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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

American Journal of Immunology

While the expression of immunoglobulins and T cell receptors on cancer cells has been well-established for decades, the potential roles and mechanisms of action of these cancerous antigen receptors have not been fully elucidated. A monoclonal antibody designated as RP215, which reacts specifically with the carbohydrate-associated epitope located on the heavy chain region of cancerous immunoglobulins and T cell receptors, was used as a unique probe to study the roles of antigen receptors in the immunology of cancer cells. Through extensive cell-based biological and immunological studies, it was found that both anti-antigen receptors and RP215 demonstrated similar actions on the gene regulations involved in the growth/proliferation of cancer cells, as well as on toll-like receptors involved in innate immunity. In addition, RP215-specific cancerous immunoglobulins are believed to capture or neutralize circulating antigen/antibodies which may be harmful to cancer cells within the human body. In contrast to normal B and T cells and their respective receptors in the conventional immune system, cancer cells co-express both immunoglobulins and T cell receptors and immune protection is exercised by unique mechanisms. For example, these cancer cell-expressed antigen receptors display a lack of class switching, limited hyper-mutation, aberrant glycosylations and a strong influence on the toll-like receptors of cancer cells. Therefore, it is hypothesized that both normal and cancerous immune systems may co-exist and operate simultaneously within the human body. The balance of these two immune factors for respective surveillance and protection may be relevant to the outcome of cancer immunotherapy in humans. A potential therapeutic strategy is being developed by using RP215 as a drug candidate to target cancer cells based on these observations.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.156.165 2014/10/02 - 16:42

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.156.156 2014/09/27 - 09:11

Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) have been associated with development of autoantibodies and autoimmune manifestations in children. Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH) is particularly aggressive in children/adolescents with a more severe outcome. Thus, studying the mechanisms of virus-related autoimmune disorders in children is a relevant topic of research. We aimed to study the prevalence of autoantibodies in plasma of children infected with either HAV or HIV comparing to healthy children. The relationship between the presence of autoantibodies and biochemical markers of hepatic damage was also investigated. Detection of autoantibodies (SMA) was associated with HAV infection with a prevalence of 35%. Similar levels of hepatic enzymes were observed in sera of HAV-infected patients with reactivity against autoantigens as compared to those without autoantibodies. On the other hand, HIV infection showed broader autoantibodies reactivities than HAV-infected patients and was associated with SMA (18%), ANCA (20%), ANCA-PR3 (15%) and ANCA-MPO (13%). Moreover, either RF or ANA was detected in 8% of HIV-infected children. Prevalence of autoantibodies was not associated with either gender or age of infected children. A high prevalence of SMA was observed in HAV- and HIV-infected patients. As HAV and SMA may persit in some patients and AIH can develop in susceptible children, it is recommended a follow up of virus infected patients. Since ANCA-PR3 and ANCA-MPO have been shown to be pathogenic, proinflammatory and associated with symptomatic HIV infection, further studies are required to determine the role of these autoantibodies in the pathogenesis associated with viral infection in children.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.144.155 2014/09/21 - 15:06

Allergic diseases represent major health burden. An allergic reaction is characterized by a disrupted T-helper 1⁄T-helper 2 balance toward a preferential allergen specifically induced TH2 cytokine profile, causing allergic inflammation Probiotic bacteria have various benificial effects in many pathologic situation. Studies have shown that the bacteria present in the intestinal micro flora play a role in the TH1/TH2 balance and its modulation can promote the control of infectious and immune processes. Testing the effects of probiotic bacteria on TH1/TH2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of allergic patients and control subjects. This study included 24 patients allergic to date pollen and 16 healthy control subjects. PBMC of both groups were separated and cultured for 72 h with date pollen allergen (home-made) in the presence or absence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 (Living and dead) and C-phycocyanin (extracted from Spirulina platensis). The cell culture supernatants were collected to measure Interlukin 4 and Interferon gamma by quantitative ELISA. Incubation of PBMCs of allergic patients with living Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 showed marked reduction in IL4 production (median IL4 concentarion = 3.9 pg.) compared to PBMCs callenged with pollen alone (mediam IL4 conentration = 52.6 pg). When PBMC were incubated with living Lactobacillus rhamnosus in absence of allergen significant increase in and IFNγ (median concentration = 42.75 pg.) was obtained, compared to PBMC challenged with allergen alone (median = 22.8 pg). When PBMCs incubated with heat killed Lactobacillus rhamnosus either in presence or absence of the offending allergen, marked reduction in IL4 production was obtained (median = 10.6, 3.6 pg respectively) compared to PBMC incubated with allergen alone (median = 52.6 pg). When PBMCs incubated with dead Lactobacillus rhamnosus, marked increase in IFNγ production was obtained (median = 49 pg) when compared to IFNγ production by PBMC challenged with allergen (median 22.8 pg). PBMCs challenged with PC in the presence or absence of allergen showed marked decrease of IL4 production (median = 19.8, 17 pg respectively) when compared to PBMC incubated with the offending allergen alone (median = 52.6 pg). PBMCs incubated with PC showed significant increase of and IFNγ production (median = 319.6 pg) when compared to PBMC incubated with the offending allergen alone (median = 22.8 pg). Conclusion Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and C-phycocyanin (extracted from Spirulina platensis) inversed the TH1: TH2 polarization in allergic patients and could be a promissing line of treatmen.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.116.130 2014/09/12 - 06:06

β1,3-glucans from fungi, cereals, seaweeds and bacteria have been shown to possess favourable biological and anti-carcinogenic activities including upregulation of phagocytosis, cytokine production enhancement, superoxide and nitrite production; antibody secretion and stimulation of signalling pathways associated with proto-oncogene expression. However, human dietary supplements containing β1,3-glucans vary in efficacy due to glucan source, the lifecycle stage of the source at extraction, extraction methods, purity, concentration and combination with other immunomodulators. A review of efficacy of some commercially available β1,3-glucan products is presented. Three apparently efficacious products in which β1,3-glucan was the only immunomodulator were identified: Glucan #300®, Maitake Gold 404® (diluted Yukiguni Maitake MD Fraction®) and Betamune®. A trial of Maitake Gold 404® produced evidence of standardisation problems. It is recommended that Yukiguni Maitake MD Fraction® (a more standardised alternative), Glucan #300® and Betamune® be comparatively trialled at optimal doses across immunological measures and tumor reduction. β1,3-glucans have been shown to be synergistic with conventional cancer therapies and monoclonal antibodies, as well as immunomodulators including vitamin C, transresveratrol, humic acids and Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera). Trialled commercially available products containing immunomodulator combinations have been shown to be inefficacious, apart from RVB300®, a β1,3-glucan/transresveratrol/vitamin C combination. The efficacies of various combinations of β1,3-glucans with other immunomodulators and the details of specific β1,3-glucan/monoclonal antibody synergies in treating particular cancer cell lines, require systematic elucidation.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.131.143 2014/09/05 - 16:12

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.114.115 2014/09/05 - 16:12

Salivary Carbonic Anhydrase VI (CA6) is a zinc-dependent metalloenzyme which may be important for normal taste function. Though many taste assessment methods exist, the assessment of zinc sulfate taste acuity is a method that has been suggested to have diverse relationships to human health. A double-blinded pilot study was conducted among 21 individuals to analyze the relationships between salivary CA6 concentrations, zinc sulfate taste acuity and self-reported frequency of illness. ELISA was performed to quantify CA6 concentrations, the Bryce-Smith and Simpson “Zinc Taste Test” (BS-ZTT) protocol and a Taste Intensity Visual Analog Scale (TI-VAS) were utilized to assess zinc sulfate taste acuity and a health history questionnaire was used to determine the frequency of illness. A statistically significant correlation existed between CA6 concentration and zinc sulfate taste acuity determined via the BS-ZTT (rs = 0.62; p = 0.03). A moderate statistically significant negative correlation was found between self-reported frequency of illness and BS-ZTT scores (rs = -0.64, p = 0.034). Likewise, a strong statistically significant negative correlation was found between self-reported frequency of illness and TI-VAS scores (rs = -0.81, p = 0.003). The results of this pilot study suggest that zinc sulfate taste acuity may be reflective of salivary CA6 concentration in addition to being a retrospective indicator of illness frequency.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.107.113 2014/07/09 - 13:33

Cancer is a worldwide issue and one of the most relevant death causes in child and adults. There are several causes that can lead to cancer development. It is well known that inflammation is one known hallmark of cancer and it favors tumor cells growth. Several alterations in immunological and inflammatory processes are caused in response to tumor presence and both innate and adaptive immunity have effective mechanism to destroy tumor cells. Nevertheless, distinct tumor types developed mechanisms to evade anti-tumor immunological responses. Here, we revise researches regarding inflammation and immune response during cancer development, as well as cancer signaling pathways and immunotherapy that have been performed in Brazil. The better understanding of the mechanisms regarding cancer and immunological processes is of huge importance and it may support the development of new cancer targets.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.93.106 2014/06/06 - 12:14

Subjects with sensitivities to certain pollen can experience oral or systemic allergic symptoms associated with ingestion of various fruits, vegetables and nuts. In this case report a birch-apple-carrot association in 23-year-old man suffering from pollinosis who experienced few episodes of oral allergy syndrome, generalized urticaria and bronchospasm immediately time after ingestion of fresh and cooked apple and carrot is presented. Skin Prick Tests (SPT) to standard inhalant and food allergens were positive for birch, lime, apple and carrot. SPT for apricot was also positive, despite the patient did not experienced any allergic symptom after consumption of fresh or cooked apricot. This case report represents the description of an IgE-mediated systemic allergic reaction to both apple and carrot in both fresh and cooked form which is not usual reaction in the patients with birch-food association.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.88.92 2014/05/10 - 15:46

Plant based products represent a promising alternative to conventional treatments for inflammation. Moringa oleifera Lam is a tree rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals and a variety of phytochemcals with health benefits. Among the reported health benefits are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether tea brewed from dried Moringa leaves would abrogate inflammation in a mouse model of acute lung inflammation induced by LPS or extracts prepared from dust collected from a swine confinement facility (DE). Mice were offered water or Moringa tea for seven days. Tea consumption was significantly greater than that of water consumption on days 1 and 6, but there were no significant differences in weight gain or food consumption. On day seven, mice from both groups were forced to inhale, via intranasal challenge, either Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS), Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) [10 µg mL-1] or DE [10%]. Compared to mice that drank water, mice that drank Moringa tea had significantly less protein (p<0.05) and cellular influx (p<0.0001) into the lung after inhalation of 10% DE. No difference in neutrophil migration into the lungs of water and M. tea groups after LPS or DE challenge was detected. But mice that drank tea had significantly (p<0.05) more neutrophils with apoptotic morphology after DE challenge. TNF-α expression 24 h after inhalation of 10% DE, was significantly higher (p<0.05) in lungs of M. tea mouse group as compared to water group. This increase in TNF-α was accompanied by higher levels of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Finally, activation of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) in lungs of M. tea+DE group 24 h post inhalation was decreased. Taken together these results suggest that Moringa oleifera leaf tea exerts anti-inflammatory properties on acute lung inflammation induced by swine confinement dust through a mechanism involving neutrophil regulation and JNK activation.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.73.87 2014/05/09 - 10:19

Plant based products represent a promising alternative to conventional treatments for inflammation. Moringa oleifera Lam is a tree rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals and a variety of phytochemcals with health benefits. Among the reported health benefits are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether tea brewed from dried Moringa leaves would abrogate inflammation in a mouse model of acute lung inflammation induced by LPS or extracts prepared from dust collected from a swine confinement facility (DE). Mice were offered water or Moringa tea for seven days. Tea consumption was significantly greater than that of water consumption on days 1 and 6, but there were no significant differences in weight gain or food consumption. On day seven, mice from both groups were forced to inhale, via intranasal challenge, either Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS), Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) [10 µg mL-1] or DE [10%]. Compared to mice that drank water, mice that drank Moringa tea had significantly less protein (p<0.05) and cellular influx (p<0.0001) into the lung after inhalation of 10% DE. No difference in neutrophil migration into the lungs of water and M. tea groups after LPS or DE challenge was detected. But mice that drank tea had significantly (p<0.05) more neutrophils with apoptotic morphology after DE challenge. TNF-α expression 24 h after inhalation of 10% DE, was significantly higher (p<0.05) in lungs of M. tea mouse group as compared to water group. This increase in TNF-α was accompanied by higher levels of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Finally, activation of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) in lungs of M. tea+DE group 24 h post inhalation was decreased. Taken together these results suggest that Moringa oleifera leaf tea exerts anti-inflammatory properties on acute lung inflammation induced by swine confinement dust through a mechanism involving neutrophil regulation and JNK activation.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.73.87 2014/05/09 - 10:19

Asthma is a complex polygenic disease in which Cysteinyl Leukotrienes (Cys-LTs) are a potential risk factors causing airway inflammation and remodeling, which are characteristics of asthma. The polymorphisms in the leukotriene C4 synthase -444A/C and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor1 927 T/C genes has been implicated in susceptibility to asthma. The objective of this study was to analyse two different polymorphisms, LTC4S-444 A/C and Cys-LTR1 927 T/C single nucleotide polymorphism and to determine whether there is an association between these polymorphisms and asthma development. The study included two groups (30 asthmatics and 30 healthy controls). They were genotyped for the LTC4S-444 A/C and CysLTR1 927 T/C polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP. Their total serum IgE levels and urinary LTE4 levels were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). IgE levels and urinary leukotriene E4 levels were higher in patient group than control group. The genotype and allele frequencies of both LTC4S-444 A/C and CysLTR1 927 T/C polymorphism were not significantly different between asthmatic patients and control group. While urinary leukotriene E4 levels were significantly higher in variant types of LTC4 synthase (AC and CC) compared to wild type (AA). This study does not support the role of these polymorphisms in genetic susceptibility to asthma but provide an evidence for a functional role of LTC4 synthase-444 A/C polymorphism on Cys-LT synthesis.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.63.72 2014/05/05 - 23:44

There are many studies related to immunological and molecular methods for diagnosis of Vibrio cholera (V. cholerae). However, most assays dependent on enrichment of culture of bacteria, which need more time and involves the use of costly equipment and reagents. In this study Balb/c mice were immunized with recombinant Outer Membrane Protein (rOMPw) of vibrio cholerae and splenocytes of hyper immunized mice were fused with murine myeloma Sp2/0 cells. Positive hybridomas were selected by ELISA using rOMPw as coating antigen. The monoclonal antibodies from ascitic fluids were purified and its reaction with rOMPw was assessed by ELISA. Polyclonal antibodies were also produced by immunization of rabbits with the above mentioned antigen. The rabbit sera was affinity purified using Hi-Trap protein G column. The result showed that monoclonal antibody specific to rOMPw has been successfully generated. The monoclonal antibody reacted with recombinant OMPw in ELISA and immunonoblat method. Rabbit polyclonal antibody was also bound to rOMPw by ELISA. The results of agglutination test with whole bacteria also showed that both mouse monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal antibodies reacted with whole vibrio cholera but not other related bacteria. The purpose of this study was to check out if anti OMPw antibodies could use as diagnostic assay for detection of V. cholerae. Our results demonstrated that anti recombinant OMPw monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are able to diagnose whole bacteria in pure culture using agglutination test but not by home made immunochromatic strip test.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.56.62 2014/04/27 - 05:48

Swine Confinement Facility (SCF) dust consists of a complex mixture of feed grain particles, bacterial components, organic particulates and gases. When these particles are inhaled they deposit along the respiratory tract and mediate respiratory symptoms and disease in swine farmers and facility workers. Macrophages ingest and eliminate microbes and debris under chronic conditions; however, the role of macrophages in agricultural-related respiratory disease has not been fully elucidated. The goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that chronic exposure to SCF dust causes inflammation by modulating pulmonary protein levels and macrophage function. Balb/c mice were exposed to 5, 12.5 and 25% SCF Dust Extract (DE) via nebulization 30 min/day five days a week, for eight weeks with weekends excluded. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) was collected and analyzed for protein concentration, leukocyte distribution and macrophage morphology. For comparison, THP-1 monocytic cells were exposed to 0.1-10% DE overnight and evaluated for phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species production. Repeated exposure to DE via nebulizer caused a significant increase in protein concentration and inflammatory cell number, namely macrophages, in a dose-dependent manner within the lung as compared to controls. Macrophages with pseudopods and vacuoles were the most abundant leukocytes within BALF of mice exposed to DE. Similarly, in vitro studies with 10% DE treated THP-1 cells revealed enhanced phagocytosis (p<0.05), pseudopodia and vacuolization following exposure to compared to control cells. In addition, there were time- and dose-dependent increases of intracellular ROS production by THP-1 cells exposed to 5 and 10% DE compared to control (p<0.01). These findings indicate repeated, long-term inhalation of swine confinement facility dust may mediate chronic airway and lung inflammation through modulation of protein concentration and macrophage function. The aerosolized dust-mouse inhalation model presented here may offer a good tool for studying particle mediated chronic inflammation of the tracheobronchial tree and lungs.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.35.45 2014/03/26 - 15:47

Males are more prone to Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) as compared to females. The role of androgens in host defence against Leishmania and other pathogens is of considerable interest. This study was aimed to understand a baseline mechanistic understanding of the pathogenesis of visceral leishmaniasis with respect to testosterone. We examined the relationship between serum testosterone and cholesterol levels, antigen induced Interleukin-10 (IL-10) and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and production by Peripheral Blood Mono Nuclear Cells (PBMCs) and parasite burden as determined by microscopic examination on male patients (n = 18) with VL and gender-and age-matched controls (n = 10). Testosterone plasma levels were found to be up regulated in VL patients as compared to healthy controls. In severely infected patients, the mean testosterone concentration was observed to be increased compared with other VL patients (p<0.001). Further, serum cholesterol level was found much down regulated during severe infection of VL (p<0.005) as compared to healthy control. Further an in-vitro stimulation of PBMCs of VL patients with exogenous testosterone resulted in an increase IL-10 production with a subsequent decline in host protective IFN-γ response. This study suggests that testosterone level might be linked to immuno-pathogenicity of VL infection. Whether testosterone level is probably a marker of severe VL infection with an immuno-suppressive effect needs to be validated further.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.46.55 2014/03/26 - 15:47

The existence of another candidate IgKappa gene of 697 nucleotides, was recently, demonstrated, in the sea star Asterias rubens genome. This last gene was cloned and shown, with its sequence, in the present study. Its potential role in the sea star immune response was accentuated.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.33.34 2014/03/20 - 00:07

Proteins highly represented in milk such as α-lactalbumin and lactoferrin bind Oleic Acid (OA) to form complexes with selective anti-tumor activity. A protein present in milk, colostrum and blood, vitamin D binding protein is the precursor of a potent Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF) and in analogy with other OA-protein complexes, we proposed that OA-GcMAF could demonstrate a greater immunotherapeutic activity than that of GcMAF alone. We describe a preliminary experience treating patients with advanced cancers, often labelled as “incurable” with an integrative immunotherapy centred on OA-GcMAF. Patients with advanced cancer were treated at the Immuno Biotech Treatment Centre with OA-GcMAF-based integrative immunotherapy in combination with a very low carbohydrate, high protein diet, fermented milk products containing naturally produced GcMAF, vitamin D3 and low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. When the primary tumor or a metastasis could be measured by ultrasonographic techniques, we observed, on average, a decrease of tumor volume of approximately 25% in a week. We also observed a consistent increase in splenic blood flow that was interpreted in the context of generalised immune system activation and allowed to assess the degree of responsiveness of the individual patient. The results reported here are consistent with the results previously described in the experimental animal harbouring a human hepatocellular carcinoma as well as with the results reported for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. OA-protein complexes are bound to play a leading role in cancer therapy thanks to selectivity of antitumoral effects, absence of any side effects, safety and oral availability. We hypothesise that OA-GcMAF, combines the known anticancer effects OA-protein complexes with the well established immune stimulating effects of GcMAF.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.23.32 2014/03/08 - 18:54

Gene imprinting has conduited the scope of our understanding of phenotypic expression and its corelation with constituent genotype. It is an epigenetic process that involves DNA methylation and histone modulation to attain monoallelic gene expression without altering the genetic sequences. A distinctive model of non-mendelian genetics, imprinting extends the control over expression of traits and selection of the allele that would direct the same, in a manner decided by the parent of origin. The constitutive existence of this imprinting even after gametogenesis, throughout the somatic development extends a clue for its regulatory hold on several heridetary traits. Several heridetary diseases like Cancers, Russell-Silver syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Prader-Willi and Angelman Syndromes and Neurodegenration have shown to be a subsequent error in the genomic impriting process. So, understanding these epigenetic regulations can be a therapeutic strategy for disease modelling and especially targeting their patterns of heridetary inheritance.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.14.22 2014/02/13 - 20:21

Immune system and inflamation is widely known to play a key role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Anti-Phospholipid (aPL) antibodies may act in the induction of immunological response leading to the development of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). Anti-Phosphatidyl Inositole (PI) Antibody (Ab) has been seen in various diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome. Although there are a few studies on the association of some autoantibodies with AMI, more epidemiological data are required to confirm their significance as independent risk factors in cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the data on the relationship of autoantibodies with traditional risk factors of AMI is rare. The study of anti-PI Ab in AMI may lead to understand of etiology of ischemic heart disease. This study was conducted to determine whether prevalence of anti-PI Abs, in patients who had AMI and to analyze their association with traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The prevalence of anti-PI IgG and IgM in a well characterized group of patients with AMI as a case group and in age and sex matched healthy subjects as control group. Sera from the case and the control groups were tested to evaluate the presence of IgG and IgM isotypes to anti-PI by ELISA method. The prevalence of anti-PI IgG and also IgM in the case group resulted significantly higher than in the control group with AMI (p<0.005). The findings of this study suggest that anti-PI Abs seemed to have a role in AMI independent risk factors for AMI and may represent a link between autoimmunity and atherosclerosis in patients with AMI. Comprehensive studies are recommended to explore the exact role of anti-PI Abs in AMI.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.10.13 2014/01/23 - 23:47

The D-galactose (D-gal)-induced animal model, generated by repeated subcutaneous D-gal injections over approximately 6 weeks, has been frequently used for diabetes and aging research. However, little research has investigated the direct correlation between D-gal and autoantibody formation despite several reports on diabetes-and aging-related autoantibodies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repetitive injection of D-gal can induce autoantibody production in mice. First, we used Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and Advanced Glycation End products (AGE)-BSA as the test antigens. The immunoreactivity of serum samples from mice treated with D-gal for 6 weeks was evaluated using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). We found that serum samples of D-gal-treated mice had significantly high antibody titers against both BSA and AGE-BSA. Furthermore, the result showed that aminoguanidine treatment, an AGE inhibitor tended to decrease this immunoreactivity. The results of competitive inhibition ELISA using BSA and AGE-BSA as the competitors suggested that the serum samples from D-gal-treated mice contained antibodies not only against BSA but also specific to AGE-BSA. To assess whether the immunoreactivity against BSA is comparable to that against Mouse Serum Albumin (MSA), we examined the reactivity of D-gal-induced antibodies against MSA. Unexpectedly, D-gal-induced antibodies did not react with MSA. This suggests that the production of antibodies by D-gal is in response to an unknown antigen(s), aside from MSA, in mice and that this unknown antigen(s) may share similar sequences or three-dimensional structures with BSA.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.3.9 2014/01/14 - 19:51

In a recent paper we have shown that Ig Kappa genes (region MOPC 63, region K2), of 250 nucleotides each, were present in the sea star Asterias rubens. Two years later, a 697 nucleotide Ig Kappa chain V-V region K2 gene was accentuated.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2014.1.2 2013/12/20 - 21:56

The protective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against orally administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) for 3 months on male albino rats were examined. Adult male albino rats were given saline as a control group, TiO2 (1200 mg kg-1 BW), NAC (100 mg kg-1 BW) and co-treatment of NAC and TiO2 as a protective group for 3 months. Blood was assayed for serum changes in GPT, GOT, lipid profiles, cytokines and immunoglobulins profiles. Moreover, spleen was examined for alterations in cytokines expression and histopathology. Administration of TiO2 significantly increased serum levels of GPT, GOT and increased lipid profiles. Administration of NAC to TiO2 rats improved significant changes induced by Tio2 alone. There were an increase in IL-1β and IL-6 secretion in TiO2 administered rats which is normalized by NAC administration. Tio2 administration down regulated IL-8 and IL-10 secretion, while co-administration of rats by NAC together with TiO2 normalized that down regulation. Moreover, TiO2 induced toxicity in spleen that accompanied by a decrease in IgA, IgG and IgM that are normalized by NAC administration. Finally, Tio2 up-regulated IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-β expression in spleen and NAC administration together with TiO2 normalized cytokines expression. In conclusion, present findings confirmed the protective effect of NAC on TiO2 induced alteration in immune responses in male albino rats.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2013.148.158 2013/12/01 - 10:09

Dermatophytosis is considered as one of the most important fungal skin disease affecting both humans and animals otherwise its importance as zoonotic disease. Treatment of ringworm in cattle is expensive and time consuming especially on herd level. Vaccination can be a giant step forward to prevent the occurrence of mycozoonosis between the affected animals with ringworm and susceptible man. Fifty skins scraping samples were collected from animals (cattle, sheep and calves) suffering from skin lesions suspected to be ringworm. Then these collected samples were subjected to mycological examination and identification. T. verrucosum is the main causative agent of collected skin scrapings. Two types of vaccines were prepared from this strain (Culture filtrate and formalin inactivated vaccines). Rabbit model was used for challenge testing of the vaccines. The rabbits were separated into four groups as follow: Each group contained 3 rabbits each one was injected subcutaneously with 1ml of culture filtrate with adjuvant twice for seven days intervals. Group No. 2 rabbits each one was injected intramuscularly with 1 mL formalin-inactivated with adjuvant. The 3rd group is control positive and 4th one is control negative. Vaccination programme is done via injection twice with one week interval and the challenge by scarification of the skin with 0.2 mL of 5×107 fungal elements/mL. For 3 days. Humeral immune response was assessed by measuring anti-T. verrucosum antibodies using ELISA technique (direct method). By using statistical analysis of ANOVA, the mean optical density of anti-T. verrucosum specific IgG level in rabbits artificially immunized with culture filtrate with adjuvant vaccine significantly increase from (1.97) post first vaccination to reach (2.43) post second vaccination and still high after challenge with the virulent T. verrucosum strain (2.32) when compared with control positive (1.57). The results revealed that both type of vaccines induce good humeral immune response in vaccinated animals. Culture filtrate vaccine used as a treatment in infected farm animals by two doses within 2 weeks and noted that healing occurred.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2013.139.147 2013/11/22 - 00:06

Immune cells migration, polarity and activation are essential during host immune response. Upon recognition of specific peptides presented by Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) molecules on Antigen Presenting Cells (APC), lymphocytes execute subset-related functions such as killing, help and regulation. These cells travel through the organism in a succession of steps, including entry into tissues, interstitial migration, APC scanning, synapse formation and tissue exit. Such ability is possible because of a plastic motility behavior, which is highly controlled in time and space. The scope of this review is to discuss recent data pointing to the key role of regulators of actin cytoskeleton remodeling in tuning migration, polarity and activation of immune cells during host immune response. We believe that the more complete understanding of actin and related proteins recruitment during these processes the better to obtain novel targets for establishing strategies to control immune responses.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2013.132.138 2013/11/20 - 21:25

At least two genes found in the genome of Asterias rubens after immunizations to the antigen Horse-Radish Peroxydase (HRP), could play the role of oncologic markers: The first one (Igkappa chain V-V region T 1 S 107 B precursor) reveals myeloma; The second (B cell CLL/Lymphoma 9-like) as the first one has a kinship to the IgKappa gene subfamily.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2013.130.131 2013/11/16 - 21:36

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disease of multifactorial aetiology characterized by immune system dysfunction, widespread inflammation, multisystemic neuropathology and persistent pain. Given the central role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of the syndrome, we studied the effects of a potent modulator of the immune system in in vitro and in vivo models that could help clarifying its role and indications in ME/CFS treatment. To this end, we studied the effects of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (also designated as Gc-Macrophage Activating Factor or (GcMAF)) on human neuronal cells (SH-SY5Y) and on the persistent pain induced by osteoarticular damage in rats. GcMAF at pM concentration increased neuronal cell viability and metabolism through increased mitochondrial enzyme activity. These effects were accompanied by cAMP formation and by morphological changes that were representative of neuronal differentiation. We hypothesize that these effects are to be ascribed to the interconnection between the GcMAF and Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) signalling pathways. The results presented here confirm at the experimental level the therapeutic effects of GcMAF in ME/CFS and elucidate the mechanisms of action through which GcMAF might be responsible for such therapeutic effects.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2013.120.129 2013/11/07 - 12:07

Many factors play a role in Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). One those anti-Phospholipid (aPL) antibodies, that may act in the induction of immunological response leading to the development of AMI. Anti-Phosphatidylcholines (PC) antibody is detected in various diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome. The study of anti-PC antibody in AMI might shed light on etiologic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes. This study was designed to investigate whether prevalence of anti-PC antibodies, in patients who had AMI and to analyze their relationship with traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The prevalence of anti-PC IgG and IgM in a well characterized group of patients with AMI as a case group and in age and sex matched healthy subjects as control group. Sera from the case and the control groups were tested to evaluate the presence of IgG and IgM isotypes to anti-PC by ELISA method. The prevalence of anti-PC IgG and also IgM in the case group resulted significantly higher than in the control group with AMI (p<0.005). Our findings suggest that anti-PC antibodies seemed to play a role in AMI, independent risk factors for AMI, which may represent a link between autoimmunity and atherosclerosis in patients with AMI. Further studies with bigger sample size including patients with AMI and healthy people are needed to explore the exact role of anti-PC antibodies in AMI.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2013.116.119 2013/10/28 - 21:05

Gene Silencing was a technology that was established in eukaryotic system a decade ago and is being used as a research tool widely. However, prokaryotic gene silencing was not workable, till recently a team of researchers from the University of Georgia have proved it possible. Where they have shown that short motif sequences determines the targets of the prokaryotic Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) defence system is regulated by RNA guided Cas protein complex. Thus role of CRISPR system in microbial defense against foreign genetic material (Plasmid or Phages) is an important milestone in the field of microbial molecular biology/biotechnology. These findings will make it easier to understand the significance of a gene, metabolically or physiologically. The revelation by this novel finding by core group of researcher is indeed, Mangum opus. This article is a commentary, to bring to light, prokaryotic gene silencing as one of the latest advances in prokaryotic science.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2013.110.115 2013/10/06 - 10:36

The search for an optimal combination of natural immunomodulators led us to study the biological effects of the combination of a cinnamon extract Cinnulin PF and probiotic LactoSpore. We found that this combination has strong synergetic effects on phagocytosis and on regulation of cholesterol and blood sugar levels. In addition, the Cinnulin/LastoSpore combination also reduced intestinal damage in mouse model of colitis.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2013.103.109 2013/10/02 - 11:51

The sea star Asterias rubens reacts specifically to the antigen: Horse-Radish Peroxydase (HRP) and produces an «antibody» anti-HRP.We had presented a candidate IgKappa gene corresponding to this last one in 2013. We show now the gene called: «sea star IgKappa gene» in its specificity. We have to know, at the present time that, at our knowledge, the sea star doesn’t react specifically to all the antigens.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2013.101.102 2013/09/25 - 15:53

Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) is the combined result of environmental factors and personal predispositions. Many factors play a role in AMI including anti-Phospholipid (aPL) antibodies, that may act in the induction of immunological response leading to the development of AMI. Anti-Phosphatidylserine (PS) antibody is detected in various diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome. The study of anti-PS antibody in AMI might shed light on etiologic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes. This study was conducted to evaluate whether prevalence of anti-PS antibodies, in patients who had AMI and to analyze their relationship with traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The prevalence of anti-PS IgG and IgM in a well characterized group of patients with AMI as a case group and in age and sex matched healthy subjects as control group. Sera from two groups were tested to evaluate the presence of IgG and IgM isotypes to anti-PS by ELISA method. The frequencies of positive test for anti-PS IgG were 26.70 and 8.90% among patients and controls respectively with significant difference (p = 0.003). The anti-PS IgM frequencies were 12.20 and 1.10% in patients and the controls, with significant difference (p = 0.005). The findings of this study suggest that anti-PS antibodies seemed to play a role in AMI, independent risk factors for AMI, which may represent a link between autoimmunity and atherosclerosis in patients with AMI. Further studies with bigger sample size including patients with AMI and healthy people are recommended to explore the exact role of anti-PS antibodies in AMI.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2013.96.100 2013/09/21 - 23:29

The role of glucan in stimulation of immune reactions has been studied for decades. In this report we focused on the effects of orally administered glucan in children with chronic respiratory problems. We measured the physical endurance using a 6MWT test and the levels of eNO in 50 children aged 8-12 years and evaluated the effects of 100 mg/d oral dose of glucan. We found significant improvements in physical indurance and exhaled nitric oxide in glucan-treated children. In addition, strong improvements in general conditions were found. Short-term oral application of natural immunomodulator β-glucan enhancers the overall health and regulation of energetic metabolism in children with chronic respiratory problems.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2013.88.93 2013/08/21 - 06:14

The de-Glycosylated vitamin D binding protein is a powerful Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF) that shows multiple biological effects that could be exploited in the immunotherapy of tumours, viral infections and autism. Here we report the observation of a series of clinical cases describing the results obtained administering highly purified GcMAF to patients with diverse types of chronic diseases. These are heterogeneous and refer to patients with different types of diseases at different stages. In some cases, patients underwent other complementary treatments such as stem cell infusion or administration of supplements. In patients harbouring tumours, GcMAF treatment was initiated at late stages of tumour progression. Therefore, since this is an open-label, non-controlled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when ascribing cause and effect to any treatment outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was robust and certain trends emerge evident. In all cases (n = 7), GcMAF subcutaneous injections were associated with improvement of clinical conditions. No adverse side effects were reported. The observation reported here confirm and extend the results previously presented by several Authors and open the way to further trials aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF in the immunotherapy of chronic diseases.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2013.78.84 2013/08/21 - 06:14

Immunomodulatory activity of Argan oil was evaluated on phagocytic activity by carbon clearance test. Adult Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, while animals of treatment group were given Argan oil at dose of: 2.5, 5 and 10 mL kg-1 by gavage respectively 10 days before injected the carbon ink suspension. In carbone clearance test, Argan oil exhibited significantly phagocytic index dose-dependent against control group, indicating stimulation of the reticulo-endothelial system. Present study thus reveals that argan oil holds promise as immunomodulatory agent, which act by stimulating dose dependent phagocytic function.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2013.85.87 2013/08/21 - 06:14

Specific immune responses occur in an invertebrate: The sea star Asterias rubens. Sea star T and B lymphocytes are present in the axial organ and coopere with phagocytes and Complement components to produce a primitive antibody correlated to Igkappa genes and to complement genes: It could be composed of 4 kappa chains and present strong and highly significant homologies to Mouse IgKappa region V-IV S107B precursor gene.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2013.94.95 2013/08/21 - 06:14

The axial organ of the sea-star Asterias rubens is a primitive immune organ. The B-like cells, when stimulated by various antigens, produce antibody substances correlated with Ig Kappa gene. A candidate Ig kappa gene (IgK chain V-IV region S107B precursor) more convincing in term of genome was shown.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2013.75.77 2013/06/30 - 04:55

The aim of this study was to determine the chronobiological variations of cytokines (IFN-γ, TGF-β) and hormones (melatonin and cortisol). The sample was collected from 42 mothers at three stages of maturity-day 3 (colostrum), day 10 (transitional milk) and day 30 (mature milk) postpartum, at two times of day: diurnal (12:00 h) and nocturnal (24:00 h), resulting a total of 252 samples. Melatonin concentration was increased in the nocturnal period from all milk maturation stages. This hormone concentration was lower in the mature milk. Cortisol concentration was higher in the mature milk during the diurnal period and it was lower in the nocturnal period when compared to colostrum and transitional milk. IFN-γ concentration did not vary between all periods. The transitional milk displayed higher concentrations of this cytokine in the nocturnal period whereas the concentration of IFN-γ decreased in the nocturnal period from the mature milk. When comparing the types of milk, it was observed lower concentrations of IFN-γ in mature milk in both periods. No significant variation in TGF-β concentration was detected between types of milk or at either time of day. These data support the hypothesis that there is a fluctuation in the production of hormone and cytokines and this leads to a need that adequate time of breastfeeding being crucial to ensure passive transfer of immunity, as well as for establishment of synchronization of newborn.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2013.68.74 2013/06/25 - 19:03

The axial organ of the sea-star Asterias rubens is a primitive immune organ. The B-like cells, when stimulated by various antigens, produce antibody substances correlated with Ig Kappa gene. A candidate Ig kappa gene (IgK chain V-IV region S107B precursor) more convincing in term of genome was shown.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2013.65.67 2013/06/22 - 17:04

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a frequent cause of acute respiratory infections in both children and adults. Currently, diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection will based principally on serology and the detection of IgM can provide an early and sensitive diagnosis in children. A variety of commercial immunodiagnostic assays, such as Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent (ELISA) assay and Indirect Immunofluorescence (IFA), are now available as serological methods. The Aim of this comparative prospective study, was to compare two different approaches to the rapid detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory tract infections among children. For this purpose, a commercial IFA assay for detection of M. pneumoniae-specific IgM antibody in acute-phase sera was used to compare with ELISA assay for specific-IgM antibody and to sought wither the use of either serological assays as a more reliable laboratory diagnosis for Mycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory tract infections in children. This study was designed as a comparative prospective study in which 90 patients (Mean age of the patients in case group was 5.94±2.73 and in control group was 6.51±2.26) of either sexes were included. These patients were classified into two groups: first group (case group), included 45 patients who had been admitted in hospital with diagnosis of respiratory tract infections and the second group (control group), included 45 healthy patients who had no history of respiratory tract infections. Both the groups were age and sex matched. Presence of IgM antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae was assessed by IFA kit assay in both groups and the detection result was compared with result of previous study using ELISA assay. In the case group, 2 (4%) cases out of 45 children were positive for anti-mycoplasma antibody whereas in the control group, all children were negative. All positive case group patients had symptoms of acute pneumonia. 18 (40%) of the patients were diagnosed with bronchial asthma (40%) inclusive of all the two cases diagnosed with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. The IgM-positive rate for IFA assay (4%) was lower than in ELISA assay (9%), as compared from both kits. Taking the ELISA assay as a gold standard for the presence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory tract infections, the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of the IFA assay in comparison to ELISA, were 50 (CI:8.30 to 91.70%), 100 (CI:91.31 to 100%), 100 and 95.34% respectively. The results of IgM IFA assay showed relatively lower positivity than ELISA assay in the early acute phase, the results of IFA undertaken for the detection of M. pneumoniae respiratory tract infections and it is a first study in the Saudia Arabia of its kind from the region reporting such a disease in children using a serological assays as IFA and ELISA assays for comparasion . We therefore conclude that the use of ELISA assay conducted in the country as a more reliable laboratory diagnosis for Mycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory tract infections in children. Further future studies need to be carried out to investigate the use of PCR to allow fast and reliable diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection during the early phases of infection in children.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2013.58.64 2013/06/21 - 20:51

The vaccination process belongs to the public health intervention methodologies that help prevent infections. Vaccinations performed successfully in the history of medicine reported the significance of this procedure to increase the quality of life, prevent zoonoses and improve animal production. Vaccine emergence remained without exact rules for a long time, maintaining a close relationship with pathogens. However, subunit vaccines, with a difference from the classical idea of protective immunity with microorganisms showed it is possible to trigger T-dependent responses with peptide, revealing new rules for vaccine development. This vaccination process starts by the modulation chance of adaptive immune response through peptide sequences process by APCs for immune synapse formation interceded for pMHC-TCR as a scaffold to T cells priming. In this way the immunological signal triggered by immune synapses is amplified in lymph nodes. As a consequence, T and B cells modulated by peptide activity interact between the B cell follicles region and T cell aggregates, which constitute the paracortical region of secondary lymphoid tissue to form connate unions as a prerequisite for clonal amplification and subsequent immunological memory. Indicating the knowledge of the mechanisms of immune response generated by peptides immunization is essential for understanding modulation, amplification and immune protection as demands for good subunits vaccine.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajisp.2013.48.57 2013/06/20 - 22:22