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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

American Journal of Environmental Sciences

Low biogas production in the frozen seafood wastewater anaerobic digestion is observed due to the low organic and Total Solids (TS) contents in the wastewater. In this research the decanter cake will be used in the anaerobic co-digestion process to improve the biogas production rate. The effect of co-digestion and Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) will be investigated using the continuously stirred tank reactors under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, the study determines the biogas production potential of different HRTs and that of wastewater digestion alone. The anaerobic co-digestion is operated in continuous with continuously stirred reactors at HRT of 10, 20 and 30 days. The mechanical stirring units of all reactors are operated automatically. The stirring action occurred continuously during the experiments. The anaerobic co-digestion results show that the anaerobic co-digestion provides higher biogas production rate and higher methane yield than that of the wastewater digestion alone. The optimum HRT of the anaerobic co-digestion is 20 days. This reactor produces 2.88 L day-1, with 64.5% of methane and the maximum methane production rate of 1.87 L d-1 and the methane yield of 0.321 l CH4/g CODremoved. The anaerobic co-digestion of wastewater with decanter cake provides the higher methane yield potential production than that provided by the wastewater digestion alone at the ambient temperature. The best HRT is 20 days for anaerobic co-digestion between the wastewater and decanter cake. The experimental results reveal that HRT and co-digestion are the parameters that can affect the biogas production and methane yield.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.469.479 2014/09/24 - 16:56

The Kaw Nation and Black land Research Center in July 2012 conducted a sediment core sampling from Kaw Lake. Kaw Lake is a reservoir constructed in 1976 by the Army Corps of Engineers for the purpose of water supply and recreation. It is located 11 miles east of Ponca City, Kay County, Oklahoma. This reservoir covers approximately 17,040 acres (69 km2) and is also known to be the seventh largest lake in Oklahoma by surface area. This lake holds 428,600 acre feet (528,700, 00 m3) of water which is said to be the ninth largest lake in Oklahoma. The lake is fed by the Arkansas River that flows from Colorado, through kansas and into Kaw Lake. The Arkansas River flows through Kaw Lake shared by several small creeks and empties into the Mississippi River. The purpose of the study was to determine the rate of sediment accumulation and examine the level of nutrient and heavy metals accumulation or deposition at the bottom of the lake. Four core samples from different parts of the lake at different depth were sampled for analysis. Each core sample was sectioned into 20 cm, dried and ground into homogenous powder. Samples from each section were tested for organic carbon content and heavy metals. Organic carbon content was verified by burning through a muffle furnace, while the remaining core samples were digested into a solution and ran through an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) to evaluate the concentration of heavy metals. Particle size analyses were also determined. Results were organized by depth, concentration, particle size distribution and bulk density. Data showed phosphorous and some heavy metals concentrations at core 3 and 4 were higher than core 1 and 2. Phosphorous concentration at four sediment core sites ranged from 350 mg kg-1 to 550 mg kg-1. Whereas Aluminum concentration was 40,000 mg kg-1 to 70,000 mg kg-1, Barium 280 mg kg-1 to 420 mg kg-1, manganese 600 mg kg-1 to 710 mg kg-1, iron 30,000 mg kg-1 to 48,000 mg kg-1 are few to be cited. Bulk density, a measure of soil mass per unit of volume of soil in a water increased with water depth as the water content decreased.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.458.468 2014/09/17 - 02:21

Ion-exchange membranes are widely used in modern technologies, particularly in the field of water treatment and make it possible to considerably reduce expenses for wastewater treatment and ensure high degree of purification. Currently, perfluorinated sulfated proton-conducting membranes are often used, such as NAFION and its Russian analogue, MF-4SK based on co-polymerization product of a perfluorinated vinyl ether with tetrafluoroethylene. However, with development of the industry, materials with improved properties and lower cost are required. The aim is to obtain ion-exchange membranes for water treatment from metal ions and to study physico-chemical properties of obtained membranes. In this study, cation exchange composite membranes with modified polyaniline surface layer on nylon and PTFE substrate have been obtained. Changes in the structure of membranes were recorded using a microscope. Throughput capacity of the membranes was determined by passing a certain volume of distilled water through the membrane. The experiment intended to determine electivity of membranes was performed by passing a certain volume of metal salt solutions of a known concentration, after which the filtrate was collected. Concentrations of the studied metal ions in the original solution and in the filtrate were determined by the method of atomic adsorptive spectrometry with electro thermal atomization “Quantum Z.ETA”. Prepared highly selective ion exchange membranes. Properties of modified membranes, such as selective permeability and ion-exchange capacity have been determined. The membranes feature high selectivity for heavy metal ions. Moisture-retaining power and swelling ability of the membranes have been studied. Selectivity of the membrane to heavy metal ions is between 70 and 99%. Ion-exchange capacity of the obtained nylon polyaniline membrane is not inferior to some commercially available cation-exchange membranes. Use of the modified membranes in the stage of tertiary wastewater treatment will ensure achieving established standards.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.424.430 2014/09/13 - 15:16

Musk deer are highly important as a medicinal species that are severely exploited throughout their range of occurrence due to the medicinal value of the musk produced only by the male individuals. Methods used for studying the populations and distributions of other ungulates do not work well with musk deer and the presence of a unified methodology for studying musk deer appear to be lacking worldwide. Therefore, the development of a simple predictive model for studying the distribution of the musk deer habitats stands as an important task to be accomplished. Two kinds of research questions were pursued during the present study-examining through field research what kind of habitat musk deer used and mapping the habitat in the park using a GIS and remote sensing environment. The parameters which were found to have a profound influence in predicting the species’s spatial distribution have been used in the modeling of the current habitat suitability for the Kashmir musk deer (Moschus cupreus). The study was conducted at the upper reaches (elevations 2200 m and above) of the Dachigam National Park, Kashmir (34°05΄18.40΄΄N-34°06΄04.69΄΄N and 75°03΄32.05΄΄E-75°04΄27.26΄΄E) during January 2005-January 2008 to evaluate the characteristics of the musk deer habitats. The environmental attributes which were found to have a profound influence in predicting the species’s spatial distribution included the slope exposures in the range of 293°Northwest -68° Northeast, slope gradients of 25-40° and elevations of 2100 m and above, with the preference ratings of aspect > slope > elevation and, therefore, were considered for the development of the habitat suitability model for prediction of the spatial distribution of the Kashmir musk deer. The current suitable musk deer habitat in Dachigam National Park is estimated in the extent of about 40 sq. km. (~28% area of the national park). The model results were found to have a good performance in making fair predictions (about 50% area of the National Park has been validated for predictions). The spatial distribution of musk deer reflected the musk deer habitats mostly spread through the Picea smithiana and blue pine forest and some habitats close to the alpine scrub nearby to the rocky cliffs. The potential of the model has been utilized in finding the density of musk deer. Possible 60 musk deer survive in Dachigam National Park with a density of 0.42 individuals per sq. km. However, the weighted mean density in the musk deer habitats was about 1.55 individuals per sq. km.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.446.457 2014/08/21 - 22:53

Biogas is the combustible gas produced through a biological process, known as anaerobic digestion which is the process operated at low-temperature and without air. Biogas consists of 55-80% CH4, 20-45% CO2 with trace amount of H2S and other impurities. Common H2S removal technologies from biogas fall into one of adsorption on a solid such as iron oxide based materials, activated carbon or impregnated activated carbon. Conventionally, activated carbon is produced from biomass residues and agricultural residues such as palm oil shell which promising approach for the production of cheap. It is so due to the palm oil shell carries a large amount of carbon content which it is the main composition of activated carbon. Therefore, it is usable as raw material for producing impregnated activated carbon and used as adsorbents. The aim of this study is a produce the activated carbon from palm oil shells by chemical activation using ZnCl2 and optimal conditions after impregnated them with NaOH, KI and K2CO3 for H2S absorption from biogas product. In this research, production of activated carbon involved three stages; (i) carbonization of raw material in an inert atmosphere which was carbonized in a muffle furnace at 600°C for 1 h; (ii) secondly activation of char product from the first stages at fixed bed reactor (stainless steel with 54.1 mm internal diameter and 320 mm length) which was studied to observe the effect of char product: Chemical agent ratio (ZnCl2, 1:1 to 1:3), which there are activated at 700°C activation temperature for 2 h; and (iii) finally alkali impregnated activated carbon which were immersed 1:3 ratio in 500 mL of 1 N NaOH, KI and K2CO3 solutions and stirred for 30 min. The result showed that the surface area and the pore volume increased progressively with increasing the char product: Chemical agent ratio. The maximum surface area total pore volume of activated carbon product was 532.31 m2/g and 0.2973 cc g-1 was obtained on ACZn13. While, the maximum surface area and the pore volume of modified impregnated activated carbon was 741.71 m2/g and 0.4210 cc g-1 was obtained on K2CO3-AC. The results of the experiment demonstrated that with regard to adsorption of H2S on K2CO3-AC which it had more than on KI-AC and NaOH was 3.26 and 8.8%, respectively. The conclusion showed that surface area, total pore volume and micropore volume were increasing with increased the char product: Chemical agent ratio (1:1 to 1:3). ACZn13 has good chemical and physical properties such as chemical content and surface area, which showed that the highest surface area (532.21 m2/g) and total pore volume (0.2973 cc g-1). Therefore, K2CO3-AC impregnated activated carbon has a high surface area and showed be an efficient adsorbent for removal of H2S from biogas product. Moreover, evaluating the content of H2S adsorption was suggested.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.431.445 2014/08/18 - 04:39

The significance of air pollution as one of the contemporary issues and accelerating factors that propel climate change in both developed and developing countries cannot be overemphasized. The problem of air pollution has seemingly become intractable with the incessant failure of both global and local environmental policies purportedly emplaced to address its devastating trend, particularly in growing megacities of the world. The devastating effects of the phenomenon are more pronounced in megacities of developing countries than in developed ones. Lagos, as an industrialized, commercialized and an emerging megacity in Nigeria, has been subjected to several predictions of the negative impacts of changing climatic conditions partly caused by ubiquitous air pollution. Efforts at stemming the tide of the increasing challenges of air pollution worldwide has significantly been thwarted by inadequate funding, hence the need to review the literature on the environmental implications of growing air pollution, its contributions to climate change and its negative impacts on the lives and properties of teeming inhabitants of Lagos. A review like this will provide a synthesis of knowledge and information on mitigative and adaptive measures that can be adopted to minimize the impacts of air pollution on the mega city.This study utilizes consciously selected and current literatures on the subject matter and found that Lagos inhabitants have been vulnerable to virtually all forms of damaging effects of climate change majorly propelled by seemingly uncontrollable air pollution. This implies that the situation requires proactive measures, otherwise, avoidable loss of lives and large scale destruction of properties may be inevitable. The paper therefore advocates involvement of all stakeholders in both mitigation and adaptation measures to climate change through enhancement of indigenous knowledge and creation of awareness among citizens about the need to be conscious of their carbon foot prints.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.412.423 2014/07/12 - 22:21

Mining, roasting as well as smelting of these elements have caused sulphur dioxide fumigations and metal particulate depositions which have led to various detrimental effects on the overall environmental quality of the Greater Sudbury region. Soil amendment and revegetation within the Greater Sudbury Region were initiated to restore the damage land. Several methods have been used to assess the progress made toward full ecosystem recovery. Soil respiration rates are particularly critical in the assessment of soil health. They reflect the complete extent of biological activity of living microorganisms in the soil. Bacterial and fungal the main biological soil components are functionally important and must be properly determined. The objective of the present study was to measure soil respiration and health in limed and unlimed areas in the Northern Ontario (Canada) region. The results confirm that the liming did maintain an increase in soil pH from extremely acid to slightly acid, even 30 to 40 years after dolostone applications. Fungi were more abundant in limed sites compared to unlimed areas. Soil respiration based on CO2 rate followed the same trend. Respiration rates for the reference sites were similar to those documented for the limed areas. Summer soil respiration rates were associated (r = 0.50) with total fungal abundance in the targeted sites. Overall, the Solvita test of assessing soil respiration and determining microbial mass and soil quality is a reliable and cost effective method.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.403.411 2014/07/11 - 15:03

This study reports the spatio-temporal changes in river and canal water quality of peat swamp forest and oil palm plantation sites of Sarawak, Malaysia. To investigate temporal changes, 192water samples were collected at four stations of BatangIgan, an oil palm plantation site of Sarawak, during July-November in 2009 and April-July in 2010. Nine water quality parameters including Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH, Turbidity (TER), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Temperature (TEMP), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), five-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), ammonia-Nitrogen (NH3-N), Total Suspended Solids (TSS) were analysed. To investigate spatial changes, 432water samples were collected from six different sites including BatangIgan during June-August 2010. Six water quality parameters including pH, DO, COD, BOD5, NH3-N and TSS were analysed to see the spatial variations. Most significant parameters which contributed in spatio-temporal variations were assessed by statistical techniques such as Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA), Factor Analysis/Principal Components Analysis (FA/PCA) and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA). HACA identified three different classes of sites: Relatively Unimpaired, Impaired and Less Impaired Regions on the basis of similarity among different physicochemical characteristics and pollutant level between the sampling sites. DFA produced the best results for identification of main variables for temporal analysis and separated parameters (EC, TER, COD) and identified three parameters for spatial analysis (pH, NH3-N and BOD5). The results signify that parameters identified by statistical analyses were responsible for water quality change and suggest the possibility the agricultural and oil palm plantation activities as a source of pollutants. The results suggest dire need for proper watershed management measures to restore the water quality of this tributary for a healthy and promising terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem"

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.391.402 2014/07/03 - 20:44

The present investigation deals with the removal of Congo Red (CR) from aqueous solution by using Indian Jujuba Seed (IJS) as low-cost biosorbent. The effect of pH and size experimental parameters has been investigated using a Batch adsorption technique. Adsorption data were modeled using Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Adsorption kinetics was verified by pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. The kinetic adsorption data fitted the pseudo-second order kinetic model well and also followed the intraparticle diffusion model. The results indicated that IJS could be employed as low-cost biosorbent in wastewater treatment for the removal of CR.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.374.382 2014/06/30 - 13:55

Understanding of site-scale physical and chemical heterogeneities will inform remediation strategies for unlined rural landfills worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterize potential sources of nitrogen contamination to groundwater at an unlined landfill in rural western Victoria, Australia. Results revealed simultaneously high concentrations of both nitrate and ammonia within several wells, indicative of heterogeneous redox potentials within the unconfined aquifer. Combined isotopic analyses of δ15N and δ18O in nitrate identified a leachate-derived source and active denitrification across two sites hydraulically down-gradient from the landfill cell. Groundwater at an up-gradient site, as well as nearby surface water samples from a riparian creek, reflected primarily the isotopic signature of agriculturally-derived nitrate with overprinting from atmospheric exchanges of nitrogen and oxygen. Nitrate and ammonia in the creek were interpreted to result from a mixture of leachate and agricultural sources. Results illustrate how redox gradients across a landfill leachate plume impact biogeochemical nitrogen cycling.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.383.390 2014/06/30 - 13:55

Understanding the dynamic of metals in soil and plants and population diversity in Northern Ontario is essential in determining progress toward ecosystem sustainability in reclaimed sites. The objectives of the present study were to assess the levels of metal content in soils and their accumulation in red oak plants from limed and unlimed sites. Genetic variation in red oak populations from the Northern Ontario region was also analyzed. The levels of soil acidity was lower in limed areas compared to un limed sites, an indication of the prolonged beneficial effect of liming 20 to 30 years ago on soil toxicity. The levels of total metals were very high for most elements, but the proportion of metals that were bio available and readily available to plants was very small. The enrichment factors were16.78, 4.98 and 2.94 for total arsenic, copper and nickel, respectively. The Translocation Factor (TF) values for available metals from soil to branches were high. There was more metal accumulation in leaves compared to branches. The degrees of genetic variability in red oak populations from limed and unlimed areas were compared using ISSR markers. The levels of polymorphic loci were moderate to high ranging from 44 to 65%. There were no significant differences in polymorphisms between areas that were limed and unlimed. Overall the red oak populations in stressed areas in Northern Ontario are sustainable.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.363.373 2014/06/26 - 12:39

The purpose of this project was to develop a practical and cost efficient alternative to the current disposal of seafood waste in the North Florida region. Fortuitously, due to an unusually high turnover rate, this reconceptualization study may have turned seafood waste into a hot commodity. At least that is one conclusion one can draw from these findings. Indeed, over the past decades, under the pressure of volume and environmental concerns, Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus Rathbun) waste, usually considered a nuisance in North Florida, has seen a historical shift in its disposal and utilization. From the 10 million lbs generated in the region last year, almost 30%, compared to 10% the year before, has been processed into usable products. These products have found use in biotechnology, food, biomedical and environmental and agricultural industries. The latter was mainly processed in the form of chitosan, a chemical known to promote seed germination and control economically destructive fungal diseases. This reconceptualization of seafood waste could represent a new market or economic opportunity for limited-land owners in coastal areas all over the world.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.357.362 2014/06/25 - 01:49

The Odukpani limestone deposit has been investigated using geophysical and laboratory techniques with the aim of generating information on its spread and quality. Information generated from the analyses of twenty-six Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) and core drilling data were used in the study. The VES data were acquired in both grid and random patterns in the immediate area of the limestone mineralisation and the adjoining areas using the Schlumberger array was adopted in acquiring the VES data in both grid and random patterns in the limestone mineralized and the adjoining areas. Cored limestone samples were analysed using the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) method in order to determine their elemental composition and consequently quality. Both manual and computer modeling techniques were used in modeling the VES. Results show that the limestones have limited spread and have high concentration of Ca ((11,200%) and K (302,400%). Mean electrical resistivity of the limestone horizon is 405 Ωm which is suggestive of a limestone deposit that is not pure but contaminated with Fe (8,620%), shaly and other contaminants. The limestone deposit is limited in both vertical and lateral extents. Thus the deposit will not favor any large scale mining operation and equipment deployed for its exploitation must be corrosion resistant type.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.347.356 2014/06/20 - 20:16

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S, rotten-egg) is one of the major environmental pollutants having its sources in natural and anthropogenic activities. It’s had smell gas produced by anaerobic digestion in acid condition from organic and inorganic compounds containing sulphur, presents dual problems of its toxicity and foul ordour. One of methods of its removal is adsorption. Activated carbon is a widely used adsorbent in the treatment of air pollution. Adsorption type and capacity are primarily based on the physical properties of pores, namely the surface area. Convetionnally, activated carbon is produced from biomass residues, wood coal and agricultural residuces. Today, one promising approach for the production of cheap and efficient activated carbon is used of waste from palm oil mill industries, which is palm oil shell. Palm oil shell is available in large quantities of approximately 0.53 million tonnes annually in Thailand. Palm oil shell is a by-products of the palm oil industry and was used as a raw material in this study due to its high carbon content, high density and low ash content. Normally, H2S in biogas, which is found the range between as low as about 50-10,000 ppm depending on the feed material composition to prodction, can cause corrosion to engine and metal substance via of SO2 from combustion. H2S must be removed from biogas product prior to further utilization. Therefore, in these research the usage of palm oil shell is especially important due to its high value added for produced activated carbon adsorbent for H2S adsorption in biogas product. In this study, fixed bed reactor (stainless steel with 54.1 mm internal diameter and 320 mm length) was studied to observe the effect of char product: Chemical agent ratio (Na2CO3 and ZnCl2, 1:1 to 1:3), which there are activated at 700°C activation temperature for 2 h on the chemical and physical properties, BET surface area, the pore volume, micropore volume and hydrogen sulfide adsorption. The result showed that the BET surface area, BET surface area, the pore volume and micropore volume increased progressively with increasing the char product: Chemical agent ratio. The value of maen total pore volume of activated carbon increased with an increased char product: Chemical impregnation agent ratio (Na2CO3 and ZnCl2) as is a 1:1 to 1:3, from 0.3743 to 0.4181 cc/g and 0.2877 to 0.3137 cc/g, respectively. The average micropore volume were 0.2224, 0.2411, 0.2270, 0.1721, 0.1686 and 0.1546 cc/g of AC_Na13, AC_Na12, AC_Na11, AC_Z13, AC_Z12 and AC_Z11, respectively. The results of yield, it was found that that the activated carbon for Na2CO3 agent is higher than activated carbon for ZnCl2 agent. The highest of yield was 32.3% for AC_Na13. Moreover, the maximum BET surface area and H2S adsorption was 743.71 m2/g and 247.33 ppm was obtained on AC_Na13. This gave H2S adsorption more than commercial activated carbon (1%). Guideline for evaluation chemically activated carbon for potential application were suggestd. The conclusion showed that AC_Na13 has good chemical and physical properties scuh as chemical content and surface area, which showed that the highest H2S adsorption (247.33 ppm). The carbon content and BET surface area of AC_Na13 were 78.76 (wt%) and 743.71 m2/g, respectively. Thus, chemical agent (Na2CO3) can be used effectively as an operating strategy to optimize surface area. The synthetices activated carbon with suggested BET surface area were is good agreement with those obtained with chemical activation by Na2CO3 impregnation. Moreover, activated carbon was used to the H2S removal, it is also for environment benefit in which air pollution by H2S emission and impact on human health could be potentially reduced.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.336.346 2014/06/19 - 09:32

Thailand is facing with problems associated with biomass residue such as palm oil residues (oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches, shells and fibers). Biomass is promising source for the production of an array of energy-related produts including, liquid, solid and gaseous fuels, heat, chemicals electricity and other materials. Therefore, the use of biomass for energy is not still fully utilization due to the high moisture content, lower heating value of the energy unit or low bulk density and the problems withtar. While Thailand has high potential because the reisa lot of biomass that has not been utilizedfor example biomass residues from palm oil industry. About 2 million tons of empty fruit bunches in Thailand have great potential. This amount will continue increase with the rapid growth in the Thailand, the largest crude palm oil producer in the world. This amount will continue increase with the rapid growth in the Thailand palm oil industry. Therefore, a better method to manage such biomass residues is highly desired. One of the potential ways for alternative utilization of biomass is thermo-chemical process. Hydrothermal treatment is a process for making a homogenizinged, carbon rich and energy-dense solid fuel, called hydrochar. The objective of the study was to identify the effect of reaction temperature and reaction time for hydrothermal treatment of Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB). Influence of temperature 100°C, 150°C and 200°C for 30 to 90 min) and active biogas process on 1.00-15.538 bars, within 1,000 mL stainless steel 316 batch-type reactor with a stirrer and there is an automatic temperature controller. Results showed that the highest chemical and physical properties of hydrochar product was achieved when operated on 200°C for 90 min. Maximum heating value was found that 5678 cal/g for EFB9. The result showed that the chemical and physical properties increased progressively with higher temperature. The results was indicated that hydro char product of 200°C (EFB3, EFB 6 and EFB9) had higher decomposed hemicellose than other product, there were in the range from 76.28 to 81.41%. While hydrochar product of 200°C (EFB3, EFB 6 and EFB9) had increased cellulose about 57.09 to 59.14%. Both time and temperature influence product characteristics, temperature remains the decisive process parameter. Due to there was decreasing polarity and increasing temperature. It should be noted that a manipulation of the water pH has a significant impact on the reaction mechanism of cellulose and hemicellulose in water. Therefore, temperature of hydrothermal treatment can be used effectively as an operating strategy to hydrochar production.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.324.335 2014/06/03 - 02:52

The growing worldwide demand for effective energy utilization has led to numerous techniques for rational use of energy including conservation techniques and renewable energy utilization. Recently, the number of small scale buildings such as minimarts and convenience stores in Thailand has increased rapidly. However, the interest of effective energy utilization has not been focused on the implementation of the new technologies due to high investment and lack of skilled workers for the maintenance. In this study, the benefit of the implementation of micro-coge neration systems driven by natural gas engines to meet the energy demand of Thailand’s convenience stores has been analyzed using two assessment indices, Primary Energy Saving ratio (PES) and CO2 Emission Reduction ratio (CER) to evaluate the energy and environ-mental impact. The analysis results have shown that from the consideration of the energy production from micro-cogeneration systems, the selection of the reasonable capacity of the system depends on the characteristic of the load profile and the objective of the utilization of micro-cogeneration system. Furthermore, the electrical and thermal efficiencies of the micro-cogeneration system are important factors that cannot be ignored in an effect to enhance the performance of micro-cogeneration systems for both energy saving and environmental benefits. The results showed that PES and CER values can be increased up to 45 and 88%, respectively, due to the utilization of higher efficiencies of micro-cogeneration system.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.312.323 2014/05/16 - 07:02

Non-cancer hazard index for inhabitants exposed to heavy metals in surface and groundwater of the abandoned metal mine in Igun-Ijesha area were evaluated. A total of thirty-eight water samples were collected from surface and ground water sources in the study area between September 2012 and February 2013 and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Non-cancer risk assessments from possible exposure to heavy metals were evaluated using the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s human health risk assessment guidelines. Simple random sampling was used to administer questionnaires to investigate demographic characteristics and public health status of residents. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistics and ANOVA using SPSS for Windows version 16. Results indicated elevated levels of Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), lead (Pb), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn) ranging from 0.01-1.20, 0.05-0.52, 0.80-34.80, 0.09-4.30, 0.09-8.30, 0.05-3.94, 0.05-19.60 and 1.80-29.90 mg L-1 respectively which exceeded national recommended limits with few exceptions. Hazard Quotients (HQ) and Hazard Index (HI) of heavy metals were calculated and results greater than 1 indicate non-carcinogenic adverse health effects of the observed metals. A daily intake of water by the local residents could pose a potential health threat from long-term heavy-metal exposure. The risk assessment provided by this study can be beneficially used and applied for risk communication to avoid negative public health impact. Similarly, Water Safety quality assurance strategic plan should be developed to safeguard source, water and public health within the mining community.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.301.311 2014/05/10 - 19:13

This study was carried out in Igun-Ijesha, Osun State, Nigeria to determine the likely hotspots of water contamination for future treatment trials. Water quality analyses were based on physico-chemical and heavy metal parameters of surface and ground water collected from the study community. A total of thirty-eight water samples were collected between September 2012 and February 2013 and analyzed using standard procedures. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results showed that water samples within the gold mining community are contaminated and the hydrochemistry varied with seasons. The values of magnesium, turbidity, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity and pH during the period of sampling ranged 3.1-42.1 mg/L, 0-150 NTU, 30-560 mg/L, 80-1192 µS/cm and 5.95-8.55 respectively. Chloride, nitrate, phosphate, sulphate and sodium data were within the stipulated limits set by the Nigerian Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ). Heavy metal contents of the groundwater were generally higher than those from surface water sampled within the mining district. The values of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc, ranged from 0.01-1.20, 0.05-0.52, 0.80-34.80, 0.09-4.30, 0.09-8.30, 0.05-3.94, 0.05-19.6 and 1.80-29.90 mg/L respectively. Most of these metals have values exceeding the international and national recommended limits. The daily intake of water in the study area poses a potential health threat from long-term exposure to heavy-metals. The study suggests that water safety plans should be developed to safeguard water resource and public health within the mining community.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.289.300 2014/05/09 - 13:48

This study was carried out to determine the level of same selected metals namely Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, Se, Al and V in some imported canned foods and chicken stock purchased from the local market in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The measurements were performed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission Spectrometer (SPECTRO) analytical instruments. The result showed that the average concentration of the elements was 0.0007 for Cu, 0.0197 for Fe, 0.0029 for Mn, 0.0018 for Ni, 0.0120 for Zn and 0.0005 for Cr, 0.001 for Cd, 0.0137 for Al, 0.0079 for AS and 0.0167 for Se. In comparison the concentration of heavy metals and essential metals in the current investigation with World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization WHO/FAO legal limits.The average concentration of all heavy metals and essential elements were much lower than the reference limits. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that the imported canned foods and chicken stock are free of heavy metals contamination.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.283.288 2014/05/06 - 20:41

Stochastic techniques are essential in planning and management of water resources systems especially in arid and semi-arid areas where water is scarce. The forecasting of future events requires identifying proper stochastic models to be used in this process. For this purpose, a Periodic ARMA (PARMA) model and a temporal disaggregation models were used in this study to investigate weather they are appropriate for modeling the monthly rainfall data in Saudi Arabia. Results showed PARMA and temporal disaggregation models performed well in modeling the monthly rainfalls in Saudi Arabia. These models were able to preserve the basic seasonal statistics of the observed data well as preserving the seasonal correlation structure observed in the historical data. However, the PARMA model did not perform well at the annual level. In contrast, the disaggregation model performed well in preserving the correlation structure of the historical data at the annual level. Thus, these models can be used in modeling and forecasting of monthly rainfall in Arid and semi-arid areas.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.277.282 2014/05/04 - 08:33

Development activities and increasing urbanization have direct impact on solid waste generation, especially in municipalities of the developing countries, which poses a major challenge to the authorities. Many various technologies and strategies can be used in the field of garbage procedures. Incineration is a well-organized approach and tool to decrease the volume of waste and insist for additional landfill area. One of the important benefits of using the incineration is its ability to decrease a significant amount of waste combustibles by 80 to 95%. Controlling air pollution in the process of using the incineration poses a challenge for solid waste disposal. The data utilized in this article include personal interview of the experts handling the incineration process in Langkawi and personal observation. Secondary data obtained from the Ministry of Housing and Local Government was used to investigate the external air pollution from using the incinerator in Langkawi. The results showed, through the analysis of raw data with SPSS IBM 19 and Pearson correlation analysis and identify cluster of dendrogram generated by UPGMA, an external pollution minimum (p<0.05) between sampling sites inside the incinerator. The reasons for the difference are related to untimely and inappropriate opening of the combustion chamber door, exorbitance blowing and improper use of the installed air pollution control devices. The proper treatment of solid waste is very crucial, especially in Langkawi Island which is a tourist destination. The use of incinerator can enhance solid waste treatment, but only when the standard operating procedure is observed. Without properly observing the procedure, the use of an incinerator can cause more environmental and personal health issues like air pollution and the releasing of hazardous waste and clinical waste s into the landfill. These are some of the reasons that motivated this study to investigate the use of incineration in Langkawi Island.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.260.276 2014/05/03 - 09:05

Of all the natural resources, water is unarguably the most essential and precious. Life began in water and life is nurtured by water. Ninety seven percent of the world’s water is found in oceans. Only 2.5% of the world’s water are non-saline fresh water. Saudi Arabia is a desert country with no permanent rivers or lakes and very little rainfall. Water is scarce and extremely valuable and with the country’s rapid growth, the demand for water is increasing. Seven samples of water are collected, six samples from Wells (1-6) and the last sample from Al-Mallah Valley Dam, Mukhwa (7), Al-Mukhwah, in order to find impurities and pollutants and found some suitable solution. Some physical properties of water are measured such as turbidity, conductivity, pH and also, some pollutants such as iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite fluoride, phosphate as well as calcium, magnesium, sulfate and chloride as well as detection of some microorganisms. The results shown that, the water of Al-Mallah Valley Dam has a high percentage of turbidity as a result of contamination of water with clay, plant residues and also some dead animals. On the other hand, the samples of ground water have high conductivity and high value of fluoride, nitrite, nitrate contents as well as Mn and Fe. Also the result of microorganisms showed the presence of some the water of Al-Mallah Valley Dam can be treated with a very simple method and become suitable for drinking. Also ground water can be treated with a suitable method to reduce the total hardness and some pollutants. But its content of fluoride is higher than that of gulf specifications so it must be treated before used.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.219.235 2014/04/24 - 16:32

Large numbers of inhabitants in a dense area require land coverage for sheltering purposes. The anthropogenic heat emission potentially reduces ventilation of urban areas and significantly brings changes in air temperature. This study is aimed at finding the correlations between urban form and the alteration of urban microclimate in different land-uses. This study has been carried out in Bandung, Indonesia, in its educational, high dense settlement and industrial areas, covering around 37 ha each. The measurement of air Temperature (Ta), globe Temperature (Tg) and wind speed (Va) describes mean radiant Temperature (Tmrt), which gives direct impact on the quality of outdoor spaces in urbanized areas. 3D modeling based on a Sketch-up and introducing Chronolux, as a simple model has given a description of the Sky View Factor (SVF) in urban form. Urban form that is presented by building coverage is giving significant impact to Tmrt as shown in high-dense settlement with R = 0.82. Tmrt and SVF at all study areas show positive correlations, eventhough not in significant values where at educational area R = 0.029; meanwhile at high-dense settlement R = 0.2 and finally at industrial area R = 0.28.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.210.218 2014/04/24 - 16:32

This study describes new considerations in the design and development of Archimedean’s Pipe-Screw especially for water pumping in case of low head high volume form open farm pond at Rajamangala University of Technology Rattanakosin, Thailand. The objectives of this research is to develop an Archimedean’s Pipe-Screw especially for water pumping in case of low head high volume form open farm pond used for water pumping with Thai sail windmill, at any location of low wind speed of Thailand and tests the performance of an Archimedean’s Pipe-Screw Model (APSM). The experimental was carried out on diameter of Archimedean’s Pipe-Screw is Φ5/8”, the pitch Archimedean’s Pipe-Screw (P) is 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 D for angle slope of the screw with the horizontal (α) is 20, 25, 30°C in laboratory scale Archimedean’s Pipe-Screw model. Archimedean’s Pipe-Screw tests were conducted to assess the performance of characteristics of Archimedean’s Pipe-Screw model. A model of pump has been manufactured; 1.0 m long with the blade small rubber tube was constructed. The output of the experiments recommenced for development the prototype of Archimedean’s Pipe-Screw for the Thai sail wind pump. The prototype of pump has been manufactured, 4.0 m long, 8 m diameter. This wind pump has twelve triangular sails sweeping a circle of 8 m diameter. For the construction of this Archimedean’s Pipe-Screw wind pump all efforts were made to use maximize materials and local parts available in the market for large scale of Archimedean’s screw-pipe for Thai sail wind pump. The cost of material and parts is 145,000 Baht excluding the cost of machining and fabrication. Water discharge was in the range 0.005-0.081 lps. It can be seen maximum water discharge of pitch Archimedean’s Pipe-Screw (P) is 1.4D at 80 rpm for α = 20° was 0.081 lps. For the result of prototype of Archimedean’s Pipe-Screw for Thai sail wind pump, it was found that the curves for the prototype of Thai sail windmill coupled to twelve Archimedean’s Pipe-Screw pump of wind speed and the discharge of was increased depending on wind speed. The discharge amount varied between 9.56-38.23 m3/h at head of 1.5 m in wind speeds from 1.0-5.0 m s-1 that the overall efficiency of this windmill for water pumping was highest (76.96%) at wind speed of 1.4 m s-1.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.244.259 2014/04/23 - 06:16

The water resources sector of Bangladesh relies on the Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) to assess the possible positive and negative impacts on the environmental and social components of the project affected area. The motivation of this research was to identify the key environmental components, gaps and lapses of current EIA practices in water resources sector of Bangladesh. Under the motivation, this study has determined the effectiveness of a water resources EIA (Gorai River Restoration Project) for sustainable implication of water resources development and management projects in Bangladesh. Component-based checklist method and effectiveness review framework were used in this study to draw conclusions and to make environmental judgment on the important sections of the studied EIA. Review of the key aspects and the analysis of the effectiveness framework disclosed that the studied EIA is well performed and provides sufficient information for decision making, but residual and unavoidable impacts were not identified for all the important environment components in the construction and operation phase. Inclusion of important environmental and social components under different intervention scenarios, consideration of alternative flow regimes, alternative options with ensuring public participation were the key strengths of the studies EIA. The considered environmental issues and aspects under the critique can be used as guidelines for future EIAs under the similar geo-environmental contexts. The review framework developed in this study can be implemented in water resources EIA review process to ensure long-term sustainability of water resources projects.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.236.243 2014/04/19 - 12:03

Of all the natural resources, water is unarguably the most essential and precious. Life began in water and life is nurtured by water. Ninety seven percent of the world’s water is found in oceans. Only 2.5% of the world’s water are non-saline fresh water. Saudi Arabia is a desert country with no permanent rivers or lakes and very little rainfall. Water is scarce and extremely valuable and with the country’s rapid growth, the demand for water is increasing. Seven samples of water are collected, six samples from Wells (1-6) and the last sample from Al-Mallah Valley Dam, Mukhwa (7), Al-Mukhwah, in order to find impurities and pollutants and found some suitable solution. Some physical properties of water are measured such as turbidity, conductivity, pH and also, some pollutants such as iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite fluoride, phosphate as well as calcium, magnesium, sulfate and chloride as well as detection of some microorganisms. The results shown that, the water of Al-Mallah Valley Dam has a high percentage of turbidity as a result of contamination of water with clay, plant residues and also some dead animals. On the other hand, the samples of ground water have high conductivity and high value of fluoride, nitrite, nitrate contents as well as Mn and Fe. Also the result of microorganisms showed the presence of some the water of Al-Mallah Valley Dam can be treated with a very simple method and become suitable for drinking. Also ground water can be treated with a suitable method to reduce the total hardness and some pollutants. But its content of fluoride is higher than that of gulf specifications so it must be treated before used.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.220.235 2014/04/19 - 12:03

In recent years, certain strains of fluorescent pseudomonads called PGPB have drawn attention due to their abilities to promote plant growth. Therefore, in this investigation, we have explored the adhesive properties, the phytostimulator effects and the biocontrol activities of 40 isolates, with the aim to select potential inoculants to improve crop yields. Ten different colony morphotypes were detected on CRA plates. PsTp172 described as “ST” showed the highest adherence ability to abiotic surface (OD550 = 2.102). 31 isolates were positive for the plant growth-promoting hormone (IAA) production and 30 stains solubilised tri-calcium phosphate in Pikovskaya’s agar. Furthermore, the highest pyoverdine concentration was detected with PsTp172 strain (172.50 µM) under iron starvation conditions. This strain also exhibited a co-resistance against Zn2+ and Mn2+ and displayed high values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) for each heavy metal. Additionally, among the tested isolates, eight strains (PsS15, PsTp172, PsS28, PsTp171, PsS31, PsS67, PsS18, PsS39 and PsS93) were found to be efficient antagonists against the 3 pathogenic strains and 6 isolates (PsS15, PsTp156, PsTp172, PsC54, PsTp171 and PsS102) were considered as lactone inhibitors of the 3 tested strains, as shown by their ability to inhibit the cellular communication. The majority of isolates showed various phytobeneficial traits and the most effective strains are P. putida (PsTp172 and PsS15) and P. mosseli (PsTp171).

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.199.209 2014/04/16 - 19:07

Large numbers of inhabitants in a dense area require land coverage for sheltering purposes. The anthropogenic heat emission potentially reduces ventilation of urban areas and significantly brings changes in air temperature. This study is aimed at finding the correlations between urban form and the alteration of urban microclimate in different land-uses. This study has been carried out in Bandung, Indonesia, in its educational, high dense settlement and industrial areas, covering around 37 ha each. The measurement of air Temperature (Ta), globe Temperature (Tg) and wind speed (Va) describes mean radiant Temperature (Tmrt), which gives direct impact on the quality of outdoor spaces in urbanized areas. 3D modeling based on a Sketch-up and introducing Chronolux, as a simple model has given a description of the Sky View Factor (SVF) in urban form. Urban form that is presented by building coverage is giving significant impact to Tmrt as shown in high-dense settlement with R = 0.82. Tmrt and SVF at all study areas show positive correlations, eventhough not in significant values where at educational area R = 0.029; meanwhile at high-dense settlement R = 0.2 and finally at industrial area R = 0.28.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.210.219 2014/04/16 - 19:07

Since the 80’s, the northwestern and the southwestern parts of the tropical Bangladesh located in the downstream Ganges basin have been having summer temperature above 109°F and winter temperature as low as 37°F. Every year people, particularly, the infants die from heat-and cold-related diseases and hospitals become packed-up with the victims of severe climatic condition. The objective of this research is to find the reason for the appearances of the extreme climate in certain parts of the country. Water bodies being reservoirs of heat, the condition of the rivers and other surface water resources has been examined. It is found that the continued water piracy at the upstream from the downstream Bangladesh Ganges discharge, the major source of water for the northwestern and southwestern parts, has depleted surface water resources and sunken the down the groundwater table. About 60% evaporation of the massively extracted groundwater to make up for the surface water shortage goes to merely increase the relative humidity without causing rainfall. Summer time lingering high temperature and high humidity cause the severity of summer weather. In the absence of the virgin surface water bodies, there is little room for storing heat for wintertime warming. The entire Ganges basin loses at least 10 times the heat it used to store in the water-abundant days. Summertime maximum temperature, HDDs and CDDs are negatively and wintertime minimum temperature is positive correlated with the decline of the Ganges’s discharge. Indian Government has to decommission her dams and barrages to mitigate the sufferings of the downstream people in Bangladesh. The greatest implication of this research is the accountability of the anthropogenic actions-caused depleting inland water bodies through storing, distribution via multi-channeling, irrigation, industrial and domestic use, for the occurrences of global heating vis-à-vis cooling and not CO2 and other greenhouse gases accumulation in space. Immediate international actions are needed to end the episode.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.171.198 2014/04/16 - 19:07

The occurrence of carcinogenic and heavy metals in groundwater sources in Urban-west region of Zanzibar Island is an issue that is not very well known. This could be also coupled with the absence of drinking water treatment plants. This study for the first time reports on the occurrence and the levels of three carcinogenic metals-Arsenic (As), Beryllium (Be) and lead (Pb) in thirty groundwater samples collected from Zanzibar’s Urban/West region. The levels of alkalinity, Magnesium (Mg) and Thallium (Tl) were also determined. The concentrations of As, Be, TI and Pb in the water samples were determined by the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Palintest photometry procedures were used to determine the levels of total alkalinity and magnesium. Be, As, Tl and Pb were not detected (nd) in some water samples. The ranges of concentrations of Be, As, TI and Pb in the samples were; nd to 6100 ng L-1, nd to 6600 ng L-1, nd to 11600 ng L-1 and nd to 31400 ng L-1 respectively. The levels of total alkalinity varied from 38 to 380 (mg L-1 as CaCO3). The proportions of water samples contaminated with Be, Tl, As and Pb were 43.3, 66.7, 70 and 96.7% respectively. About 23% of the water samples had Pb concentrations beyond WHO limits for safe drinking water, while 30 and 56.67% of the samples had Be and Tl concentrations beyond the US EPA’s maximum limits. The concentration of arsenic in each water sample was within WHO limits. The occurrence and the levels of carcinogenic metals in water sources could be a potential cause of cancer cases in Zanzibar. Therefore, prompt action is required to control the levels of these hazardous metals in Zanzibar’s domestic water systems.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.164.170 2014/04/11 - 21:14

In the present study, nano-scale Zero Valent Iron (NZVI) was synthesized in ethanol medium by the method of ferric iron reduction using sodium borohydride as a reducing agent under atmospheric conditions. The obtained iron nanoparticles are mainly in zero valent oxidation state and remain without significant oxidation for hours. A systematic characterization of NZVI was performed using XRD, SEM and TEM studies. The obtained iron nanoparticles consist of a zero valent core surrounding a rest oxide shell. The diameter of iron nanoparticles was predominantly within the range 20-110 nm. Refractory azo-dye compounds used in the textile industry are commonly detected in many industrial waste water. In this study the removal efficiency of three azo dyes, namely, methyl orange, sunset yellow and acid blue a, with laboratory synthesized NZVI particles in relation to the NZVI dosage, dye concentration and pH was determined. Increasing the dose of NZVI particles enhanced the decolonization of the dyes. The degradation decreased with increasing solution pH and concentration of dyes. These findings demonstrated the fast removal of azo dye compounds with NZVI and the advantage of the synthesized NZVI particles to treat azo dye contaminated wastewater.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.157.163 2014/04/09 - 05:05

Manganese speciation in selected agricultural soils of Peninsular Malaysia is discussed in this study. Manganese concentration in the Easily Leacheable and Ion Exchangeable (ELFE), Acid Reducible (AR), Organic Oxidizable (OO) and Resistant (RR) fractions of soils developed on weathered rocks, soils of mixed nature, alluvium and peat deposits are described. The total manganese concentration in soils developed on weathered rocks was found to be higher than that in soils of mixed nature, alluvium and peat deposits because of the occurrence of resistant manganese oxide at the topsoils. Manganese speciation in paddy soils is influenced by the redox condition resulting from the alternate flooding and drying of the soils. Under reducing conditions, this metal tends to get dissolved and be available for plant uptake. Upon oxidation, manganese is precipitated into the acid reducible fraction as poorly crystalline manganese oxide and hydroxide and/or the resistant Fe-Mn mottles. In non-paddy cultivated alluvial soils, manganese speciation varies widely and is less understood. For the non-paddy cultivated peat soils, manganese is mainly associated with organic material, as indicated by the high manganese concentration in the OO fraction.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.148.156 2014/04/09 - 05:05

Drought is the most damaging climate-related hazards due to the prolonged absence of precipitation. Therefore, understanding the drought dynamics is important for irrigation water management to mitigate the negative impacts on agriculture. In this study, Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) were used as effective tools for tracking the changes of water status occurred at five agro-meteorological stations (Etay Al Baroud, Wadi El-Natrun, Al Boseli, Badr and Nubariyah) within El-Beheira governorate, Egypt. In addition, the overall water risk for agro-meteorological stations was estimated using the Aqueduct-GIS tool. The results clarified that Badr agro-meteorological station is representing the highest of water deficit by 96.6%, whereas, Al Boseli agro-meteorological station is representing the lowest water deficit by 86.9%. However, The SPI over El-Beheira region often confined in the near normal class, while the SPEI showed a notable increase of drought (SPEI = 0 to -4) in last 10 years of the analyses. The results suggested that El-Beheira governorate is moving toward the drought in general and Wadi El-Natrun and Nubariyah are the most drought affected areas in the future.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.140.147 2014/04/05 - 15:38

Biogas production has been attracting increasing attention as a biofuel of the future because biogas technology not only constitutes a biofuel source, but also can be applied in the various environmental pollutants. Anaerobic digestion of high solid slurries (such as food waste and cow dung) is typically performed in continuously reactor (by force substrate flow) to avoid problems with a thick floating layer or large amounts of sediments. Temperature also seems to have profound influence on the biogas production. The objective of the study was to identify the optimum biogas production for anaerobic co-digestion of cow dung and organic wastes (napierpakchong I and food waste). Influence of temperature (psyhrophilic temperature 25°C and thermoplilic temperature 45°C) and active biogas process on single substrate (food waste feed) and co-digestion of cow dung and organic wastes (napierpakchong I and food waste) was used, within the reactor was studies in 1.80 cm high over a 45 day. Results showed that best digestion was achieved when digested of cow dung, napierpakchong I and food waste) on 1:1:1 and thermoplilic temperature. Maximum biogas production (R4), biogas yield, methane content and %VS reduction was found that 70 L/day, 70 L/VS feed, 65 and 80%, respectively. The result showed that the biogas production increased progressively withhigher temperature.The increased in biogas production in thermophilic temperature and psyhrophilic temperature could be up 28.01 and 26%, respectively. The biogas yield increased 12.5% of co-digestion system, which compared to thermophilic temperature and psyhrophilic temperature (R4 and R2). This behavior might be due to the higher degradability. Therefore, temperature of digester can be used effectively as an operating strategy to optimize biogas production.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.129.139 2014/04/02 - 22:12

Ionizing radiation exposure experienced by the general population is mainly due to the indoor radon. Major part of radon comes from the top layer of the earth. The radon emanation is associated with radon and radium in the soil. Effective radium content and radon exhalation rates in soil samples were measured by ‘‘sealed can technique’’ using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. The soil samples were collected from different locations from Alexandria city, in Egypt. The values of effective radium content were found to vary from 2.7 to 53.80 Bq kg-1 with geometric mean value 13.28 Bq kg-1 and standard deviation of 2.81 Bq kg-1. The mass and surface exhalation rate were found to vary from 18.2 to 365 (Bq/kg. h)×10-3 and 0.83 to 16.63 Bq/m2. h, respectively. All the values of radium content in soil samples of study area were found to be quite lower than the permissible value of 370 Bq kg-1 recommended by organization for economic cooperation and development.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.123.128 2014/04/02 - 22:12

The aim of this study was to assess the levels of various trace metals present in water and sediment of fresh water aquatic ecosystem during the post monsoon season. The study was extended to identify the trace metal contamination in the water and sediment samples collected along the shores of Lambapur and Peddagattu the tribal villages in India using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICPMS). The trace metal contents in water samples were copper- 24.2 to 47.5, chromium- 4.4 to 8.2, cadmium- 0.1 to 0.3, lead- 2.1 to 3.8, Nickel- 5.9 to 9.7, Zinc- 4.6 to 9.7, Manganese- 10.8 to 13.2, Iron- 52.9 to 157.2 (µg L-1) cobalt and arsenic were in BDL and the values were within the limits of Indian drinking water standards (BIS 10500: 1991). The trace metals concentration in the sediment samples ranged from (mg kg-1): Copper- 61.5 to 113.7, chromium- 138.4 to 177.5, cobalt- 33.2 to 42.7, cadmium- 1.0 to 2.1, lead- 57.9 to 103.4, Nickel- 36.1 to 56.6, Zinc- 51.2 to 102.1, Manganese- 610.8 to 1301.7 and Iron- 2.5 to 2.9%. In our study, four reliable indices such as Enrichment factor, Contamination factor, Geoaccumulation Index and Pollution Load Index were applied to estimate metal pollution and the results comparison are discussed below. The data generated were used to determine the quality of the sediments based on the enrichment factor, contamination factor and degree of contamination, geochemical index and Pollution Load Index (PLI).

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.102.122 2014/03/26 - 19:21

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate-to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefore.establishing baseline information for the complete environmental profile of the palm oil plywood is essential. Data from this study on the environmental impact for the production of palm plywood would help to develop sustainable palm plywood product. The results will provide information to identify ways and measures to reduce the environmental impacts. Most foreground data were collected directly from numbers oil palm plywood factories which represent 40% of the palm plywood industry in Peninsular Malaysia. Data gaps were filled by information obtained through questionnaires which were developed specifically for data collection, literature, public database or further calculated from obtained data. The outputs and inputs from production activities were quantified on the basis of functional unit of production of 1 m3from different types of oil palm based plywood i.e., Moisture Resistant (MR), Weather Boiling Proof (WBP) Grade 1 and Weather Boiling Proof (WBP) Grade 2. The life cycle impact assessment was carried out using SimaPro 7.1 software and the eco-indicator 99 methodology. The weighting results of LCA for the production of 1 cubic meter of oil palm based plywood showed significant impact in descending order i.e., fossil fuel, respiratory inorganic and climate change. The most significant process contributing to these environmental impacts came from the production and usage of adhesives, transportation of oil palm trunks from plantation to factory and generation and usage of electricity from the grid. The ways to mitigate the environmental impacts are by using substitutes for inorganic chemical adhesives such as groundnut shell lignin adhesive, modified phenol formaldehyde adhesive and developing wood adhesive made from pyrolisis oil of oil palm biomass, establishing a collecting centre for oil palm trunk transportation and efficient use of oil palm biomass as an energy source. The study helped establishing baseline information for the complete environmental profile of the palm oil industry from cradle to grave which starts at the oil palm germinated seeds to the production of palm plywood.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.86.93 2014/03/15 - 16:36

Glyphosate [N-phosphonomethyl]glycine is a systematic, non-selective, organophosphorus herbicide used worldwide in agriculture and industrial zones. Following its application, residues of glyphosate can threaten soil or aquatic organisms in adjacent water. In this study, we followed the degradation, stabilization, remobilization and leaching of 14C-glyphosate in three agricultural soils in laboratory incubations and in lysimeters under field conditions. Glyphosate degradation was relatively rapid with a half-life of 14.5 days in the silt clay loam soil incubated at 20°C. Glyphosate’s degradation product, Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA), represented more than 85% of residues after 80 days of laboratory incubation. Leaching of glyphosate in lysimeters of three different investigated soils under outdoor conditions was very slow, less than 1% of the initial applied amount has been detected in the leachates after 100 days of experimentation. Glyphosate rapidly formed non-extractable residues after treatment. In summary, glyphosate was removed from soil very rapidly and its leaching seems to be very slow regardless the type of treated soil. On the other hand, the contamination risk of groundwater with its metabolite AMPA at long term is probably due to the release of the non-extractable residues.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.94.101 2014/03/15 - 16:36

The growing worldwide concerns over environment, health and monetary aspects have triggered a search for efficient and economic renewable sources of energy production. Agricultural sector holds the potential for development of one of the major source of renewable energy such as biogas. In this study, CSTR-small scale fermentation (200 L stainless steel) was studied to observe the effect of stirring for natural water, cow dung, rice straw and water hyacinth ratio (2:1:1:1), which there are suitable of C: N ratio at 31.1: 1on the biogas and methane production at ambient temperature (31°C), 6.7-7.2 and 6.7-7.8 of pH for with/without stirring digester, respectively, for 52 days. The result showed that the biogas production increased progressively with stirring digester. The maximum biogas production and methane concentration was 98.56 L/days and 64.07% was obtained at stirring digester. This gave an increase of 7.56 over without stirring digester. Thus, agitation of digester can be used effectively as an operating strategy to optimize biogas production.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.74.85 2014/03/04 - 12:16

The typical methods of treatment for acidic and metal contaminated water effluent such as the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) will always focus on either civil engineering methods, such as disposal, excavation, drainage and encapsulation or process based technologies such as effluent washing and treatment. These techniques are not environmental friendly, costly and unsustainable, thus environmental damaging. Nowadays, there is a growing need for an alternative remediation treatment that is innovative and more natural in order to prevent pollution in the environment. Therefore, in this study, a new alternative treatment, that is more organic, biodegradable and cost effective, using bone meal was presented. In this research, bone meal comprising of chicken bones were used as an alternative passive treatment to determine its potential in neutralizing and removing heavy metals from the abandoned cooper mine, Mamut Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) waste water effluent. A pretreatment process for bone meal was performed by incineration process where it was heated up in the furnace at 500°C for 24 h after it was cleaned, crushed, boiled and dried. Batch experiment test has been carried out to test whether the selected bone meal sizes 45, 75 and 150 µm was able to neutralize the AMD Mamut water samples. Inductive Plasma Couple-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) test was carried out to test the concentration of the heavy metals before and after the treatment. The surface morphology of bone meal was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Enlargement of pores after the neutralization treatment was seen on the surface morphology of the bone meal by SEM analyses. A significant rising of pH from 2.98 to 5.69 within 6 h 30 min was observed during neutralization process and 99% removal of Fe, Zn, Al, Cu and 36% removal of Mg concentration was achieved after the treatment through the neutralization treatment of the AMD waste water effluent. The results from this study conclude that bone meal has the potential to neutralize and remove heavy metals from acidic and metal contaminated AMD waste water effluent.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajessp.2014.61.73 2014/03/04 - 12:16