinolones but sensitive to Potentox. Based on these results, it can be concluded that Potentox is an effective solution for the treatment of infections caused by fluoroquinolone resistant organism having DNA gyrase mutation.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2014.36.43 2014/02/08 - 21:27

Aeromonas species are increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens. Faecal samples from 20 cow, 45 sheep; 60 goat and 60 camels were examined for the presence of Aeromonas species, which was also sought in the available drinking water (55 well water and 52 drinking chlorinated tap water were also examined). Aeromonas species was isolated more frequently from goats (21.7%) than from other animal groups sampled and isolated more frequently from well water (38.2%) than chlorinated supplies (23.0%). A. hydrophilia was the most dominant species isolated from different kinds of samples (13.4%).Whereas A. sobria and A. caviae were isolated in much lower rates 4.7 and 2.1% respectively. There was significant association between the isolation of Aeromonas species from all animal faeces and its presence in drinking water. All isolated strains were examined for the characteristics that are reputed to have roles in pathogenicity. The data reported in this study indicates that the distributions of virulence factors, that regulate the pathogenicity of Aeromonads, are different in clinical and enviromental samples. Aeromonas isolates exhibited multi-drug resistanc amoxicillin, carbenicillin and ampicillin. The most potent antibiotics against Aeromonas species isolated in this study were ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefepime. Essential oils have been tested for in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity. Clove, Olive and Peppermint oil exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against all strains used in this study, showed a zone of inhibition ranging from 10.00±0.8 to 14.82±0.41 mm in diameter. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for selected oils ranged from 12.8 to 25.6 mg mL-1. Treatment of mice with essential oil for 15 days led to enhance antibody levels in all treated groups and significant clearance of A. hydrophilia from animals. The treated animals had minimal histopathological changes and lower bacterial loads in the organs examined. In conclusion, these findings indicate that aeromonads have the potential to cause human illness and confirm the role of water as vehicles for Aeromonas diseases. This study also demonstrated that the multi-factorial nature of the diseases and the influence of environmental conditions in the expression of the putative virulence properties. These results suggested the potential value of essential oils as an additional or supporting treatment in gastrointestinal inflammations.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2014.21.35 2014/01/19 - 11:59

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative enterobacterium that has historically been and currently remains, a significant cause of human disease and several kinds of infections in animals. In the present work, trials for the isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae from diseased and apparently healthy farm animals (cows, sheep, goats and camels) were done for recognition of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies. It was noticed that there was a marked variation between incidences of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies in examined animals as regards to health condition. The frequency was greater among samples collected from diseased animals 25.2% as compared with apparently healthy one 5.5%. It was found that there was great difference between the prevalence of Klebsiella isolated from various animal origins. On biochemical identification Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae was the most prevalent followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae and Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. Rhinoscleromatis. Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis was not isolated from apparently healthy animals. The in vitro sensitivity of isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies recovered from different animal species to 23 antimicrobial agents was tested. It was found that were resistance to cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, amoxicillin and ampicillin. The most potent antibiotics showing 100% activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. isolated in this study were imipenem, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin and kanamycin. While 96.2% of all examined isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ticarcillin/clavulanic acid. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that CPSs of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies contained wide variety of different molecular weights which ranged from 15.52 kDa to106.29 kDa and gave 10-13 bands. Evaluation of humoral immune response of mice immunized with CPSs was done using ELISA. It was found that the highest immune response was obtained 14 days post 1st dose of immunization with extracted CPSs of the three Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies. When mice were immunized with CPSs of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies, they were protected against virulent challenge with homologous or heterologous strains, as a result the mortality rates were reduced from 80, 75 and 65 to 5 to 15% of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae and Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, respectively. Determination of the reisolation rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies from lung, liver and spleen were done on both immunized mice and challenged and on control mice. Histopathological studies have been done on both dead infected non-immunized and immunized mice. Lungs were the main organs that showed macroscopic and microscopic pathological changes. Finally, ELISA has been used for detection of CPSs of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies antibodies in sera of examined animals. The sensitivity of ELISA using CPSs extracted from Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae and Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis was 87.7, 89.0 and 83.6%, respectively. The specificity of this ELISA was 93.4, 92.9 and 93.1%, respectively. ELISA using CPSs antigens could therefore serve as a valuable aid in serodiagnosis of Klebsiella pneumonia.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2014.1.14 2014/01/19 - 11:59

Sepsis is a critical condition often caused by bacterial infection and associated with death and mortality. The prognosis of this disease depends on early diagnosis and proper treatment. Definite diagnosis of sepsis is positive blood culture and this test needs a long time to perform, so other biochemical parameters such as procalcitonin serum level has been introduced. To determine sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of procalcitonin serum level at first time and 72 h after admission and to compare it with blood culture test for diagnosis of sepsis. Blood sample for blood culture, prepheral blood smear at first time and procalcitonin serum level measuring by semi quantitative method at first and 72 h after admission were sampled. Nine patients had positive blood cultures. Peripheral blood smear was positive in 38 patients, (29 patients: gram stain positive, 6 patients: gram stain negative and 3 patients: both gram positive and gram negative). At first time 76.8% had positive procalcitonin (>0.5 ng mL-1) and after 72 h 65% of patients had positive procalcitonin. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of procalcitonin at the first time were 100, 16,16 and 100% and for procalcitonin after 72 h respectively were 75, 35, 15 and 90%. This study showed that sensitivity of procalcitonin serum level can be used for diagnosis of sepsis. Procalcitonin increased as severity of sepsis and this study suggests high serum level of procalcitonin after 72 h might indicate poor outcome.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2014.15.20 2014/01/19 - 11:59

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative enterobacterium that has historically been and currently remains, a significant cause of human disease and several kinds of infections in animals. In the present work, trials for the isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae from diseased and apparently healthy farm animals (cows, sheep, goats and camels) were done for recognition of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies. It was noticed that there was a marked variation between incidences of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies in examined animals as regards to health condition. The frequency was greater among samples collected from diseased animals 25.2% as compared with apparently healthy one 5.5%. It was found that there was great difference between the prevalence of Klebsiella isolated from various animal origins. On biochemical identification Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae was the most prevalent followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae and Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. Rhinoscleromatis. Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis was not isolated from apparently healthy animals. The in vitro sensitivity of isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies recovered from different animal species to 23 antimicrobial agents was tested. It was found that were resistance to cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, amoxicillin and ampicillin. The most potent antibiotics showing 100% activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. isolated in this study were imipenem, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin and kanamycin. While 96.2% of all examined isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ticarcillin/clavulanic acid. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that CPSs of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies contained wide variety of different molecular weights which ranged from 15.52 kDa to106.29 kDa and gave 10-13 bands. Evaluation of humoral immune response of mice immunized with CPSs was done using ELISA. It was found that the highest immune response was obtained 14 days post 1st dose of immunization with extracted CPSs of the three Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies. When mice were immunized with CPSs of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies, they were protected against virulent challenge with homologous or heterologous strains, as a result the mortality rates were reduced from 80, 75 and 65 to 5 to 15% of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae and Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, respectively. Determination of the reisolation rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies from lung, liver and spleen were done on both immunized mice and challenged and on control mice. Histopathological studies have been done on both dead infected non-immunized and immunized mice. Lungs were the main organs that showed macroscopic and microscopic pathological changes. Finally, ELISA has been used for detection of CPSs of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies antibodies in sera of examined animals. The sensitivity of ELISA using CPSs extracted from Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae and Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis was 87.7, 89.0 and 83.6%, respectively. The specificity of this ELISA was 93.4, 92.9 and 93.1%, respectively. ELISA using CPSs antigens could therefore serve as a valuable aid in serodiagnosis of Klebsiella pneumonia.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2014.7.20 2014/01/06 - 16:41

Sepsis is a critical condition often caused by bacterial infection and associated with death and mortality. The prognosis of this disease depends on early diagnosis and proper treatment. Definite diagnosis of sepsis is positive blood culture and this test needs a long time to perform, so other biochemical parameters such as procalcitonin serum level has been introduced. To determine sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of procalcitonin serum level at first time and 72 h after admission and to compare it with blood culture test for diagnosis of sepsis. Blood sample for blood culture, prepheral blood smear at first time and procalcitonin serum level measuring by semi quantitative method at first and 72 h after admission were sampled. Nine patients had positive blood cultures. Peripheral blood smear was positive in 38 patients, (29 patients: gram stain positive, 6 patients: gram stain negative and 3 patients: both gram positive and gram negative). At first time 76.8% had positive procalcitonin (>0.5 ng mL-1) and after 72 h 65% of patients had positive procalcitonin. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of procalcitonin at the first time were 100, 16,16 and 100% and for procalcitonin after 72 h respectively were 75, 35, 15 and 90%. This study showed that sensitivity of procalcitonin serum level can be used for diagnosis of sepsis. Procalcitonin increased as severity of sepsis and this study suggests high serum level of procalcitonin after 72 h might indicate poor outcome.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2014.1.6 2013/12/24 - 09:25

As a medical resident we have always been taught that there is some sort of cross reactivity between sulfonamide antibiotics and nonantibiotic sulfonamides. Even the manufacturer’s package inserts contain a precautionary statement about possible Cross-reactivity. The most common approach to this problem is avoidance of all sulfa containing drugs. However, there are few data supporting this contraindication. Thus we may be withholding appropriate therapies from patients unnecessarily. To provide a critical and comprehensive review of literature to explore either cross reactivity between sulfonamide antibiotics and nonantibiotic sulfonamides is a fact or fiction and to present an approach to use nonantibiotic sulfonamides in sulfa allergic patients. A PubMed and general medline search was conducted using the individual names of nonantibiotic sulfonamides. We reviewed all of the available case reports and studies regarding sulfonamide antibiotic cross-reactivity with nonantibiotic sulfonamides. Also reviewed the manufacturer’s package insert for each nonantibiotic sulfonamide drug for information concerning possible cross-reactivity with sulfonamide antibiotics. Sulfa drug allergy is one word holding the whole cross-reactivity theory in it. It should be obsolete from the medical dictionary. This one word is complicating the medical decision-making. Allergies should not be attributed to classes or groups of drugs unless proven. After reviewing all the available literature we can conclude that assumptions about cross-reactivity are a FICTION.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.148.154 2013/12/02 - 17:37

To identify clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with the risk of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients. A case-control study in a cohort of HIV-infected patients. Cases: patients coinfected with HIV and pulmonary or extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Controls: no clinical tuberculosis and PPD negative, matched for age and sex. Primary data were obtained from medical records and personal interviews. We identified 47 cases and 94 controls. The main risk factors identified were: underweight (malnutrition) (BMI ≤ 18.49), abscence of antiretroviral therapy, CD4 + cells count ≤ 199 cells/mm3, RNA HIV-1 viral load ≥ 100,000 copies/mL. Tuberculosis is associated to multiple risk factors in HIV infected patients, clinical factors are more important that sociodemographic ones. CD4+ cells count < 200 cells/µL, malnutrition IMC < 18.9 and RNA HIV-1 viral load > 100,000 copies/mL are associated with tuberculosis in HIV infected patients.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.142.147 2013/12/01 - 07:59

In order to understand the mechanism of molecular interactions at the active site of Tryparedoxin Peroxidase (Try P), homology modeling and docking studies were performed. We generated a Three-Dimensional (3D) model of target protein based on the Crystal structure of Leishmania Major Try PI (PDB ID: 3TUE) using modeler software. Docking analysis was carried out to study the effects of methotrexate on Tryparedoxin Peroxidase (Try P). Inhibition of the Tryparedoxin peroxidase interaction has become a new therapeutic strategy in treating leishmaniasis. Docking analysis was carried out to study the effects of methotrexate on Tryparedoxin Peroxidase (TryP). Tryparedoxin peroxidase of Trypanosomatidae family functions as antioxidant through their peroxidase and peroxynitrite reductase activities. The theoretical docking study, conducted on a sample previously reported for anti-cancer properties of Methotrexate at the binding site of 3D models of Tryparedoxin Peroxidase of Leishmania braziliensis (L. braziliensis Try P) examine interaction energy. Our studies indicate that Methotrexate displays potent activity against Try P with lowest binding energy and RMSD values to be -14.5879 Kcal/Mol and 2.0 A. The results of the present study clearly demonstrated the Tryparedoxin Peroxidase inhibitory activity by methotrexate in in silico docking analysis and in vitro assay which contributes towards understanding the mechanism of antileishmanial activity.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.117.129 2013/11/28 - 14:55

During the first six months of operating a new Internal-medicine ward in a tertiary hospital, a prospective survey, tracking both patient and environment bacteriological samples taken, was conducted. The motive behind the study was to establish the pattern in which environmental colonization is transmitted to the hospitalized patients, and vice versa, thus defining the nosocomial pathogens that are typical to the ward. That information can be used to guide empirical antibiotic treatment. Patient sampling was done on clinical grounds whereas environmental cultures were systematically acquired from different surfaces around the ward. 6-months’ results analysis suggest that clinically guided culture rates were tightly associated with volume of patients admitted, with no such association demonstrated between volume of cultures taken and rate of positive results, except for urine cultures. Regarding environmental sampling, we demonstrated no benefit in taking empirical, surface samples for common nosocomial pathogens. Our findings could further improve future resources allocation with regard to infection control and clinical bacteriology routines in newly established internal medicine wards.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.136.141 2013/11/28 - 14:55

Drug therapy is one of the most important factors in providing community health. In a proper selection of an antibiotic for curing an infection, the kind of infective agent and its sensitivity to the utilized drugs must be regarded. The patients whom are admitted in ICUs are 5 to 7 folds more vulnerable to infection. The studies has been done in past decades have shown various amounts of inappropriate antibiotic use. The files of 234 patients whom were admitted during 6 months in ICUs (Surgery, Neurosurgery, Neurology and Pulmonary diseases) of Imam Reza Hospital of Tabriz County studied for manner of antibiotic therapy, antibiotic changes during therapy, number of prescribed antibiotics 64% of patients were male and 36% were female. Average age of patients was 43.9±23.9 years. The most admission of patients was in Surgery ICU (69.2%). The most prescribed antibiotic was Cephalosporin family and ceftriaxone was the most utilized antibiotic. In 59.7% of patients, the antibiotics were prescribed empirically and in 35% of cases antibiotics changed during treatment. 28.1% of cases treated with monotherapy while others treated with combination therapy. In 61% of cases, the prescribed antibiotics were inappropriate with final diagnosis of patients. The majority of antibiotics were prescribed according to physician’s clinical experiment and combination therapy is used much more than monotherapy.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.130.135 2013/11/28 - 14:55

Sepsis is a critical condition often caused by bacterial infection and associated with death and mortality. The prognosis of this disease depends on early diagnosis and proper treatment. Definite diagnosis of sepsis is positive blood culture and this test needs a long time to perform, so other biochemical parameters such as procalcitonin serum level has been introduced. To determine sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of procalcitonin serum level at first time and 72 h after admission and to compare it with blood culture test for diagnosis of sepsis. Blood sample for blood culture, prepheral blood smear at first time and procalcitonin serum level measuring by semi quantitative method at first and 72 h after admission were sampled. Nine patients had positive blood cultures. Peripheral blood smear was positive in 38 patients, (29 patients: gram stain positive, 6 patients: gram stain negative and 3 patients: both gram positive and gram negative). At first time 76.8% had positive procalcitonin (>0.5 ng mL-1) and after 72 h 65% of patients had positive procalcitonin. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of procalcitonin at the first time were 100, 16,16 and 100% and for procalcitonin after 72 h respectively were 75, 35, 15 and 90%. This study showed that sensitivity of procalcitonin serum level can be used for diagnosis of sepsis. Procalcitonin increased as severity of sepsis and this study suggests high serum level of procalcitonin after 72 h might indicate poor outcome.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.117.122 2013/11/23 - 11:58

Drug therapy is one of the most important factors in providing community health. In a proper selection of an antibiotic for curing an infection, the kind of infective agent and its sensitivity to the utilized drugs must be regarded. The patients whom are admitted in ICUs are 5 to 7 folds more vulnerable to infection. The studies has been done in past decades have shown various amounts of inappropriate antibiotic use. The files of 234 patients whom were admitted during 6 months in ICUs (Surgery, Neurosurgery, Neurology and Pulmonary diseases) of Imam Reza Hospital of Tabriz County studied for manner of antibiotic therapy, antibiotic changes during therapy, number of prescribed antibiotics 64% of patients were male and 36% were female. Average age of patients was 43.9±23.9 years. The most admission of patients was in Surgery ICU (69.2%). The most prescribed antibiotic was Cephalosporin family and ceftriaxone was the most utilized antibiotic. In 59.7% of patients, the antibiotics were prescribed empirically and in 35% of cases antibiotics changed during treatment. 28.1% of cases treated with monotherapy while others treated with combination therapy. In 61% of cases, the prescribed antibiotics were inappropriate with final diagnosis of patients. The majority of antibiotics were prescribed according to physician’s clinical experiment and combination therapy is used much more than monotherapy.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.123.128 2013/11/23 - 11:58

Ticks are obligate haematophagous arthropods present all over the world able to produce human diseases. Several factors have increased the abundance, circulation and distribution of the pathogens transmitted by ticks, contributing to the change in the vector-borne diseases epidemiology in the last years. This review collects the most important measures for the prevention and prophylaxis of tick-borne diseases. The pre-exposition measures to avoid tick-borne diseases are based on the prevention of tick bites by avoiding tick-infested areas, using of protective clothing, repellents and controlling tick populations by physical, mechanical, biological and chemical methods. It is also reviewed other measures as the utility of educational programs and the use of human vaccines. On the other hand, we also review some key aspects referred to the measures to carry out after tick bites as how to remove a tick correctly and the utility of making an antibiotic prophylaxis.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.104.116 2013/11/05 - 17:23

In the present investigation, we investigated the in vitro interaction of ceftriaxone plus sulbactam with disodium edetate, a Non Antibiotic Adjuvant (NAA) against selected clinical isolates and in vitro susceptibility studies were also performed. The isolates were tested against a range of ratios of ceftriaxone and sulbactam using a microdilution checkerboard method. Having determined the appropriate ratios of ceftriaxone plus sulbactam, effect of various concentration of disodium edetate were also studied using the microdilution checkerboard method. All the results were analysed with the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) indices. Susceptibility studies were carried out according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods. Results of this study demonstrated that 2:1 ratio of ceftriaxone and sulbactam was the more synergistic with FIC index values 0.4281, 0.4023, 0.4124 and 0.4325 for E. coli, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae. The synergicity of ceftriaxone and sulbactam was enhanced significantly with increasing concentration of disodium edetate and produced the lowest FIC index (<0.2) at 10 mM of disodium edetate in all positive controls as well as clinical isolates. Further, the synergy between ceftriaxone plus sulbactam with disodium edetate (Elores) was confirmed by broth dilution, time kill curve and agar diffusion methods. In broth dilution method, Elores (ceftriaxone+sulbactam+disodium edetate) produced 4 to 5 fold lower MIC when compared with ceftriaxone plus sulbactam. Approximately 104 log of killing reduction was observed with synergistic ratio of Elores in time kill curve study. This study suggest that Elores could be an alternative regimen in combating antibiotic resistance among multi drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013..94.103 2013/11/01 - 19:15

Exchange of information on and sharing of influenza viruses through the GISRS network has great significance for understanding influenza virus evolution, recognition of a new pandemic virus emergence and for preparing annual WHO recommendations on influenza vaccine strain composition. Influenza surveillance in Russia is based on collaboration of two NICs with 59 Regional Bases. Most epidemiological and laboratory data are entered through the internet into the electronic database at the Research Institute of Influenza (RII), where they are analyzed and then reported to the Ministry of Public Health of Russia. Simultaneously, data are introduced into WHO’s Flu Net and Euro Flu, both electronic databases. Annual influenza epidemics of moderate intensity were registered during four pre-pandemic seasons. Children aged 0-2 and 3-6 years were the most affected groups of the population. Influenza registered clinically among hospitalized patients with respiratory infections for the whole epidemic period varied between 1.3 and 5.4% and up but to 18.5-23.0% during the peak of the two pandemic waves caused by influenza A(H1N1) pdm 09 virus and to lesser extent (2.9 to 8.5%) during usual seasonal epidemics. Most epidemics were associated with influenza A(H1N1), A(H3N2) and B co-circulation. During the two pandemic waves (in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011) influenza A(H1N1) pdm 09 predominated. It was accompanied by a rapid growth of influenza morbidity with a significant increase of both hospitalization and mortality. The new pandemic virus displaced the previous seasonal A(H1N1) virus completely. As a rule, most of the influenza viruses circulating in Russia were antigenic ally related to the strains recommended by WHO for vaccine composition for the Northern hemisphere with the exception of two seasons when an unexpected replacement of the influenza B Victoria lineage by Yamagata lineage (2007-2008) and the following return of Victoria lineage viruses (2008-2009) was registered. Influenza surveillance in Russia was improved as a result of enhancing capacity to international standards and the introduction of new methods in NICs such as rRT-PCR diagnosis, regular testing of influenza viruses for susceptibility to antivirals, phylogenetic analysis as well as organization of sentinel surveillance in a number of Regional Base Laboratories. Improvements promoted rapid recognition of the appearance a new pandemic virus in the country and enhancement of confirmation tests in investigation of influenza related death cases.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.77.93 2013/10/14 - 12:08

Kunun-zaki drink is a locally prepared indigenous non-alcoholic beverage that is widely produced and consumed in Nigeria. Standard microbiological methods were employed to isolate bacteria from Kunun-zaki drink sold in Keffi metropolis, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Samples of Kunun-zaki drink were collected from ten (10) different locations and their bacteriological loads were determined in terms of total bacterial counts using standard methods involving pour plate. The antibiotic resistance pattern of the bacterial isolates against some antibiotics was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The bacterial counts of the Kunun-zaki in the ten different locations range from 9.1×108 to 2.6×108 cfu/mL. Four species of bacteria were isolated and identified by standard microbiological methods and these were Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. The most predominant isolate in terms of occurrence was Escherichia coli (100%) followed by Enterobacter aerogenes (70%), Staphylococcus areus (30%) and Streptococcus spp (10%). Escherichia coli showed high resistance to Chloramphenicol (75%), followed by Septrin (68.7%) and Sparfloxacin (68.7%), while Enterobacter aerogenes, Streptococcus spp and Staphylococcus areus had low rates of resistance to all the antibiotics tested. E. coli had very sensitivity to Pefloxacin (100%), Gentamicin (88%), Amoxicillin (88%), Augmentin (75%), Tarivid (68.7%) and Streptomycin (68.7%). Streptococus spp are the most susceptible isolates which had 100% sensitivity to Septrin, Chloramphenicol, Amoxicillin, Gentamicin and Pefloxacin respectively and this was followed by Staphylococcus areus which had 100% sensitivity to Chloramphenicol, Amoxicillin, Augmentin and Tarivid respectively. The antibiotic resistance pattern exhibited by E. coli isolated from the Kunun-zaki sold in Keffi is indicative of possible abuse of the use of antibiotics and this has serious health implications. The results of this study demonstrate that Kunun-zaki sold in Keffi is contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria including antibiotic resistant E. coli and these may lead to failures in antibiotic chemotherapy among consumers of Kunun-zaki in the Keffi metropolis.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.71.76 2013/09/09 - 19:51

Multidrug resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of nosocomial and community acquired infections and is on the rise. The aim of this investigation was to explore the prevalence of MRSA and heterogeneous Glycopeptide Intermediate Staphylococcus Aureus (hGISA) in various clinical samples, to investigate the various antibiotic resistant determinant genes among these strains collected from north and west Indian hospitals and to evaluate the response of various drugs to these strains. A total of 413 clinical specimens collected from different hospitals were processed for the screening of S. aureus and MRSA. All these MRSA strains were further screened for hGISA on Mueller-Hinton agar containing 8 µg mL-1 teicoplanin or 6 µg mL-1 vancomycin. hGISA confirmed by the E-test method with a dense inoculum and a simplified method of population analysis. Susceptibility study was conducted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods. Among 211 S. aureus clinical isolates, 61.6% (130/211) of the isolates were confirmed to be MRSA which included maximum isolates from pus, blood, urine, wound swab and ear swab samples in decreasing order. hGISA strains were found in 8/130 (6.1%) isolates. Vancoplus, a novel antibiotic adjuvant entity was found to be susceptible in 96.1 to 97.8% MRSA strains and showed intermediate response in 2.2 to 3.8% of isolates. Linezolid appeared to be second most active antibiotic with 48.0 to 81.2% susceptibility, followed by teicoplanin (41.3 to 56.2% susceptibility). There was 8.7 to 9.6% resistance observed in Linezolid which was increased to 48% in teicoplanin, to >60% indaptomycin and >75% in vancomycin. Interestingly, none of the isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and cefoperazone plus sulbactam. From the above study it can be concluded that prevelance of MRSA has reached a significant level and Vancoplus is the most effective in MRSA as well as hVISA organisms in comparison to comparator drugs.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.63.70 2013/09/04 - 19:17

The aim of this study was to find out the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis among individuals of different age group and sex living in rural communities of Bihar, India. A retrospective study was conducted on 133 patients with a history of prolong fever and weight loss who was admitted at Rajendra Memorial Research Institute Of Medical Sciences (RMRIMS), Patna, India during the year 2013 (from January 2013 to April 2013). It was found that majority of the cases (64.67%) cases were of adults aged between 15-45 years of age, 21.80% cases were of children below 14 years of age whereas 13.5% cases belong to patients of age more than 45 years of age including elderly patients. Leishmaniasis is a life threatening disease affecting poorest of the poor.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.59.62 2013/07/29 - 18:00

The present study aimed to assess the antibacterial activity of the methanol extract of Melastoma Malabathricum Leaves (MMML), active fraction of M. Malabathricum Leaves (ML5) and isolated kaempferol-3-O-(2”,6”-di-O-p-trans-coumaroyl)-β-glucopyranoside (Kf) and to describe the preliminary mode of action against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The MMML extract was fractionated by Vacuum Liquid Chromatography (VLC) to afford M. malabathricum Leaves fractions (ML1-ML6) of increasing polarities. Bioassay-guided fractionation (direct-TLC bioautography) revealed that fraction of M. Malabathricum Leaves (ML5) had the highest antibacterial activity. Therefore, the ML5 was further subjected to Column Chromatography (CC) to afford Kaempferol-3-O-(2”,6”-di-O-p-trans-coumaroyl)-β-glucopyranoside (Kf). The compound structure was elucidated using data obtained from 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra. Antibacterial activity of MMML, ML5 and bioactive constituents Kf against Staphylococcus aureus reference strain, methicillin-resistant S. aureus reference strain (MRSA), 11 clinical MRSA isolates, 3 clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and P. aeruginosa reference strain was evaluated through disk diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The time kill assay and field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the preliminary mode of action. The data obtained from disk diffusion method and MIC showed that the MMML, ML5 and Kf showed antibacterial activity against all test bacteria with various values. Generally, the ML5 and Kf exhibited the highest antibacterial activity with the largest zones of inhibition and lowest MIC values against S. aureus and all tested MRSA. The MMML exerted the strongest killing effect against all tested bacteria while the overall performance of ML5 and Kf were significantly more effective against S. aureus and MRSA than P. aeruginosa. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed irregular bacterial surface indicating that the MMML, ML5 and Kf disrupted the integrity of membrane. In conclusion, the results obtained showed that MMML, ML5 and Kf have potential alternative to antibiotics.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.46.58 2013/06/19 - 00:15

Acinetobacter plays an important role in the infection of patients admitted to hospitals. Acinetobacter are free living gram-negative coccobacilli that emerge as significant nosocomial pathogens in the hospital setting and are responsible for intermittent outbreaks in the Intensive Care Unit. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Acinetobacter in patients admitted into the Intensive Care Unit and determine their role in infections in the ICU. A total of one hundred patients were recruited for the study, catheter specimen urine, tracheal aspirate and blood culture were collected aseptically from the patients. The specimens were cultured on blood and MacConkey and the organisms identified using Microbact 12E (0xoid). The Plasmid analysis was done using the TENS miniprep method. Fourteen (14%) of the 100 patients recruited into the study, developed Acinetobacter infection. Acinetobacter spp constituted 9% of the total number of isolates. Twelve (86%) of the isolates were recovered from tracheal aspirate, 1(7%) from urine and 1(7%) from blood. All of the isolates harbor plasmids of varying molecular sizes. Ten of the fourteen Acinetobacter were isolated at about the same period of time in the ICU with 6(42.7%) having plasmid size in the 23.1kb band and all showed similar pattern revealing that the isolates exhibit some relatedness. The clonal nature of the isolates suggest that strict infection control practices must be adopted in ICU, also an antibiotic policy must be developed for the ICU to prevent abuse of antibiotics that may lead to selection of resistant bacteria.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.40.45 2013/06/09 - 10:49

Choice of empiric antibiotics in India have generally been guided by western data and guidelines. However, validity and applicability of western guidelines in the Indian setting is not known. The aim of our study was to explore microbial prevalence and resistance patterns in a tertiary care Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in India and to determine whether western guidelines are still valid for use in the Indian setting. We also wanted to evaluate the impact of infectious disease specialist consultation on the appropriateness of initial antibiotic choice and de-escalation practices. Prospective observational study from January 2009 to July 2009, in a setting of 600 bed multispecialty tertiary care hospital. Relevant samples from patients suspected to have infection were cultured and sensitivity testing was performed according to standard procedures. Only the first positive cultures from each patient were used for analysis of the 401 patients admitted to ICU during the study period 25% had positive cultures. 60% of the cultures grew Gram negative organisms with E. coli, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter species being the commonest isolated pathogens. Mortality among culture positive patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) was 31%. Culture and sensitivity patterns of organisms in Indian ICUs differ from that in the west. Gram negative organisms are most commonly cultured. Initial antibiotic choice when made using western guidelines seem to be appropriate only in (48.4%) of patients. When choosing empiric antibiotics in acutely ill Indian ICU patients, modifications to western guidelines need to be done using local microbial prevalence and resistance patterns.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.30.33 2013/06/09 - 10:49

Staphylococcus Aureus (SA) is one of the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in human beings. Approximately 20% of healthy persons are persistent carriers and 60% are intermittent carriers of SA. Nasal cavity is one of the most important sites of its colonization. Intravenous (IV) drug abuse has been proposed as a risk factor for colonization of SA in the nasal mucosa. The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of SA carriers in nasal cavity among IV and non-IV drug abusers (addicts), as well as to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the positive cases. In a cross-sectional analysis of 300 drug addicts (Group I: 100 non-injecting addicts, Group II: 100 IV injecting drug addicts in rehab, Group III: 100 IV injecting drug addicts not in rehab) in the infectious diseases clinics of Tabriz’s Imam Reza and Sina teaching hospitals and the rehabilitation center of Razi hospital, were investigated. Hospitalized addicts, insulin-dependent diabetic cases, HIV positive patients and those on chronic hemodialysis were excluded. The nasal mucosal sample was prepared from each case for SA isolation and its antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated by antibiogram. Eighty-four cases (28%) were culture positive for SA, including 26 cases in group one, 32 cases in group two and 26 cases in group three (p = 0.55). There was only one MRSA isolate present in all the cases studied (1.2%). No resistance to linozolid, rifampin and vancomycin was observed. The resistance to erythromycin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, co-trimoxazol and gentamicin were 3.6, 4.8, 2.4, 3.6, 1.2 and 2.4% respectively. No statistically significant differences existed between the three groups in antibacterial susceptibility pattern. Sensitivity to oxacillin using the E-test results and disc diffusion were completely consistent. The percentage of carries of SA in the anterior nasal mucosa among IV and non-IV drug addicts is not considerably higher than the general population. MRSA isolates were uncommon in our cases. However, given the importance of localized and systemic infections in this group, early detection and treatment is reasonable.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.34.39 2013/06/09 - 10:49

Otitis media is the bacterial infection of the middle ear usually accompanied with inflammation, effusions and pain. It can present clinically in two major forms: Acute Otitis Media (AOM) and Otitis Media with Effusion (OME) and it is one of the leading cause of hospital visits and antibiotic prescriptions amongst children and even adults. Antibiotic resistance is a global public health problem and Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) enzymes is one of the new mechanisms of resistance in especially Gram negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ESBLs are plasmid-mediated β-lactamase enzymes that hydrolyze extended-spectrum oxyimino 3rd generation cephalosporins and monobactams. Organisms producing ESBLs have remained important nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens over the years. Ear swab specimens of children (aged 0-7) with suspected Otitis media infections and who attended a tertiary hospital in Enugu, Nigeria were cultured on growth media. E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa were isolated and identified by standard microbiological techniques. Antibiogram was conducted on all isolated ear pathogens by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and ESBL production was evaluated by the Double Disk Synergy Test (DDST) method. Imipenem and meropenem were the most active antibiotics against the E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa ear pathogens. Sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim was the least active agent against the tested ear pathogens and this was followed by ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, cefotaxime and ceftazidime. None of the E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa ear pathogens produced ESBLs by the method used. ESBL production by pathogenic bacteria confers on organisms the ability to be multidrug resistant. Their prompt and accurate detection from clinical specimens, together with reporting them along with hospitals routine antibiogram results is vital as this will help to guide therapy and forestall any treatment failure in the face of an ESBL infection.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.24.29 2013/06/09 - 10:49

Presence of Dengue virus has been established in Nigeria; owing to the severity of this disease and its attendant complications we investigated the presence of this virus serologically in febrile Nigerian children under 5 years of age from Ilorin. Blood samples were tested from 130 children under the age of 5 years for the presence of IgM antibodies against all the Dengue virus serotypes using ELISA Kit by IVD research, Inc® California USA. A prevalence rate of 40(30.8%) was recorded, with male children having a higher rate of 30(44.1%) while female children recorded 10(16.1%). Age range distribution was highest in group 3>5 years with 10(62.5%) and lowest in age group <1 with 12(16.2%). Our findings in this study indicate potential endemicity of this virus infection in some parts of Nigeria. We therefore recommend further studies into circulating serotypes in human populations and urgent preventive and control measures of this emerging infectious disease.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.7.10 2013/06/09 - 10:49

Studies have found a high seroprevalence of T. gondii in schizophrenia patients than controls. This case-control study was done to determine the serprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and to identify its risk factors among schizophrenia patients at Hospital Kajang. Eighty-eight (88) schizophrenia patients and 88 non-psychiatric controls were examined for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic and behavioral data among the respondents. From the results, the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies was significantly higher (51.0%) in schizophrenia patients than in controls (30.7%); (OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 2.16-3.01; p = 0.023. There was no significant association between the socio-demographic factors and toxoplasmosis. Beef consumption (p = 0.004, OR = 3.852, CI: 1.550-9.569), pork consumption (p<0.001, OR = 13.089, 95%CI: 4.730-36.219) and risky cat contact (p = 0.047, OR = 4.061, 95% CI: 1.985-16.745), were found to be significantly associated with T. gondii infection. Our results show that there is a relationship between toxoplasmosis and schizophrenia.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajidsp.2013.11.16 2013/06/09 - 10:49