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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Statement problem: The study investigated effect of organic wax Sasobit wax (S)
on the characteristics of bitumen 80/100-penetration grade. The consistency of bitumen is
measure of its susceptibility to temperature change and resistance to flow which affects ability
and resistance to deformation of the mixture. Approach: This study reviewed the bitumen
modification process in relation to Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology, using S as a
modifier. The study investigated the penetration, softening point and viscosity measurements
of modified bitumen 80/100-penetration grade (binder), using the Brook field viscometer. The
binders mixed with various percentage of the wax S 1-5% were investigated. Results: Results
from the study showed an increase in softening point, decrease in penetration with an increase
in S. The viscosity of binder also decreases at higher temperatures while at mid range
temperatures the viscosity increases with an increase in additive. Conclusion: This study has
provided a valuable data on the effect of additive S on increasing the kinematic viscosity of
binder at low temperature and decreasing the dynamic viscosity at high temperature, been
attributed to the presence of S wax with high hydrocarbons molecular content in the binder.
Also increasing the additive decreases penetration and increases softening points, The study
recommends the use of 2% S for modification of PEN 80/100.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.265.269 2011/08/14 - 18:59

Problem statement: Embung is a small dam created by manmade lakes and used to catch
water during rainy season for an irrigation source. In Sragen area, Embung Sono is one of around
twenty embung that used to catch rain water for irrigation. Soil erosions in catchment area are potential
to reduce water capacity of the embung. Although many embung have been constructed in Sragen
areas, the numbers of soil erosion in catchment area of embung are not well considered. Approach:
Soil erosion in the Sono catchment area was analyzed using Geographic Information System (GIS) and
Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) method. Results: The result showed that total number of soil
erosion in the Sono catchment area is 63.50 ton/ha-year and categorized in moderate classified. Value
of Sediment Delivery Ratio (SDR) for catchment was 0.34. Empirical equation proposed by Renfro,
Vanoni and USDA were also used to analyze the SDR value. Conclusion: It was found that USDA is
the best method that can be used to predict soil erosion in Sragen area. It means the crop management
and environmental conservation in Sono catchment need to be improved.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.270.275 2011/08/14 - 18:59

Problem statement: This study discusses the development of computer software of two
phases. First phase contains the calculations of all curve elements of the four types of the horizontal
curve and second phase contains the modeling of the ten methods of estimating the radius of the
horizontal curve. Approach: The program is named as HCRET, which stands for Horizontal Curves
and Radius Estimating Techniques. The program is written in Visual Basic-Version 6 language. The
developed program deals with the calculation of all elements of the horizontal curve of the four types
of the horizontal curves, which consists of simple, compound, reverse and transition. Results: The
program also used for modeling of the ten methods of radius-estimating of horizontal curve, which
consist of Ball Bank Indicator, Chord Length, Compass, Lateral Acceleration, Plan Sheet, Advisory
Speed Plate, Modified Yaw Rate, Field Survey, and Global Positioning System for the calculation of
estimated-radius. The program output is comprehensive and easy to understand, while the program
input is used friendly and provided with many graphical objects to facilitate ease of use. A case study
of three examples presented to evaluate the modeled software of three horizontal curves. Two curves
were located in university of Baghdad and a third curve was designed and includes also the
experimental work of radius-estimating methods of horizontal curves as follow field survey, plan
sheet, compass, Global Positioning System (GPS). Conclusion/Recommendations: The results that
obtained of the three curves by using the radius-estimating methods include the true and estimated
radius of each method. The field survey and the plan sheet method provided the most accurate result
0.8002 and 0.8660 respectively. The plan sheet method and GPS method is preferred, because plan
sheets are easily accessible to these users and GPS is the accurate field method. While the compass
method is not the accurate, it is easy to use, and has a low cost.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.276.287 2011/08/14 - 18:59

Problem statement: The purpose of this study is to present a benchmarking guideline,
conceptual framework and computerized mini program to assists companies achieve better
performance in terms of quality, cost, delivery, supply chain and eventually increase their
competitiveness in the market. The study begins with literature review on benchmarking definition,
barriers and advantages from the implementation and the study of benchmarking framework.
Approach: Thirty respondents were involved in the case study. They comprise of industrial
practitioners, which had assessed usability and practicability of the guideline, conceptual framework
and computerized mini program. Results: A guideline and template were proposed to simplify the
adoption of benchmarking techniques. A conceptual framework was proposed by integrating the
Deming’s PDCA and Six Sigma DMAIC theory. It was provided a step-by-step method to simplify
the implementation and to optimize the benchmarking results. A computerized mini program was
suggested to assist the users in adopting the technique as part of improvement project. As the result
from the assessment test, the respondents found that the implementation method provided an idea for
company to initiate benchmarking implementation and it guides them to achieve the desired goal as set
in a benchmarking project. Conclusion: The result obtained and discussed in this study can be applied
in implementing benchmarking in a more systematic way for ensuring its success.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.288.293 2011/08/14 - 18:59

Problem statement: In this study a comprehensive methodology for calculating load
sharing in Roller-bearing contact was presented based on the experimental stress-optical method of
caustics and Photoelasticity. Approach: The theoretical equations describing the geometry of
transmitted caustic in relation to the length of the contact zone were derived and a simple
mathematical set of equations correlating the maximum diameter of transmitted caustic with the
magnitude of load was given.For this contact problem, the basic theory of photoelasticity was
given. Results: The techniques of caustics and photoelasticity were applied on a set of PMMA
(Plexiglas) Roller-bearings and on a set of PCBA (Lexan) Roller-bearings, respectively.
Conclusion: The proposed method of the caustics is a reliable alternative for measuring load
distribution in Roller-bearings compared to photoelasticity technique.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.294.300 2011/08/14 - 18:59

Problem Statement: Ionospheric scintillations, cause significant effects on satellite signals
for communication and navigation in equatorial region and polar regions mainly during sever magnetic
storms periods. This phenomenon is not fully understood due to few studies performed. The study
investigates variability of Total Electron Content (TEC) and ionospheric scintillation during October
2003 magnetic storm over Antarctica using ground based GPS technique. Approach: The
TEC/scintillation measuring system at Scott Base station, consists of Trimble TS5700 24-channel (a
high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver), a Trimble Zephyr Geodetic antenna and a notebook
computer for data logging. The absolute GPS TEC was calculated from differential phase advance GPS
observables (1-L2). The GPS signal-to-noise ratios (C/No) and 1/L2 carrier frequencies were employed
to determine the scintillation index S4 every 60 s, amplitude scintillation (in dB-Hz) and phase
scintillation. Results: The GPS measurements during storm periods at Scott Base show pronounced
phase and amplitude scintillation activities, sudden increase in TEC followed by trough-like figure
depletions. The maximum value of phase scintillation during the main phase of third episode was 8.3
times the value during Sudden Storm Commencement (SSC) period. Measured amplitude scintillation
and S4 index on both 1 and L2 signals are >15dB-Hz and >0.4dB-Hz respectively.
Conclusion/Recommendation: The timing and intensity of TEC and scintillation measurements during
the storm event were are in a good agreement with WDC measurements. For this particular event, the
duration of enhanced periods were approximately 12 h while periods of TEC depletions were more than
30 h. This value implies better understanding of the polar ionospheric response to magnetic storm and
eases efforts for better space weather prediction in this region.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.301.305 2011/08/14 - 18:59

Problem statement: In this research, we addressed the problem of minimizing the
earliness-tardiness penalties and manufacturing costs of a single machine with a stochastic
controllable processing and tooling cost. Approach: We developed a mathematical non-linear integer
programming model and its linearised version to find the optimal solution.We introduced a new
genome representation in single machine scheduling literature that evolved by a genetic algorithm to
solve the problem. The genome representation includes two genes per job, one represents the job starting
time and other corresponds to the job processing time. The algorithms were compared based on the
solution quality, CPU time and memory consumption in bytes on a set of randomly generated test
problems. Results: The results showed that developed algorithms could define the global optimal
solution of most scheduling problems with n ≤ 20 jobs. For larger n, the developed genetic algorithm
outperforms the math models in terms of solution quality and less CPU seconds while consumes
moderate memory kilobytes of 3295 compared with 5058 and 1685 of linear and nonlinear models on the
average. Conclusion: The GA`s average performance achieves 6.013 related to the lower bound of
math linear program whereas nonlinear model achieves an average of 1.034.The GA`s performance
increases by increasing n compared with other techniques. We hope to expand the developed
algorithms for different configurations as parallel and job shops.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.306.314 2011/08/14 - 18:59

Problem statement: Rising up land value and a rapid extension in large town in the world, this
in addition to appearance a new technique in applied mathematics especially in interpolation felid during last
period encourage engineers and surveyor to search for a new mathematical formula for calculating area of a
land. Approach: In this study, (0, 2) lacunary interpolation technique used to derive a new equation for
calculation of a land area. Results: The results show that this new technique is better than the used formulas
before, such as trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule. Conclusion: The obtained formula can be use by engineer’s
and surveyor for calculating area of a land confidently and to acceptable accuracy.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.175.178 2011/04/05 - 17:07

Problem statement: The harvesting and pruning of horticultural crops is quite difficult due
to their tallness. There are small hand tools available for harvesting and pruning. But these tools of
harvesting and pruning are restricted due tree height, unavailability of trained labours for climbing and
cost of operation etc. The mechanized machines are available; these are heavy and costly and are not
suitable for low land holding, Indian marginal famers. Harvesting and pruning of horticultural crops
with the available hand tool is very difficult. The labor has to climb on the tree by carrying these hand
tools, which requires skill too. To overcome the above problems a Tractor Mounted Hydraulic
Elevator (TMHE) powered by tractor PTO, was tested for the mechanical harvesting and pruning of
mango orchards using digital load cell, digital Vibration meter and digital Techometer for elevator
stability study and pruner engine RPM measurements while in branch cutting respectively. The field
performance of the above machine was carried out on plane mango plot, at Dr. Balasaheb Sawant
Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Dist: -Ratnagiri (Maharashtra, India). The machine was tested for
the better stability at maximum reach position for harvesting and pruning of various mango varieties,
like Alphanso, Totapuri etc. Approach: To reduce the harvesting /pruning cost, increase the
harvesting/pruning efficiency and enhance the overall productivity of mango orchards. Also to use the
traditional mechanized/ manual pruning tools with the developed tractor mounted hydraulic elevator.
To develop and refine the power operated mechanism for marginal farmers. This stability study was
carried out, by using strain gauge load cell (S-beam), having capacity of 2000 kg. The load cell
guiding device was designed and fabricated for conducting the above experiments following standard
material specifications of American society of testing material. The reaction on rear wheel of tractor
was measured by using digital load cell, which converts the force acting on rear wheel of tractor into
electrical signals and get it displayed on the control panel. The speed of pruner engine is measured for
various mango trees branches at different heights, using digital tachometer. The vibrations of the
pruning platform are measured for the respective pruner engine speed and height of Pruning Platform.
The speed and vibration readings are taken for different branches of different diameter and height. The
time required for pruning the branches is also measured. Results: The tractor mounted hydraulic
elevator is most suitable for harvesting and pruning of mango orchards upto 12 m tree height without
affecting the stability of machine with available tools. The field capacity of elevator was 0.08 h−1 for
mango harvesting. The observed field capacity of the developed TMHE is 5,400 mango (1400 kg)
day−1 for Alphanso mango, research is underway to develop hydraulic man-positioned, which would
be easier to harvest, prune tree and spraying by hand or machine. Conclusion: The overturning of the
elevator is not observed, up to 12 meter height of tree from ground including 150 kg load in the lifting
platform for harvesting and pruning of mango orchards. The vibrations of the lifting platform noted are
in safe limit.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.179.186 2011/04/05 - 17:07

Problem statement: This study is a contribution to the general program of describing
complex dynamical systems using the tool of fractional calculus of variations. Approach: Following
our previous work, fractional quantum field theory based on the fractional actionlike variational
approach supported by Saxena-Kumbhat fractional integrals functionals, fractional derivative of order
(α, β) and dynamical fractional exponent on multi-fractal sets is considered. Results: In order to build
the required theory, we introduce the Saxena-Kumbhat hypergeometric fractional functionals determined
on the functions on a multifractal sets. We prove, developing the corresponding fractional calculus of
variations, that a hierarchy of differential equations can be developed from the extended fractional
Lagrangian formalism. Besides, a generalization of the resulting Hamiltonian and Lagrangian dynamics
on the complex plane is addressed. Conclusion: The new complexified dynamics guides to a new
dynamics which may differ totally from the classical mechanics cardinally and may bring new appealing
consequences. Some additional interesting results are explored and discussed in some details.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.133.141 2011/03/28 - 11:23

Problem statement: Agility of an enterprise system is considered as its ability to adapt
successfully and efficiently to unexpected changes of the environment. Agility is key in effectiveness
of enterprise systems and also it is crucial in gaining competitive advantage in global market.
Approach: This is particularly true in the case of an Extended Enterprise System (EES), which
represents a network of interconnected enterprises. Infrastructure systems such as transportation
systems are generally considered examples of an EES. Results: The efficiency of an EES generally
lies in its responsiveness to the change and the ability of all its constituents in working effectively in
order to achieve a common objective. As a result, agility might prove to be a very important ingredient
for an EES to thrive and sustain in today’s highly complex and interrelated environment. The purpose
of this study is to introduce an assessment method and a subsequent agility index to evaluate agility in
a generic EES and utilize it to a selected part of the New York City transportation network. The
proposed method in this research is essential for understanding the nature and quality of interaction
among constituent systems and provides stakeholders with the knowledge that is necessary for agility
management in an EES. The contribution of this study to the domain of management and systems science
are twofold. Firstly, the proposed method is expected to be a prominent part of the available literatures on
evaluating the agility of an EES. Secondly, it is applied to a transportation network case, which as an
infrastructure system is considered to be a classic example of an EES. Conclusion: Findings of such
research will be useful in developing network agility strategies from the governance perspective.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.142.152 2011/03/28 - 11:23

Problem statement: Resilient infrastructure systems are able to continue to provide the
expected service levels following disruptive events. Implementing resiliency in infrastructure systems
requires knowledge of the current resiliency of the system and a methodology by which different
resiliency strategies can be evaluated. In the transportation infrastructure in particular, disruptions
cause delays, which will in turn incur substantial economic losses and environmental damages.
Approach: The Networked Infrastructure Resiliency framework (NIRA) is proposes to assess the
resiliency of the road network that connects Manhattan in New York City to the rest of the regions.
The framework proposes to create a network model of the system onto which hypothetical disruptions
can be introduced and then to measure resiliency as the impact of disruptions on the performance
measures of the system. One of the key performance measures of the transportation infrastructure
system is the travel time; hence, the base resiliency of the system is measured as the ratio of the travel
time preceding a disruption to the travel time following a disruption. Different resiliency strategies that
improve the system’s resiliency can be evaluated through the use of decision tree analysis. Results:
The proposed NIRA framework is a novel approach for assessing the resiliency of networked
infrastructure system by measuring the impact of disruptions on the system’s performance measures. In
road transportation networks, such as that connecting Manhattan entry points, resiliency is achievable
through reducing the vulnerability of the system and increasing its adaptive capacity. Conclusion: One
vulnerability reduction strategy is the clever assignment of vehicles to other routes in the network. The
adaptive capacity of the system is enhanced through the deployment of other parallel systems such as ferries.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.153.161 2011/03/28 - 11:23

Problem statement: Cranioplasty is defined as a neurosurgical procedure to cover an
injured bone in the skull. This procedure is carried out in order to protect and restore intracranial
structures and to restore the appearance and psychological stability of the patient. Advances in medical
imaging, such as MRI and CT, have allowed the 3D reconstruction of anatomical structures for several
medical applications, including the design of custom-made implants. This study describes the
methodology used to design a custom-made cranial implant for a 13-year-old patient who suffered a
lesion in the left frontoparietal region of the skull caused by a fall. Approach: The design of the
implant was based on the 3D reconstruction of the skull of the patient, obtained by a CT scan, using
Rapid Form® 2006. Once the preliminary design was completed, 3D models of the injured region of
the skull and of the implant were fabricated in a Rapid Prototyping (RP) machine using Fused
Deposition Modeling Technology (FDM) with the purpose of functionally and dimensionally
validating the implant. Subsequently, the implant was fabricated using a 1.2-mm-thick Titanium Alloy
(Ti6Al4V) plate. Results: The prosthesis was successfully implanted. The surgical time was 85%
shorter than that for the same type of surgery in which standard commercial implants and titanium
meshes are used. This decrease in surgery time is primarily the result of eliminating the need for trial
and error procedures to achieve a good fit for the implant. Finally, the appearance of the patient was
restored, allowing the patient to safely perform daily activities. Conclusion: The use of 3D
reconstruction techniques from medical images reduces the possibility of errors during surgery,
improves fit and provides better implant stability. The use of 3D models designed in RP proved to be
an effective practice in the design process.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.169.174 2011/03/27 - 04:14

Problem statement: Sensor with local processing power that enables it to react to local
conditions without having to refer back to the central controller. The size and the cost of smart sensor
circuit have been reduced. Approach: The use of microcontroller, such as (PIC16C715), with an 8-
bit ADC (Analogue to Digital Converter) in one chip. This reduction in the circuit size makes it
possible sometimes to incorporate the primary sensor with the signal processing circuit in one unit,
then the lookup table should be modified accordingly. The program mobility of smart sensor enables
the system to perform self calibration routine by applying known input voltage signal, where its
corresponding expected value is stored in the self calibration code. Results: The correction for the
measurement signal is done by multiplying the measured signal by the gain correction value and then
adding the result of the multiplication to the offset compensation value. The smart sensor performs the
self calibration routine for every new measurement value, to adapt any changes in the system
environment such as temperature drift. Conclusion: The system performance has been enhanced by
implementing the PIC16C715 Circuit design complexity and cost has been reduced and also it’s easy
to upgrade.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.162.168 2011/03/27 - 04:14

Problem statement: The determination of reaction kinetics is of major importance, as for
industrial reactors optimization as for environmental reasons or energy limitations. Although
calorimetry is often used for the determination of thermodynamic parameters alone, the question that
arises is: how can we apply the Differential Scanning Calorimetry for the determination of kinetic
parameters. The objective of this study consists to proposing an original methodology for the
simultaneous determination of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, using a laboratory scale
Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The method is applied to the dichromate-catalysed hydrogen
peroxide decomposition. Approach: The methodology is based on operating of experiments carried
out with a Differential Scanning Calorimeter. The interest of this approach proposed is that it requires
very small quantities of reactants (about a few grams) to be implemented. The difficulty lies in the fact
that, using such microcalorimeters, the reactants temperature cannot directly be measured and a
particular calibration procedure has thus to be developed, to determine the media temperature in an
indirect way. The proposed methodology for determination of kinetics parameters is based on
resolution of the coupled heat and mass balances. Results: A complete kinetic law is proposed. The
Arrhenius parameters are determined as frequency factor k0 = 1.39×109 s−1 and activation energy E =
54.9 kJ mol−1. The measured enthalpy of reaction is ΔrH=−94 kJ mol−1. Conclusion: The comparison
of the results obtained by such an original methodology with those obtained using a conventional
laboratory scale reactor calorimetry, for the kinetics determination of, shows that this new approach is
very relevant.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.116.123 2011/03/18 - 19:32

Problem statement: Crack sealing and filling is the most widely used maintenance activity
for in-service pavements. If an appropriate sealant material is selected and properly installed at the
appropriate time of the pavement life, it retards pavement deterioration and increases its service life at a
relatively low cost. However, in some cases it is reported that sealants failed prematurely, mainly due to
environmental factors and water exposure. While there have been several studies on environmental
factors, water related factors has not received appropriate attention. Nevertheless, various sealants have
different water resistance property; hence, they perform differently when exposed to large amount of rain
and humidity. Approach: Currently, there is no standard test method to evaluate sealant water resistance.
Therefore, there is a need for a standard test method to precisely predict sealant performance when
exposed to water. Such a test method can help examine various sealants in terms of their water resistance.
This study introduces water conditioning procedure and a test method to measure bond strength of sealant
under dry and wet condition. The effect of water on the Interfacial Fracture Energy (IFE) of bituminous
sealants was measured by means of a blister test. This test allows the calculations of two fundamental
parameters: tensile modulus and the Interfacial Fracture Energy (IFE). Results: Experimental results
showed water exposure caused a significant drop in adhesion strength. However, no significant difference
was observed between adhesion strength of specimens conditioned for 8 and 12 h of conditioning.
Conclusion/Recommendations: The proposed approach and testing method can be used by the sealant
manufacturers to improve their sealants’ adhesion properties at the presence of water. However, further
research works are needed to examine how sealant adhesion strength varies with water exposure duration.
Also, the effect of water pH on sealant adhesion strength can be studied.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.124.129 2011/03/18 - 19:32

Problem statement: This research is to study the feasibility of biodiesel production from
roast Thai sausage oil by transesterification process. Approach: The objective of this study was to
investigate the effects of potassium Hydroxide (K2OH3) as heterogeneous catalyst (3-9% (wt) of the
feedstock) and methanol-oil molar ratio (3:1-12:1) on the yield and properties (flash point and fire
point) of the biodiesel products at 60-°C of reacting temperature. Results: The results showed that
the suitable conditions for the production of biodiesel were at 3:1 of methanol-oil molar ratio and at
3% of K2OH3 (wt) of the feedstock. It was also found that the maximum biodiesel yields (86.40%) on this
condition. Conclusion: According to the physical characterisation of the products, it was found that the
biodiesel produced in this study showed similar properties to the standard biodiesel (methyl ester).

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.130.132 2011/03/18 - 19:32

Problem statement: The adaptively shifted integration technique was applied to the elasticplastic
analysis of framed structures under dynamic loading. Approach: This study used analysis of
linear beam element, the reshifting of the of the integration points in the element is conducted in order
to attain higher accuracy. Results: In nonlinear finite element analysis by the ASI technique, the
highest computational efficiency has been achieved by shifting the numerical integration points for
evaluation of stiffness matrices of linear Timoshenko beam element. A computer program has been
Written by VBASIC for solve the problem of the steel frame, results of numerical examples
demonstrate the validity of the computer program and study many parametric study, such as Time step
and Mass of the structure. Conclusion/Recommendations: In the elastic analysis there is no
distinction between the ASI technique and the conventional finite element method, but for elasticplastic
nonlinear analysis under dynamic load Adaptive Shifted Integration (ASI) technique is capable
of predicting with reasonable accuracy the behavior of steel frame structures.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.89.92 2011/03/11 - 11:09

Problem statement: Despite demonstrating rather much benefits comparing to the
conventional cast-in-place construction, the acceptance level of precast concrete building is still
reportedly low in Malaysia. The implication imposed by stricter seismic design provisions would only
worsen the matter. Approach: The main objective of this study was to identify the most appropriate
type of beam-column connections to be introduced to precast concrete industry, particularly for regions
of low to moderate seismicity. Hence, this study presented a comprehensive literature overview of the
findings from studies conducted to analyze and investigate the behavior of precast concrete systems
assembled with typical connections or joints under simulated earthquake loading. Results: The seismic
performance of precast concrete structure very much depended on the ductility capacity of the
connectors jointing each precast components, especially at critical joints such as the beam-to-column
connections. It was learnt from the review that (1) hybrid post-tensioned beam-column connection and
(2) Dywidag Ductile Connector® were among the most widely used connectors for precast
construction in seismic prone regions. Conclusion: Future refinement and research could be carried
out in order to optimize these connections to be used in low seismicity regions. Proposed connection
type should be practical and well-accepted to avoid further impediment of the precast system.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.93.101 2011/03/11 - 11:09

Problem statement: Due to huge amount and complicated nature of data being generated
recently, the usage of one algorithm for string searching was not sufficient to ensure faster search and
matching of patterns. So there is the urgent need to integrate two or more algorithms to form a hybrid
algorithm (called BRSS) to ensure speedy results. Approach: This study proposes the combination of
two algorithms namely Berry-Ravindran and Skip Search Algorithms to form a hybrid algorithm in
order to boost search performance. Results: The proposed hybrid algorithm contributes to better
results by reducing the number of attempts, number of character comparisons and searching time. The
performance of the hybrid was tested using different types of data-DNA, Protein and English text. The
percentage of the improvements of the hybrid algorithm compared to Berry-Ravindran in DNA,
Protein and English text are 50%, 43% and 44% respectively. The percentage of the improvements
over Skip Search algorithm in DNA, Protein and English text are 20%, 30% and 18% respectively. The
criteria applied for evaluation are number of attempts, number of character comparisons and searching
time. Conclusion: The study shows how the integration of two algorithms gives better results than the
original algorithms even the same data size and pattern lengths are applied as test evaluation on each of
the algorithms.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.102.107 2011/03/11 - 11:09

Problem statement: Shear failure of concrete beam is brittle manner without warning so
inadequate design for shear of beam and/or material deterioration lead to the possibility of sudden
failure of beam. The change of functional use and future increased load of structure lead to the need for
strengthening of concrete structure. Approach: This research focuses on behaviors under static
loading of reinforced concrete beam, with shear strengthening by transverse external prestressing
force. Post-tension high strength steel is vertically applied in shear span. Total eight beam specimens
are divided into two groups each having shear span to depth ratios 2 and 1.5. Each beam, possessing
the same reinforcing steels, is intentionally designed to be failing in shear. One of the beams from each
group is used as reference, without shear strengthening. The other three specimens from each group are
applied different amounts of external prestressing force. Results: The experimental result shows that
ultimate load carrying capacity of all shear strengthened specimens significantly improves over the
reference specimen. The higher the amount of applied strengthening force, the greater the ability to carry
ultimate loading. Failure mode shifts from brittle shear failure closer to ductile flexural failure, with
higher ductility and stiffness. External prestressing force in transverse direction of shear span of beam
enhances ultimate shear capacity by improving aggregate interlocking, preventing splitting cracks caused
by debonding of longitudinal reinforcing steels due to dowel action. Furthermore, load at first diagonal
tension cracks are increased as a result of pre-compressed prestressing force leading to the higher ultimate
load carrying capacity. Moreover, concrete in compression zone remains uncrushed at ultimate state.
Strut-and-tie model can be used to predict ultimate loading capacity of beam specimen and failure
mechanism of both specimens with or without strengthening. Conclusion: Shear strength of reinforced
concrete beams strengthened by transverse external post tension at shear span is effectively improved
over reference beam specimen. Strut and tie model can be conservatively predicted the ultimate shear
capacity of both reference and strengthened beam specimen.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.108.115 2011/03/11 - 11:09

Problem statement: There is a need to better understand the rate dependence behavior of reinforced concrete structures in order to improve their response to impact and blast loads. Analysis and design of reinforced concrete structures subjected to seismic loadings has been recommended in many FEMA guidelines. However, reevaluation of design becomes extremely important in cases where large deformations are expected such as blast and impact resistant. Approach: This study presents a numerical model to evaluate reinforced concrete columns submitted to high strain rates expected for seismic, impact and blast loadings. The model utilizes dynamic stress-strain response and considers the effect of strain rate on concrete strength; strain at peak stress; yield and ultimate strength of steel; and slope of the softening portion of the stress-strain curve. Results: Results are presented in the form of interaction diagrams and compared with the available analytical and experimental results. Comparison with available data shows that the proposed model can give consistent prediction of the dynamic behavior of reinforced concrete columns. Conclusion/Recommendations: The established interaction diagrams may be used to design columns to withstand high velocity impact loads. Also, knowledge gained can be used to improve dynamic behavioral models and computer-aided analysis and design of reinforced concrete columns subjected to severe blast loadings.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.1.9 2011/02/01 - 14:23

Problem statement: Reservoir compaction and shallow gas migration phenomena may cause offshore platform to experience deformation which if happens excessively will affect their structural integrity. Approach: Hence it is crucial to monitor and quantify the magnitude of the deformation especially if they are not uniform throughout the platform structure. However since mostly the offshore platforms are few hundreds kilometers away from shore, the precise monitoring of their deformation is limited to very few sophisticated instruments, in which GPS technology is one of them albeit using very special GPS data processing technique such as Long Baseline Relative Positioning. Results: Using this technique and employing GPS data observed on one of PETRONAS own platform, Pulai, its deformation magnitude will be determined with various options such as number of reference stations used, configuration and their geographic location. This study presents initial deformation processing result using scientific software GAMIT/GLOBK and their analysis utilizing postfit nrms and chi-squared statistics. The result indicated that for the period of two months there was displacement as big as 0.0094 m with standard deviation of 0.0106 m. However following congruency statistical test using t-student distribution with 95% confidence level, indicated that this displacement is insignificance. Analysis of the output result with postfit nrms also indicated that the data were of good quality, the processing procedure was correct and the output for each processing epoch is internally and externally consistent. Conclusion/Recommendations: It could be concluded with correct data processing strategy GPS data could be used to determine deformation magnitude which consequently could be utilized as input to assess structural integrity of an offshore platform.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.10.16 2011/02/01 - 14:23

Problem statement: Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, is at moderate risk for distant earthquake due to the ability of soft soil to amplify ground motion about 3-4 times although it locates in low seismic zone. In addition, before the enforcement of seismic loading for buildings in the Ministerial Law in 2007, many existing reinforced concrete buildings in Bangkok may have been designed without consideration for seismic loading and did not incorporate the special detailing provisions that required for ductile concrete frames. Now, guidelines for seismic loading of buildings of Thailand (DPT 1302-52) have been recently improved by adopting ASCE7-05. Approach: This study is focused on the effects of the new guidelines on cost estimates and the seismic performance of a nine-story reinforced concrete apartment building with various ductility by the nonlinear static and nonlinear dynamic analyses compared with a Gravity Load Designed (GLD) building. Five selected ground motion records are investigated in the analyses. In order to examine the influence of design ductility classes, the seismic forces on moment resisting frame buildings are defined according to the newly proposed seismic specifications of Thailand with ductility from 8, 5 and 3, corresponding to Special Ductile (SDF), Intermediate Ductile (IDF) and Ordinary Ductile (ODF) frames, respectively. The various frames are assumed to have collapsed if the local drift exceed of 3, 2.5, 2 and 1% for SDF, IDF, ODF and GLD, respectively. Results: SDF is more ductile than that of ODF, however, the strength of SDF is less than ODF. For inelastic designs, SDF decreases stiffness and increases deflection of structures. As for the effect on cost estimates, ODF is the most expensive among ODF, IDF and SDF. Costs of SDF and IDF in Bangkok are quite similar. The study found that the average PGAs for the failure state for SDF, IDF, ODF and GLD are 0.76, 0.60, 0.50 and 0.29g, respectively. Moreover, for the failure state of GLD with volumetric ratio of horizontal confinement within joint panel less than 0.003, the average PGA is only 0.15g. Conclusion/Recommendations: These various frame designs are predicted to just achieve the Immediate Occupancy (IO) performance level. The results also indicate that all frames including GLD are able to withstand a design earthquake. The SDF and IDF are the two best options in consideration of cost and seismic performance.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.17.36 2011/02/01 - 14:23

Problem statement: There is a large demand for wireless Location-Based Service (LBS) and it is provided by many wireless cellular systems. In process of positioning a Mobile Station (MS), the computing speed is as important as the positioning accuracy and the algorithm should also be resistant to environmental influences. Approach: A new positioning method based on Weighted Centroid Correction Localization (WCCL) for wireless cellular systems is introduced in this article. Firstly, referring to the receiving-state of an MS in cellular systems, it computes a weighted centroid of surrounding Base Stations (BSs) as a rough approximate position of the MS. Then, according to the distances between the MS and the BSs being less or bigger than the computed distances between the BSs and the weighted centroid, it corrects the coordinate of the weighted centroid towards the directions of the BSs by moving it closer or farther in turn. Results: According to our experiments, WCCL improves the positioning accuracy, as well as to provide a better resistance to environmental influences. Conclusion: As a modified centroid-based localization algorithm, WCCL obtains weighting factors from the receiving-state of MS in multi-cells structured cellular systems and obtains a better positioning result in cellular systems without updating the network equipment. Therefore, for the cellular positioning problem, WCCL algorithm can be an alternate solution.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.37.41 2011/02/01 - 14:23

Problem statement: The newly developed Very High Strength Concrete (VHSC), having compressive strengths of 29 ksi and flexural strengths of 6 ksi, represents a breakthrough in concrete technology. Study to further enhance the properties of this new concrete is continuing. Approach: The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of exposing Very High Strength Concrete (VHSC) specimens to rapid freeze/thaw cycles. Twenty one specimens were tested according to the Standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM C215, ASTM C666 and ASTM C78. Results: One hundred freeze/thaw cycles were performed on the VHSC specimens. Change in specimen’s dimensions and material’s properties were recorded at zero, forty, seventy and one hundred cycles. Dimensions and properties considered were: dimension of cross section, length, weight, Dynamic Moduli, Poisson’s Ratio, durability factor and Modulus of Rupture. Conclusion/Recommendations: The test results indicated that VHSC is good freeze-thaw resistance (durability factor > 85%) and can avoid freeze/thaw damage. Freeze- thaw cycling did not significantly affect VHSC specimens’ cross sectional dimensions, length, or Poisson’s Ratio. However, there was a decrease in the specimens’ weight with the increase in number of freeze/thaw cycles, but the decrease was very slim indicating little or no deterioration has occur. Moreover, the fine voids exist in VHSC greatly lower the freezing point of any trapped water, making the material less susceptible to Freeze- Thaw damage.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.42.51 2011/02/01 - 14:23

Problem statement: In the past decade, resident satisfaction has been used as an important indicator in evaluating student housing quality and services. This study investigates the level of resident satisfaction with student housing facilities. In particular, it examines the level of student satisfaction with living accommodations at one of the leading universities in Malaysia. Approach: The residential satisfaction framework was based on post-occupancy evaluations and has been utilized in previous studies; we expand the framework to address physical and social variables. Face-to-face surveys were conducted with participants who were selected using a cluster sampling technique. Results: The results show a mean satisfaction level of 2.61, which indicates that students are generally satisfied with student housing facilities. This score was lower, however, than the results of previous studies. Conclusion: By assessing residential satisfaction among students, we hope to provide valuable feedback to housing administrators and facility managers of higher learning institutions, thus enabling them to improve their services and offer better housing facilities in the near future.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.52.60 2011/02/01 - 14:23

Problem statement: The aim of this research is to study the optical properties of crosslinked chitosan thin film with glutaraldehyde using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technique. Approach: The crosslinked chitosan is synthesized by homogeneous reaction of medium molecular weight chitosan in aqueous acetic acid solution with glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent. Four different amount of chitosan, i.e., 0.40, 0.50, 0.60 and 0.70 g of chitosan, were dissoloved in 50 ml acetic acid separately. Glass cover slips (as substrates) were first coated with two sets of different thickness of gold layer. Then the amount of 0.55 mL of each crosslinked chitosan solution was spin coated onto the gold layer. Results: Using developed multilayer Matlab fitting program (matrix method based), the experimental surface plasmon resonance curves were fitted to obtain the thickness and refractive index of crosslinked chitosan thin film. The real and imaginary part of refractive index of crosslinked chitosan thin film are (1.540 ± 0.005) and (0.015 ± 0.002), respectively. Conclusion: The results are similar for all different thickness of the thin films and not affected by the thickness of gold layer. This study is important for future research on multilayer SPR sensor.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.61.65 2011/02/01 - 14:23

Problem statement: Ethanol is an alternative fuel with huge potential that can be used in gasoline engines. Addition of ethanol in fuel will affect the fuel properties, fuel properties change will affect the engine performance. Approach: To determine the effect of adding ethanol to gasoline engines, in this study are tested using gasoline, ethanol 10 and 20% ethanol. Results: Testing is done at the time of warm-ups and half-open throttle. From the experiment will know adding ethanol in the process of warming-up and half-open throttle was a decline emission, at half open throttle will increase CO2 emissions and reduce HC and CO, during warm-ups that while the increased CO but decreases CO2. Conclusion/Recommendations: Although experiments on the throttle partially open, the test under 3000 rpm using 10 and 20% ethanol will reduce power, but at 3500 rpm to increase engine power.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.66.69 2011/02/01 - 14:23

Problem statement: Pricing is one of the fundamental management decisions required by a truckload carrier. Traditional pricing based on an average all relevant costs including fixed and variable costs is not capable of providing adequate margins that prevent losses during operation uncertainties inherent in truckload operation including demand variability and variation in service times. Approach: This study utilizes Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR) as a measure of risk with significant advantage over Value at Risk (VaR), to full truckload pricing when conditions are unpredictable. It criterion focuses on the tail of the loss distribution and provides a measure of the expected loss exceeding Value-at-Risk. Therefore, it was applied to control the maximum loss or the minimum gain within a specified tolerance level to enable more flexible full truckload pricing. A simulation model is developed to capture the stochastic patterns inherent in the operation of full truckload network. Results: Price per trip from 95% CVaR is less than traditional pricing for delivery over short distances while extremely higher for delivery over long distances. We apply traditional prices back to the truckload operation and network imitated in the simulation model and find that even the traditional prices are set to include a certain percentage of profit over the average cost there is still a large chance that the carrier will be subjected to a loss. Conclusion: The numerical analysis for this study demonstrates a pricing method for transportation carriers who are risk averse. Transportation carriers in this group dislike risk and will stay away from high risk.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.70.76 2011/02/01 - 14:23

Problem statement: Damaged by floods are natural disasters that have violence cause significant damage and economic and social. If we can prevent disasters that may occur in advance is important. So an estimated rainfall data is important information for prevention disasters. Approach: The objective of this study is to apply a fuzzy set theory to estimate rainfall. The genetic algorithm was applied to calibrate the fuzzy set model. The proposed model considered only a few basic hydrological parameters including temperature, humidity, wind speed and solar radiation. The proposed model was applied to estimate the rainfall in the Chi River Basin (in the northeast region of Thailand) using 5- minute historic data. Results: The results have shown that the obtained rainfalls of the improved model are close to the rainfall of the actual rainfall record. Furthermore, the results presented that the genetic algorithm calibration provided the optimal condition of membership function. Conclusions/Recommendations: The proposed fuzzy-GA model can be used to estimate the rainfall, given only the basic hydrological parameters; temperature, humidity, wind speed and solar radiation. The fuzzy set model considering 4 variables using rainfall duration data is more effective than the model using the continuous rainfall data.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.77.81 2011/02/01 - 14:23

Problem statement: Currently the aero dynamical calculation in gas pipes is carried out under the assumption of steady state conditions. However real steady in a network is scarcely quasisteady. Approach: The unsteady state is governed by non-linear partial differential equations leading to mathematical difficulties. And there are fore gas pipe dimensions are computed at steady state under extreme conditions. Results: In order to precisely describe gas flow closely to real conditions, we suggest characterizing roughness of two pieces removed during the repair of damaged pipes from a gas transport network. Samples roughness characterization is carried out by profilometry (using a stylus instrument) and by imaging techniques procedures to show the roughness effect and its impact for dynamic flow state. In order to approach real conditions, we considered real cases to construct a model and then we proceeded through extensive simulation for twenty four hours to build graphical means for comparing measurement and computed data. Conclusion/Recommendations: The obtained results are in good agreement with those of imaging analysis and in our interpretation we express that during dynamic flow at high rates gas energy lose due to friction inner walls is characterized this loose are more important as the flow is turbulent. Differences are shown between real data values and figures usually exploited. Design and parameter settings of network should be carried out after a thorough dynamical flow study.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2011.82.88 2011/02/01 - 14:23

Problem statement: Sensor nodes are easily exposed to many attacks since it were deployed in unattended adversarial environment with no global addressing and used for critical applications such as battlefield surveillance and emergency response. While the sensor also needs to act as a router to relay a message to a required recipient, then this increased the vulnerabilities to a network layer. However, existing security mechanisms are not permissible to be fitted directly into any sensor network due to constraints on energy and computational capabilities of sensor node itself that require on the modification on the protocols that associated with the sensor node itself in order to provide the security. Approach: In this study, a Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Forwarding (DWIGF) routing protocol was presented which based on an approach of lazy binding technique and dynamic time on collection window and inherits a geographical routing techniques. Results: The DWIGF was intelligent to minimize a Clear To Send (CTS) rushing attack and robust against black hole and selective forwarding attacks with high packet delivery ratios because of selection of a failed node and an attacker was minimized respectively. Moreover, few routing attacks were eliminated since the routing technique used was classified as geographic routing. Conclusion: This novel routing protocol was promising a secured routing without inserting any existing security mechanism inside.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2009.494.500 2011/01/11 - 03:35

Problem statement: Environmental problems associated with animal waste are the most critical challenges faced by the US intensive confinement livestock industries. There is an import and urgent need to develop an efficient way to reduce the pollution of animal waste while extracting valuable energy. Supercritical liquefaction processing of swine manure into a liquid fuel was considered as a cost-effective approach for reducing animal waste in swine farms while simultaneously increasing the farmer’s income. Approach: Swine manure was converted to bio-oils by using ethanol as a solvent in an autoclave in the reaction temperature range of 240-360°C without any catalyst. The effect of reaction temperatures on the bio-oil yield and properties was investigated. The oil product was evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analyses, heating values, water content analyses, ash content and solids content. Results: The experimental results show that the yield of the liquefaction products was significantly influenced by the reaction temperature. The maximum oil yield of 26.7% (of dry matter) with low content of oxygen (11.48%) and heating value of 33.98 MJ kg-1 was obtained at reaction temperature of 300°C. A low content of carbonyl and aliphatic groups and a high aromaticity in the bio-oil were found in the bio-oils from high temperature as determined by FTIR. The elemental composition of the bio-oil samples changes with reaction temperature. However, no particular trends in the elemental composition were found within the range of reaction temperature used. Conclusion: This research proved that supercritical ethanol liquefaction was an effective way to remove oxygen and utilize carbon and hydrogen in swine manure to produce energy condensed bio-fuel. Further work is needed to optimize the bio-oil production process in terms of oil yield and oil quality.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2010.494.500 2011/01/11 - 03:35

Privacy as an inherent feature of Iranian culture is evident in formation of Iranian traditional towns. Put differently, attention to the inside was one of the most desirable principles in Iranian traditional architecture as well as urbanism. However, privacy did not lead to isolation in Iranian culture and social contact was also of a great importance to Iranians. Problem statement: Although sense of privacy as well as sociality are still parts of Iranian culture and have been transferred from one generation to another, contemporary cities do not meet these needs. Newly designed cities have encountered a decrease in sense of privacy and social interaction among residents. Approach: Coming up with an alternative solution for urban design which would respect this culture in cotemporary cities while matching the new life style of people, would contribute to achieving a sustainable urban form one of the principles of which is social and cultural sustainability. This article, therefore, aimed to reveal how the traditional urban form considered resident’s needs of privacy as well as social interaction simultaneously and how to regenerate sense of privacy and social contact in the contemporary neighborhoods in Iran. The method used in this study was analysis of data gathered through library study. Results: This study suggested that the existence of transitional spaces in traditional cities was the main reason for simultaneous generation of privacy and social interaction, thus, a contemporized form of those spaces in contemporary residential areas might help in increasing the aforementioned attitudes in contemporary cities. Conclusion: This study has an important implication for those involved in development of new neighborhoods. It would be hoped that this study triggers creative future design solutions that would consider the socio-cultural issues in designing as well as planning processes.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2010.501.508 2011/01/11 - 03:35

Problem statement: At present the term 'nanotechnology' is well known-in its' ideal form, the flawless and completely controlled design of conventional molecular matter from molecules or atoms. Such a power over nature would offer routine achievement of remarkable properties in conventional matter and creation of metamaterials where the structure not the composition brings forth new powers of matter. But even this yet unachieved goal is not the end of material science possibilities. The author herein offers the idea of design of new forms of nuclear matter from nucleons (neutrons, protons), electrons and other nuclear particles. Approach: The researcher researches the nuclear forces. He shows these force may be used for design the new nuclear matter from protons, neutrons, electrons and other nuclear particles. Results: Author shows this new 'AB-Matter' has extraordinary properties (for example, tensile strength, stiffness, hardness, critical temperature, superconductivity, supertransparency and zero friction.), which are up to millions of times better than corresponding properties of conventional molecular matter. He shows concepts of design for aircraft, ships, transportation, thermonuclear reactors, constructions and so on from nuclear matter. These vehicles will have unbelievable possibilities (e.g., invisibility, ghost-like penetration through any walls and armor, protection from nuclear bomb explosions and any radiation flux). Conclusion: People may think this fantasy. But fifteen years ago most people and many scientists thought-nanotechnology is fantasy. Now many groups and industrial labs, even startups, spend hundreds of millions of dollars for development of nanotechnological-range products (precise chemistry, patterned atoms, catalysts and meta-materials) and we have nanotubes (a new material which does not exist in Nature!) and other achievements beginning to come out of the pipeline in prospect. Nanotubes are stronger than steel by a hundred times-surely an amazement to a 19th Century observer if he could behold them. Nanotechnology, in near term prospect, operates with objects (molecules and atoms) having the size in nanometer (10-9 m). The researcher here outlines perhaps more distant operations with objects (nuclei) having size in the femtometer range, (10-15m, millions of times less smaller than the nanometer scale). The name of this new technology is femtotechnology.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2009.501.514 2011/01/11 - 03:35

Problem statement: Studies focused on walking behavior have indicated the relationship of different factors of built environment with walking to reach destination and walking for recreation. Furthermore, according to literature on path choice behavior, there is a relationship between walking behavior and path choice of pedestrians. Empirical studies on path choice behavior have also shown that the effects of different environmental variables on path choice vary with the purpose of the trip; whether recreational purposes or work-related walking trips. However there is a necessity to theoretically understand why consideration of purpose of the trip is important in studies of walking as well as path choice behavior. Furthermore, since reaching the destination is the most important travel purpose in daily activities, the environmental variables related to walking to reach the destination as well as path choice when aiming to reach destination need special consideration, if the goal is to encourage walking in daily basis. Approach: This study, therefore, relied on literature review to find answer to the research questions. Two concepts of instrumental and divertive behavior were used to answer the first research question. Research proceeded with making an effort to extract and introduce the main environmental variables related to walking and path choice of pedestrians when aiming to reach the destination. Results: Based on the definition of instrumental and divertive behavior, the necessity of consideration of purpose of the trip and its effects on environmental variables affecting walking as well as path choice behavior were theoretically verified. Moreover, two factors of cognitive distance and sense of progression were found to be the most important factors affecting walking and path choice behavior while aiming to reach destination. The physical features contributing to creation of sense of progression were also extracted and introduced. It is also suggested that sense of progression affects walking and path choice behavior through affecting cognitive distance and generating positive affective responses. Conclusion: It is suggested that future empirical studies be conducted to support the hypothesized relationships extracted and introduced in this study. Such studies would contribute to planning and design of urban spaces which would encourage walking in a daily basis.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2010.509.515 2011/01/11 - 03:35

Problem statement: Freeboard requirement, a major consideration in the design of embankment dams, is controlled to a great extent by the crest settlements during earthquakes. Approach: The parameters that influence earthquake induced crest settlement had been studied using 152 published case histories on performance of embankment dams during earthquakes. Results: Based on the results a correlation had been proposed for obtaining preliminary estimates of earthquake-induced crest settlements. The correlation used the ratio of the peak horizontal ground acceleration and the yield acceleration as the estimator. Conclusion/Recommendations: The database analysis also indicated that crest settlements are larger where the fundamental periods of the embankment were similar to the predominant periods of the earthquake. Earthquake magnitude and the vertical component of earthquake ground motion, on the other hand, appeared to have a small influence on crest settlement.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2009.515.525 2011/01/11 - 03:35

Problem statement: Unlike numerous studies have explored residents’ satisfaction and sense of attachment to housing, little discussion exists on this area addressing the relationship between sense of attachment to place and student housing satisfaction. To fill such a gap, this article was an attempt to investigate undergraduate students’ level of satisfaction and sense of attachment to place drawn from three ethnics (Malay, Chinese and Indian) living in the hostels of University Sains Malaysia to see if there is a significant relationship between the level of satisfaction and sense of attachment to hostel and whether Chinese, Indians and Malay students differ from one another significantly in their satisfaction with hostel and sense of attachment to place. Approach: A 33 item questionnaire measuring satisfaction of students with (hostel fees, sharing the room, hostel distance from facilities provided on University campus and hostel distance from school’, hostel design and layout, hostel population, hostel rules and regulations, hostel safety and hostel security and so forth) and sense of attachment to place was used in this research. A sample of 267 (168 Malay, 76 Chinese and 23 Indians) students were randomly selected from seven hostels of University Sains Malaysia. Results: The findings of the study showed a significant positive correlation between level of satisfaction and sense of attachment to place (r = 0.529; p<0.01, n = 267). An insignificant difference was found between three ethnics (Malay, Chinese and Indian) on the level of satisfaction with hostel and sense of attachment to place. Conclusion: It was concluded that (1) higher sense of attachment is associated with an increase in level of satisfaction. (2) Satisfaction and attachment to hostel are not affected by the student’s ethnicity.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2010.516.520 2011/01/11 - 03:35

Problem statement: It was the aim of the study to analyze the level of performance of natural air ventilation with a case study of the traditional Malay house in Penang, Malaysia. This study provided information on the architectural design in relation to natural air ventilation. It promoted passive design in contrast to most housing design which has poor natural air ventilation because the design was orientated to energy consumption that slightly more than one third of the electric energy was used for heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems. Approach: This analysis used quantitative method which measured temperature, humidity and wind speed of the traditional house. The result indicated the level of performance of cross air ventilation and stack effect. Results: The analysis showed that the traditional house has a design integrated with natural air ventilation system. The indoor house temperature and relative humidity had slightly lower than its outdoor area. However, the indoor area had lower wind speed level than the outdoor area. Conclusion: The study showed that maximum openings on the building walls created high air intakes outside the house to give poor performance of stack effect. The design had more emphasis to cross air ventilation.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajeassp.2010.521.528 2011/01/11 - 03:35