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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development

Novel drug delivery systems have several advantages over conventional multi
dose therapy. Recent trends indicate that micro particulate drug delivery systems
are especially suitable for achieving controlled or delayed release oral formulations
with low risk of dose dumping, flexibility of blending to attain different release
patterns as well as reproducible and short gastric residence time. The release
of drug from micro particles depends on a variety of factors including the carrier
used to form the micro particles and the amount of drug contained in them. Consequently,
micro particulate drug delivery systems provide tremendous opportunities for
designing new controlled and delayed release oral formulations, thus extending
the frontier of future pharmaceutical development. One such approach is using
microspheres as carriers for drugs. A well-designed controlled drug delivery
system can overcome some of the problems of conventional therapy and enhance
the therapeutic efficacy of a particular drug. It is the reliable mean to deliver
the drug to the target site with specificity, if modified and to maintain the
desired concentration at the site of interest without untoward effects. Microspheres
received much attention not only for prolonged release but also for targeting
of anticancer drugs to the tumor.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.153.179 2014/08/24 - 17:11

The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria has made the treatments of pathogenic infections difficult. The discovery that some analytes of plant extracts are active against multi-drug resistant bacteria has opened ways to researching into the antimicrobial activity of these phytocomponents. Studies are designed to determine the antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of the volatile oil of Ocimum gratissimum and its inhibition on partially purified and characterized extracellular protease of Salmonella enteritidis. The oil was extracted by hydrodistillation. Its antimicrobial effect was carried out using microdilution method while antioxidant effect was tested against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The caseinolytic activity of the enzyme was studied with oil as inhibitor. The enzyme was partially purified with dialysis and gel filtration. The oil has scavenging activity of 66.98±1.78% compared to butylated hydroxyltoluene (positive control), 53.29±2.51% (sig. p<0.0001) against DPPH. Salmonella enteritidis was inhibited by this oil with IC50 of 3.98% (v/v). The enzyme had optimal activities at 45°C and pH 7.5. None of the metallic chloride tested produced any significant increase in the activity of the enzyme. Hg2+ and Pb2+ were inhibitors of this enzyme. The oil showed a non-competitive inhibition with Km = 0.33 mg mL-1, Vmax = 1.25x103 μmol min-1 (oil absent) and V’max = 2.50x102 μmol min-1 (oil present). The highest purification fold = 1.88 and the highest percentage yield = 51.74 as compared to the crude enzyme extract. Therefore, the volatile oil of Ocimum gratissimum possessed antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, its inhibition against this protease may be one of the ways of its antimicrobial effect.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.180.193 2014/08/24 - 17:11

To evaluate the antimicrobial resistance profiling of bacterial strains from clinical isolates in Gedo Hospital, West Shoa Region, Oromia State, Ethiopia to create awareness of periodic antibiotic susceptibility testing, antimicrobial resistance among the health care providers. A convenience sample of patients who visited the adult outpatient department of Gedo hospital for diarrheal complaint was incorporated into the study. Isolation, identification of bacterial strains and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by the disk diffusion method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute using commercial antibiotic discs. Out of 200 samples, 40 diarrheagenic bacteria were isolated and identified as Shiegella (22 = N) and Salmonella strains (18 = N). Shiegella and Salmonella strains were susceptible to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, respectively but a high rate of resistance were observed to amoxicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline for both Shiegella and Salmonella strains. Notably, both bacteria have developed complete resistance to amoxicillin. Gentamicin may be the drug choice for Shiegella stains caused diarrhea and ciprofloxacin for the diarrhea caused by Salmonella in the study area. Antibiotics selection and treatment of infections based on bacterial strains identification and in vitro susceptibility testing rather than current empirical treatment.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.194.201 2014/08/24 - 17:11

A field experiment was conducted during kharif season 2011-2012 at the Vegetable
Research Farm, Department of Vegetable Science, College of Forestry and Hill
Agriculture, Hill Campus Ranichauri, Distt. Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand. The
experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications
and fourteen treatments (each hybrid representing one treatment). Tomato is
considered as important and economic agricultural crop all over the world. For
improving the yield and yield attributes, hybrids are often produced and evaluated
under different growing conditions. In the study, presented morphological (growth
and yield parameters) and biochemical properties of fourteen fresh tomato hybrids
were evaluated inside playhouse under mid hill condition of Uttarakhand. The
experiment results revealed that hybrid Himraja performed extremely well under
polyhouse condition with respect to growth, yield and quality parameters viz.,
number of flower cluster per plant (8.33), plant height (315.00 cm), fruit set
percentage (84.09%), maximum marketable fruit yield per hectare (1046.80 q)
and high TSS (7.98°Brix) when compared to all other hybrids. Besides, this
hybrid also proved the best with respect to disease resistance and profitability.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.202.209 2014/08/24 - 17:11

In silico biology, including computers, databases, methods and algorithms are used for statistically analyzing the data to achieve the extract information and to identify the relationships between these data sets. This study aimed to provide alternative and new drugs that connect to DNA by using in vivo, in silico and find the best option from the newly designed series of drugs. Out of 143 DNA dodecamer crystal structures available in PDB, we have selected three structures and retrieved from the Protein Data Bank (PDB), with minor/major groove or both groove biding mode. Eighteen experimental ligands were docked using AutoDock 4.3 program into the active sites of selected drug-DNA structures. We docked our experimental ligands into three modeled DNA structured and compared those to internal evaluated ligands (drug compounds include ditercalinium, adriamycin and propamidine) and observed the same binding sites in experimental ligands in comparison to internal ligands. Docking results of 6m and 6p compounds into oligonucleotide in comparison to adrimycin and propamidine showed almost same binding fashion. Our results display that the most plausible mode of action of these experimental drugs as DNA binding agents is through intercalation of AT base pairs-linker chain and azole-minor groove. Accordingly, other DNA-drug crystal structures can be used as good patterns for further improvements using in silico and structure-based drug design methods.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.121.133 2014/05/23 - 15:06

Solubility is the phenomenon of dissolution of solid in liquid phase to give
a homogenous system. Solubility is one of the important parameter to achieve
desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation for pharmacological response
to be shown. Poorly water soluble drugs often require high doses in order to
reach therapeutic plasma concentrations after oral administration. Low aqueous
solubility is the major problem encountered with formulation development of
new chemical entities. Any drug to be absorbed must be present in the form of
an aqueous solution at the site of absorption. Water is the solvent of choice
for liquid pharmaceutical formulations. Most of drugs are weakly acidic and
weakly basic with poor aqueous solubility. Hence various techniques are used
for the improvement of the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs include
micronization, chemical modification, pH adjustment, solid dispersion, complexation,
co-solvency, micellar solubilization, hydrotropy etc. The purpose of this review
article is to describe the techniques of solubilizaton for the attainment of
effective absorption and improved bioavailability.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.134.152 2014/05/23 - 15:06

The research objective is to obtain the cellular mechanism(s) of Syzygium
polyanthum leaves for its development into commercial herbal product for
certain degenerative diseases. The approach was to conduct activity-guided fractionation
of metabolite extracts based on the antioxidant and the apoptotic modulation
activities using cultured cells. Antioxidant activity of the active fractions
were screened using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) free radical assay
and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay. The cellular effects were investigated
using cultures of HB4C5 human hybridoma and mouse colon 26 adenocarcinoma cells.
The flavonoids extract which has the lowest IC50 value of 14.84 μg
mL-1 for DPPH assay among other metabolites, was found to have significant
cytotoxic effect on both HB4C5 and colon 26 cells. Specific assays for apoptosis
using caspase 3-gene expression and annexin-V flow cytometry analyses, supported
the effect of cell proliferation inhibition which was not due to apoptosis.
Subsequent cell cycle analysis indicated that crude extract may induce cell
cycle arrest of HB4C5 cells at G1 to S phase, whereas active compound fractions
of flavonoids stacked the cell cycle at G2/M phase. These observations suggest
that flavonoid extracts of Syzygium polyanthum posses active compound(s)
with anti-proliferative effect. This is a new finding for therapeutic potential
of Syzygium polyanthum leaves in Indonesian traditional medicines.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.90.101 2014/04/13 - 11:08

The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant and antigout activity of the various extracts of the stem and root of Origanum majorana Linn. The antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of both stem and root of marjoram was evaluated by various in vitro antioxidant assays. The ethanol extracts of stem and root showed potent antioxidant activity in all models when compared with ascorbic acid having IC50 values 21.05 μg mL-1 and 84.98 μg mL-1 for DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl); 492.8 μg mL-1 and 477.6 μg mL-1 for H2O2 radical scavenging assay; 156.9 and 141.79 μg mL-1 for metal chelating assay, respectively. The reducing ability of root ethanol extract (absorbance 0.747±0.23) was found to be high, compared to stem ethanol extract (0.527±0.14). The in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was performed on ethanol and aqueous extracts (stem and root) of the plant and activity was found to be significant with IC50 59.21 and 148 μg mL-1 in both ethanol extracts. Further in-vivo antigout was studied gout induced in rats. Oral administration of stem and root ethanol extracts (200 and 400 mg kg-1 body weight) showed a significant decrease in uric acid, Creatinine, ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate) and MDA (Malondialdehyde) levels in the gouty rats. A significant increase was observed in reduced glutathione. No change in protein content was noticed. In conclusion, the studied plant extracts showed significantly variable anti-gout activity associated with both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects which may be due to the presence of flavonoids, phenolics, saponins and triterpenoidal compounds revealed by preliminary phytochemical screening.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.102.112 2014/04/13 - 11:08

Substituted benzenes were used in the synthesis of Mannich bases 1-Phenylaminomethyl-naphthalen-2-ol (MB1) and (2-{ [2-hydroxy ethyl) amino] methyl}phenyl) phenyl peroxyanhydride (MB2) and were characterised by ultraviolet/visible and infra-red spectroscopies. Peaks due to functional groups OH, CO and NH were prominent. Sharp melting points at 134°C (MB1) and 122°C (MB2) and Rf values confirmed the purity of the compounds. The two compounds were practically insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. They showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiellae pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonellae typhi, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Penicillum notatum and Rhizopus stolonifer but significant inhibitory effect was observed with Staphylococcus aereus and Bacillus subtilis when compared with standards, gentamicin and tioconazole for bacteria and fungi respectively. These Mannich bases can therefore serve as lead in the synthesis of antimicrobial agents.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.113.120 2014/04/13 - 11:08

Boswellic Acids (BAs) are the main ingredients of Boswellia serrata
(Family: Burseraceae) gum resin extract for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory
diseases besides acting as both internal and external stimulant, expectorant,
diuretic and stomachic. Despite its multipurpose benefits, BAs have low oral
bioavailability especially 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA) and 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic
acid (AKBA), (the most therapeutically potential BAs) because these BAs are
lipophilic in nature and not solubilises into the intestinal fluid thus limiting
its systemic availability. For decades, many attempts have been made to compensate
for these disadvantages, with the development of improved delivery platforms
as the feasible approaches. The past ten years has witnessed the encouraging
progress in the use of nano scale drug delivery systems on BAs such as loading
BAs into liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles as well as the latest reported
technologies such as niosomes, phytosomes and nanomicelles etc. This review
summarizes the recent works on the design and development of nanoscale delivery
systems of BAs, with the goal of harnessing the true difficulties of this multifunctional
agent in the clinical arena.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.1.11 2014/03/15 - 10:46

Boswellic Acids (BAs) are the main ingredients of Boswellia serrata
(Family: Burseraceae) gum resin extract for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory
diseases besides acting as both internal and external stimulant, expectorant,
diuretic and stomachic. Despite its multipurpose benefits, BAs have low oral
bioavailability especially 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA) and 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic
acid (AKBA), (the most therapeutically potential BAs) because these BAs are
lipophilic in nature and not solubilises into the intestinal fluid thus limiting
its systemic availability. For decades, many attempts have been made to compensate
for these disadvantages, with the development of improved delivery platforms
as the feasible approaches. The past ten years has witnessed the encouraging
progress in the use of nano scale drug delivery systems on BAs such as loading
BAs into liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles as well as the latest reported
technologies such as niosomes, phytosomes and nanomicelles etc. This review
summarizes the recent works on the design and development of nanoscale delivery
systems of BAs, with the goal of harnessing the true difficulties of this multifunctional
agent in the clinical arena.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.1.11 2014/03/15 - 10:46

Diabetes is an increasingly common disorder which causes and contributes to
a variety of complications which are often associated with neuropathic condition.
Diabetic neuropathy is a group of disorders and as such the most common chronic
complication affecting both type1 and type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic research
in preclinical studies has emerged as a promising area in the recent times.
The current models used in the study for understanding diabetic complications
are not efficient enough for producing reliable results about neuropathy. The
role of C-peptide in development of neuropathy is clear and can be used as a
tool to study neuropathy and even the molecular pathways can be studied by using
it. Here with the help of collected data it is concluded that DN model could
be developed with the help of C-peptide which may be used as standard model
in diabetic neuropathy.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.12.21 2014/03/15 - 10:46

Vermicomposting is waste management techniques that promote the conversion
of organic waste into valuable product. Filter mud has significant fertilizer
value but due to prohibitive cost of sludge disposal, it is dumped in open where
it adversely affects the ambient environment. The management and nutrient recovery
from filtermud has been attempted by vermicomposting after mixing it with organic
nutrient in appropriate quantities. The final products were nutrient rich, odour
free, more mature and stabilized. Bioconversion of filter mud waste using organic
nutrients like Jeevamirtham, Panchagavya, Azospirillum and Cow dung lead
into nutrients rich manure by using the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.
The results suggest that the filter mud supplementary organic nutrients promote
the activity of earthworm and produce highly nutritive vermicomposts. The chemical
composition of the compost prepared by different types of composting using filter
mud showed that the level of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, showed and increasing
trend and organic carbon and the C:N ratio decreased during end of the vermicomposting.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.22.31 2014/03/15 - 10:46

The resistance of microorganisms issue to conventional antibiotics has necessitated
the search for efficient and cost effective ways for treating infectious diseases.
Plant essential oils are potential sources of novel antimicrobial compounds.
In addition, the antimicrobial susceptibility testing provides an information
aids in selecting and developing the appropriate antimicrobial agent. In the
current study, the chemical compositions of the essential oils of Nigella
sativa, Menthe piperita and Pelargonium graveolens (Geranium
oil) collected in Egypt were characterized by GC-. In addition, the in vitro
antimicrobial activity of these essential oils were tested, using agar diffusion
method, against different eleven pathogenic microbial species including three
Gram-positive, six Gram-negative and two fungi; a yeast like Candida albicans
and a filamentous like Aspergillus niger. Inhibition zones showed that
the essential oils of the two plants were active against all Gram-positive studied
bacteria and fungi. The susceptibility of the strains changed with the dilution
of essential oils in DMSO. The pure essential oils showed the most wide inhibition
zones and they were very effective compared to standard drugs ciprofloxacin
and/or nystatin. However, the activity against Gram-negative bacteria varied.
Thus, this study indicates that the essential oils of Nigella sativa,
Menthe piperita and Pelargonium graveolens have antimicrobial
activity against different species of human pathogenic microorganisms and research
should continue to examine the activity in experimental animals.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.32.40 2014/03/15 - 10:46

The resistance of microorganisms issue to conventional antibiotics has necessitated
the search for efficient and cost effective ways for treating infectious diseases.
Plant essential oils are potential sources of novel antimicrobial compounds.
In addition, the antimicrobial susceptibility testing provides an information
aids in selecting and developing the appropriate antimicrobial agent. In the
current study, the chemical compositions of the essential oils of Nigella
sativa, Menthe piperita and Pelargonium graveolens (Geranium
oil) collected in Egypt were characterized by GC-. In addition, the in vitro
antimicrobial activity of these essential oils were tested, using agar diffusion
method, against different eleven pathogenic microbial species including three
Gram-positive, six Gram-negative and two fungi; a yeast like Candida albicans
and a filamentous like Aspergillus niger. Inhibition zones showed that
the essential oils of the two plants were active against all Gram-positive studied
bacteria and fungi. The susceptibility of the strains changed with the dilution
of essential oils in DMSO. The pure essential oils showed the most wide inhibition
zones and they were very effective compared to standard drugs ciprofloxacin
and/or nystatin. However, the activity against Gram-negative bacteria varied.
Thus, this study indicates that the essential oils of Nigella sativa,
Menthe piperita and Pelargonium graveolens have antimicrobial
activity against different species of human pathogenic microorganisms and research
should continue to examine the activity in experimental animals.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.32.40 2014/03/15 - 10:46

Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) is a bush of African savannah, commonly
known as Drum stick used in folk Medicine for the treatment of rheumatic pain,
analgesic activity, antipyretic activity. The aims of present study were Evaluation
of Membrane Stabilizing Potential and Antimicrobial Activity stem bark of Moringa
oleifera (Moringaceae) against Selected Microbes. In Diffusion assay (Plate
method) of extracts of M. oleifera depends on the diffusion of an antibiotic
from a vertical cylinder or cavity through the solidified agar layer of petri
plate to an extent such that growth of added microorganism is presented entirely
in circular area or “zone”
around the cavity. In this method zone of inhibition is determined. HRBC membrane
stabilization method used for evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory
activity. The results of HRBC Stabilization in vitro anti-inflammatory
activity of Moringa oleifera of extracts showed good inhibitory activity
in petroleum ether extract as % inhibition of Haemolysis 5, 12, 20 and 33% in
10, 25, 50 and 100 μg mL-1 concentration, respectively. Chloroform
extract and methanol extracts of Moringa oleifera showed moderate to
good zone of inhibition against selected microorganisms compared with standard
as Gentamicin. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids, steroids
and tannins have been reported hence the anti-inflammatory effect produced by
these extracts may be predictable due to the flavonoids and steroids. The HRBC
membrane stabilizing property of Moringa oleifera was found to be promising
and also exhibited good antimicrobial activity.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.41.49 2014/03/15 - 10:46

Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) is a bush of African savannah, commonly
known as Drum stick used in folk Medicine for the treatment of rheumatic pain,
analgesic activity, antipyretic activity. The aims of present study were Evaluation
of Membrane Stabilizing Potential and Antimicrobial Activity stem bark of Moringa
oleifera (Moringaceae) against Selected Microbes. In Diffusion assay (Plate
method) of extracts of M. oleifera depends on the diffusion of an antibiotic
from a vertical cylinder or cavity through the solidified agar layer of petri
plate to an extent such that growth of added microorganism is presented entirely
in circular area or “zone”
around the cavity. In this method zone of inhibition is determined. HRBC membrane
stabilization method used for evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory
activity. The results of HRBC Stabilization in vitro anti-inflammatory
activity of Moringa oleifera of extracts showed good inhibitory activity
in petroleum ether extract as % inhibition of Haemolysis 5, 12, 20 and 33% in
10, 25, 50 and 100 μg mL-1 concentration, respectively. Chloroform
extract and methanol extracts of Moringa oleifera showed moderate to
good zone of inhibition against selected microorganisms compared with standard
as Gentamicin. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids, steroids
and tannins have been reported hence the anti-inflammatory effect produced by
these extracts may be predictable due to the flavonoids and steroids. The HRBC
membrane stabilizing property of Moringa oleifera was found to be promising
and also exhibited good antimicrobial activity.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.41.49 2014/03/15 - 10:46

Callus culture Cassia tora L. was done using nodal explant. Maximum
callus induction was obtained on basal MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D (2.5
mg L-1), NAA (2.5 mg L-1) and Kinetin (0.02 mg L-1).
Highest growth index was obtained at 6th week of subculture in both the plants.
Analysis of plant parts revealed maximum content of flavonoids in leaves and
minimum in stem. Callus culture also showed significant content of flavonoids.
Plant parts and in vitro cultures were also studied for their antioxidant
potential.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.50.57 2014/03/15 - 10:46

Callus culture Cassia tora L. was done using nodal explant. Maximum
callus induction was obtained on basal MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D (2.5
mg L-1), NAA (2.5 mg L-1) and Kinetin (0.02 mg L-1).
Highest growth index was obtained at 6th week of subculture in both the plants.
Analysis of plant parts revealed maximum content of flavonoids in leaves and
minimum in stem. Callus culture also showed significant content of flavonoids.
Plant parts and in vitro cultures were also studied for their antioxidant
potential.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.50.57 2014/03/15 - 10:46

Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease in which the final step leading to
morbidity is the polymerization of deoxyhemoglobin S. Therefore, one of the
recommended treatments for sickle cell disease is its inhibition. For this reason,
the aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of Morinda
lucida semi-ethanolic extract on the polymerization of deoxyhemoglobin
S. The deoxyhemoglobin polymerization was induced by sodium dithionite in a
phosphate buffer in the absence and presence of M. lucida extract. Then
the absorption spectrum of each sample was determined and the absorbance at
578 and 630 nm, respectively for hemoglobin and methemoglobin was measured.
The solution of deoxyhemoglobin with dithionite presents a very cloudy appearance
unlike negative control (without dithionite) which has a clear appearance. The
results showed a 58.6% increase in turbidity (absorbance) compared to the negative
control. M. lucida extract (1.5 mg cm-3) reduces very significantly
the polymerization (p<0.001). The absorbance is 0.636 versus 1.331 for the
positive control and 0.839 for the negative control. The oxidation of hemoglobin
to methemoglobin as revealed by the absorption peak at 630 nm is significantly
inhibited by the extract (p<0.000). M. lucida induces 52.5% inhibition
of oxidation. This antioxidant property was confirmed by the results of the
2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Results showed that the semi-ethanolic
extract of M. lucida very significantly decreases the deoxyhemoglobin
S polymerization. Moreover the extract has an antioxidant property which prevents
hemoglobin oxidation in methemoglobin.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.58.65 2014/03/15 - 10:46

Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease in which the final step leading to
morbidity is the polymerization of deoxyhemoglobin S. Therefore, one of the
recommended treatments for sickle cell disease is its inhibition. For this reason,
the aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of Morinda
lucida semi-ethanolic extract on the polymerization of deoxyhemoglobin
S. The deoxyhemoglobin polymerization was induced by sodium dithionite in a
phosphate buffer in the absence and presence of M. lucida extract. Then
the absorption spectrum of each sample was determined and the absorbance at
578 and 630 nm, respectively for hemoglobin and methemoglobin was measured.
The solution of deoxyhemoglobin with dithionite presents a very cloudy appearance
unlike negative control (without dithionite) which has a clear appearance. The
results showed a 58.6% increase in turbidity (absorbance) compared to the negative
control. M. lucida extract (1.5 mg cm-3) reduces very significantly
the polymerization (p<0.001). The absorbance is 0.636 versus 1.331 for the
positive control and 0.839 for the negative control. The oxidation of hemoglobin
to methemoglobin as revealed by the absorption peak at 630 nm is significantly
inhibited by the extract (p<0.000). M. lucida induces 52.5% inhibition
of oxidation. This antioxidant property was confirmed by the results of the
2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Results showed that the semi-ethanolic
extract of M. lucida very significantly decreases the deoxyhemoglobin
S polymerization. Moreover the extract has an antioxidant property which prevents
hemoglobin oxidation in methemoglobin.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.58.65 2014/03/15 - 10:46

This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ethanolic stem bark extract
of Nauclea latifolia, Cylicodiscus gabunensis and Araliopsis
souyauxii; three plants used locally as anti-malarials, on haematology and
serum enzyme levels in albino rats. Employing a 3x3 factorial arrangement, thirty
six male albino rats were randomly assigned into nine groups of four rats each,
treated daily with ethanol extract corresponding to 0, 125 and 225 mg kg-1
b.wt. of the three plants. Treatment was administered orally for two months,
after which the animals were sacrificed for estimation of study parameters.
All data were subjected to analysis of variance, with conclusions drawn at 5%
probability level. Results obtained showed that while N. latifolia and
A. souyauxii gave no evidence of potential haemo-toxicity, C. gabunensis
at 225 mg kg-1 b.wt. significantly reduced haemoglobin content and
packed cell volume of the animals. Although alanine transaminase revealed no
significant differences, all plants induced significant elevation in alkaline
phosphatase levels at both 125 and 225 mg kg-1 b.wt. Aspartate transaminase
was also significantly elevated in all plant groups at 225 mg kg-1
b.wt. Overall, the potential toxic effect of these anti-malarial herbs was observed
to be more on serum enzyme levels, than on haematology. In quest for standardized
anti-malarial preparations from these herbs, we recommend a dose no more than
225 mg kg-1 b.wt. for N. latifolia and A. souyauxii
and 125 mg kg-1 b.wt. for C. gabunensis.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.66.72 2014/03/15 - 10:46

This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ethanolic stem bark extract
of Nauclea latifolia, Cylicodiscus gabunensis and Araliopsis
souyauxii; three plants used locally as anti-malarials, on haematology and
serum enzyme levels in albino rats. Employing a 3x3 factorial arrangement, thirty
six male albino rats were randomly assigned into nine groups of four rats each,
treated daily with ethanol extract corresponding to 0, 125 and 225 mg kg-1
b.wt. of the three plants. Treatment was administered orally for two months,
after which the animals were sacrificed for estimation of study parameters.
All data were subjected to analysis of variance, with conclusions drawn at 5%
probability level. Results obtained showed that while N. latifolia and
A. souyauxii gave no evidence of potential haemo-toxicity, C. gabunensis
at 225 mg kg-1 b.wt. significantly reduced haemoglobin content and
packed cell volume of the animals. Although alanine transaminase revealed no
significant differences, all plants induced significant elevation in alkaline
phosphatase levels at both 125 and 225 mg kg-1 b.wt. Aspartate transaminase
was also significantly elevated in all plant groups at 225 mg kg-1
b.wt. Overall, the potential toxic effect of these anti-malarial herbs was observed
to be more on serum enzyme levels, than on haematology. In quest for standardized
anti-malarial preparations from these herbs, we recommend a dose no more than
225 mg kg-1 b.wt. for N. latifolia and A. souyauxii
and 125 mg kg-1 b.wt. for C. gabunensis.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.66.72 2014/03/15 - 10:46

The multidrug resistant Klebsiella is becoming an increasingly common
clinical entity and has presented a global clinical problem. The present research
aimed to observe the prevalence of infection and multidrug resistance pattern
of Klebsiella in Chittagong region, Bangladesh. A total of 99 Klebsiella
isolates associated with Klebsiella infection were isolated and identified
according to the standard microbiological method from 502 individual patients.
The most prevalent infection caused by Klebsiella isolates was urinary
tract infection and male were more vulnerable to Klebsiella infection
than female. Female of age 31-41 years group were found to be very much prone
to Klebsiella associated infection whereas male has highest percentage
on age group greater than 50 which was 58%. The sensitivity tests to Klebsiella
were carried out with 5 antibiotics such as, Azythromycin, Amoxicillin, Cefexime,
Nalidixic acid and Ciprofloxacin on Mueller-hinton agar by modified Kirby-bauer
disc diffusion technique. Among the Klebsiella isolates, 92, 87, 60 and
42% were susceptible to Ciprofloxacin, Azythromycin, Cefixime and Nalidixic
acid, respectively. Nearly 81% Klebsiella isolates exhibited resistance
to amoxicillin and 58% isolate to Nalidixic acid. Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin
showed tremendous level of sensitivity to Klebsiella spp. The present
study revealed the incidence of resistance to available antibiotics is currently
relatively high, which implies a total lack of antibiotics for treatment of
life-threatening infections caused by this MDR Gram-negative ‘superbug’.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.73.79 2014/03/15 - 10:46

The constant use of antibiotics in human and animal medicines is causing a
rise in Escherichia coli resistance to these medicines, interfering with
the effective treatment of infections caused by this agent. For this study,
we isolated and identified E. coli from in nature water samples and verified
the presence of plasmids that caused bacteria resistance. We collated 24 water
samples from two different stations (a water treatment station and a water captation
station). From the contaminated samples, we evaluated antibiotic resistance
to amoxicillin (5 μg) cephalexin (5 μg), azitromicin (5 μg),
ampicilin (5 μg), tetracycline (5 μg) and ciprofloxacin (10 μg).
We also evaluated whether the resistance was plasmidial or chromosomal. The
results showed a frequent occurrence of multiple resistance to the main antimicrobials
utilized, includingcephalexin (67.44%), amoxicilin (62.79%), ampicilin (58.13%),
tetracycline (37.20%), azithromycin (32.55%), ciproflaxacin (18.60%). We observed
the presence of different plasmidial profiles, including occurrences of amoxicillin
(30%), ampicillin (30%), tetracycline (30%) and ciprofloxacin (10%). The study
showed that the samples presented plasmids with genes resistant to important
antibiotics used for public health.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.80.84 2014/03/15 - 10:46

To establish the scientific basis for the use of Psidium guajava in
traditional medicinal practices in Northern Nigeria, the ethanolic and aqueous
stem bark extracts of Psidium guajava were screened for the presence
of some phytochemicals and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus
aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia
coli and Salmonella spp. The phytochemicals were analyzed using the
standard methods of phytochemical analysis, while the antibacterial activities
were analysed using agar well diffusion method. The results indicated presence
of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids and cardiac glycosides
in the two extracts. The results revealed that the two extracts possess wider
antimicrobial activities against the tested organisms at a concentration of
100 mg mL-1 which compares favourably with the standard antibiotic
streptomycin as positive control. However, ethanolic extract demonstrated a
better activity than the aqueous extract with the most susceptible organism
being S. Faecalis and the least activity was reported for Salmonella
spp. Both the ethanol and aqueous extracts of P. guajava may provide
a target for drug discovery.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.85.89 2014/03/15 - 10:46

Regular physical exercise has been reported to be effective in the prevention
or delay of onset of type 2 diabetes, increases insulin sensitivity and ameliorates
glucose metabolism and therefore considered beneficial for type 2 diabetes mellitus
management. This study investigated the effect of physical exercise on glycaemic
control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Overnight fasted blood samples were
drawn from the median cubital vein on the anterior forearm of diabetics and
the control subjects into plain and fluoride oxalate tubes. The serum from the
plain tubes was used to estimate the lipid profile: Blood glucose, serum total
cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins, very low-density lipoproteins
and high-density lipoproteins were determined using an autoanalyser. The plasma
from the fluoridated anticoagulated blood was used to estimate the fasting blood
glucose. Malonyldialdehyde level in serum was estimated spectrophotometrically.
Anthropometric parameters; height, bodyweight and blood pressures were also
measured. Fasting blood glucose was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in the
subjects who had longer duration of exercise, triglycerides were significantly
(p<0.05) reduced even in mild exercise, whilst HDL was increased (p<0.05)
in subjects who did 3 h and over exercise per week. Malonyldialdehyde was significantly
(p<0.05) decreased even in moderate exercise. The study demonstrates that
exercise modulates fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, oxidative stress in
patients with type 2 diabetes and suggest that exercise may have therapeutic,
preventative and protective effects on diabetes mellitus and should therefore
be used to complement drug therapy.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2013.23.31 2013/09/27 - 17:43

The aim of study was to isolate a Bacteriocin producing strain against Gardnerella vaginalis and other bacterial vaginosis causing organisms. For this purpose, about 100 bacteriocin producing strains Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy and fecund females and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Nine isolates have shown anti-G. vaginalis activity. Out of nine HV 6b isolate have shown significant results against G. vaginalis so it has been selected for further study and it is identified as Lactobacillus fermentum. The antimicrobial activity of all nine strains including HV6b against other bacterial vaginosis associated organisms have also been studied. Mode of action of Bacteriocin produced from Lactobacillus fermentum was studied with scanning electron microscopy which showed the pore formation in the cell wall Gardnerella vaginalis. Antibiotic sensitivity profiles of L. fermentum HV6b was studied results showed that this isolated strain of lactic acid bacteria is resistant to most of antibiotics which have been currently used for treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Antibiotic sensitivity of Gardnerella vaginalis shows resistance of bacteria to Azithromycin, Co-trimoxazole, Metronidazole and Miconazole. Tetracycline and Erythromycin were required in more concentrated dose for inhibition. This study has shown that bacteriocin is a better alternative than antibiotics than the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Viability loss of Gardnerella vaginalis was observed with different concentration of bacteriocin. Bacteriocin producing L. fermentum HV6b was found to be the responsible strain for formulating topical personal care and efficacy to the therapeutics aimed at prevention and treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2013.1.12 2013/04/11 - 07:14

A large number of organotin complexes are used as pharmaceuticals, pesticides, stabilizers and fire retardants. In an attempt to explore its pharmaceutical profile, new diorganotin (IV) R2SnA2 (R = n-Bu, n-Oct) and triorganotin (IV) R3SnA2 (R= n-Bu) derivatives where A is the anion of 2-acetoxybenzoic acid (Aspirin), N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide (Paracetamol) and 2-(2-methyl-5-nitroimidazol-1-yl) ethanol (Metronidazole) have been synthesized. The complexes 1-9 were characterized by elemental analysis as well as FTIR, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H, 13C and 119Sn) spectroscopy. On the basis of these spectroscopic studies it is proposed that diorganotin complexes of Paracetamol and Metronidazole having 1:2 stoichiometry, show tetrahedral geometry while the complexes of Aspirin show octahedral arrangement around tin metal ion with bi-dentate nature of carboxylate group. Triorganotin complexes of Aspirin, Paracetamol and Metronidazole having 1:2 stoichiometry show trigonal bipyramidal geometry with monodentate nature of the carboxylate group around the organotin moiety in the complexes of Aspirin. The ligand molecules bound to the Sn atom through carboxyl oxygen atoms in Aspirin and hydroxyl oxygen in Paracetamol and Metronidazole. The anti-fungal activity of complexes 1, 4 and 9 has been determined against Candida albicans. It is observed that the activity increases on complexation and highest antifungal activity has been found for the triorganotin complex of metronidazole.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2013.13.22 2013/04/11 - 07:14

Self micro-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) are vital tool for enhancement of oral bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs. These systems are currently of interest to the researchers because of their significant capability to act as drug delivery vehicles by incorporating a extensive range of drug molecules. The present communication embodies approaches in the design of lipid based formulation, evaluation processes, mechanism involved there in, updated with latest findings from literature reports and patents. Also, this comprehensive review offers an explicit discussion on vital possibilities of the SMEDDS in bioavailability improvement of various drugs. A pseudo ternary phase diagram is used for identifying the micro-emulsification region. Thus, this current article provides an updated compilation of extensive information and result on all the unexplored areas of the self micro emulsifying drug delivery systems, thus encouraging the researchers to accelerate their research work in this direction for the development and enhancement of dissolution profile of hydrophobic drugs and pay a novel approach to pharmaceutical research.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2012.143.183 2012/05/19 - 05:04

We examined the synonymous vs. nonsynonymous substitution rate ratios (Ka/Ks, aka evolutionary rate) between human and chimpanzee for 166 successful drug target genes and compared them with a larger (10,298) set of genes representative of average human-chimpanzee evolutionary rates. We found that evolutionary rates differ significantly between successfully marketed drug targets and the broader set of genes (p<0.005 by ANOVA). Evolutionary rates were lower for successfully marketed drug targets versus non-target genes (0.311 versus 0.497). This rate discrepancy demonstrates that more conserved genes, even within protein families such as GPCRs (successful target GPCRs 0.391 versus non-target GPCRs 0.855) and protein kinases (0.131 versus 0.337), are better targets for traditional small molecule drug development than less strongly constrained genes. Evolutionary rate, therefore, is a factor that could be taken into account when selecting candidate target genes for drug discovery, in addition to the biochemical properties of the proteins these genes encode. We suggest therefore, that links be established between identified disease-causal or -associated genes and genes that are suitable targets for traditional small molecule pharmaceutical development.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2012.184.193 2012/05/19 - 05:04

The Cymbopogon proximus (CP) (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) is commonly used in Sudan to purify and give a favorable aromatic flavor to drinking water. In this study, we examined experimentally the chemical effect resulting from the addition of CP on drinking water F-, NO3¯ and TDS levels. Screening and confirmatory laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the changes of the concentration levels of F¯, NO3¯ and TDS. For screening tests, we used two types of water, (1) drinking groundwater that naturally contaminated with nitrate, (2) Deionized water that artificially (experimentally) contaminated by nitrate. For confirmatory tests, we used only artificially nitrated deionized water. The results obtained indicated that the addition of 3.3 g CP L-1 water entirely removed NO3¯ contamination, as a promising result and at the same time increased both F- and TDS levels by different magnitudes depending on CP weight added and immersion time after the first 24 h passed. Increase of fluoride content in drinking water increases the risk of dental fluorosis prevalence and the other related diseases.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2012.194.203 2012/05/19 - 05:04

Molluscicidal activity of Thymus capitatus and Marrubium vulgare essential oils on adult and eggs of Biomphalaria alexandrina as well as on different stages of Culex pipiens was evaluated for their effectiveness on vector control. Steam distillation of essential oils of the flowering aerial parts of both Thymus capitatus L. and Marrubium vulgare L. yielded 0.5 and 0.2%, respectively. Results of GC/MS analyses of the two samples revealed an identified components in both oils amounted to 96.27 and 90.19% of the total oil composition for T. capitatus and M. vulgare, respectively. The two oil samples appeared dominated by the oxygenated constituents (88.22 and 57.50% for T. capitatus and M. vulgare, respectively). These were mainly composed of phenols among which carvacrol (32.98%) and thymol (32.82%) were the major constituents in T. capitatus oil while in M. vulgare oil, thymol (34.55%) was the major constituent. Borneol was present only in T. capitatus oil (9.15%). T. capitatus essential oil gave LC50 and LC90 mortality against adult snails at 200 and 400 ppm/3 h, respectively while that of M. vulgare was 50 and 100 ppm/3 h, respectively. On the other hand, M. vulgare showed LC100 ovicidal activity at 200 ppm/24 h while T. capitatus oil showed no ovicidal activity. Insecticidal activity of both two essential oils revealed LC50 and LC90 larvicidal activity at 100 and 200 ppm/12 h, respectively and LC50 and LC90 pupicidal activity at 200 and 400 ppm/12 h, respectively. Results of this study suggest that plant essential oils may have a promising role in vector control with needed continuing investigations.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2012.204.211 2012/05/19 - 05:04

Poorna chandrodayam (PC) is an elixir of mercury and gold widely used in Siddha Medicine prepared by kupi pudam process. It is a bright scarlet red coloured powder, soluble in Aqua regia. Content of gold, mercury and sulphur were found to be 9.78, 78.11 and 11.95 g, respectively and 280 ppm of free mercury. XRD and XPS studies revealed the presence of HgS, SEM studies revealed difference in size and agglomeration due to repeated cycles of calcinations, EDAX demonstrated HgS as a main component and a small percentage of Hg as oxide form and a small percentage of gold. IR spectra confirmed the pattern of Mercury sulphide and FTIR confirmed that PC is free of organic compounds. DTA revealed decomposition of water molecules and TGA revealed as mercury sulphide. ICP-OES analysis revealed the presence of mercury (141.76 mg g-1), Calcium (11.68 mg g-1) and gold (0.84 mg g-1). TEM revealed nano range of particles of irregular size in the range of 60-70 nm. Presence of HgS in nanoparticles was further confirmed by EDAX attached with TEM. DLS revealed the particle size near nano range and only 10% were below 112.6 nm. AAS studies revealed the presence of Mercury (143.12%), gold (0.92%) and many other metallic compounds. The studies confirms that PC is converted into an amalgamation process and mostly present as Mercury sulphide along with gold and a small portion of mercury oxide.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2012.110.123 2012/03/21 - 16:37

Cancer is recognized primarily as a disease of uncontrolled cell division. Hence, all efforts are directed toward the identification of antiproliferative compounds. Accordingly, regression of tumor size and increase of survival time has been recognized as the primary objective end point of effectiveness in preclinical and clinical testing for the discovery of a new anticancer drug. Dried roots from P. zeylanica were powdered and extracted with methanol. The root extract then at the dose of 20, 30 and 40 mg kg-1 day (i.p.) was evaluated for antiproliferative activity against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cells in swiss albino mice. The experimental parameters like tumor cell count, mean survival time and increase in life span were evaluated to assess antiproliferative activity. The extract was administered intrapretoneally for 14 consecutive days to EAC cell bearing group of mice. Bleomycin at the dose of 0.3 mg kg-1 (i.p.) was used as a positive control. It has been found that the root extract at the dose of 40 mg kg-1 day (i.p.) significantly (p<0.05) decreases tumor weight, increases life span and reduces tumor cell growth rate in comparison to those of EAC bearing mice receiving no extract (negative control) in a dose-dependant manner. In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the same extract were also assessed to link the finding with the strong antiproliferative activity.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2012.124.134 2012/03/21 - 16:37

The present study intended to evaluate the beneficiary effects of ethanolic extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. fruits (EETC) by using alloxan-monohydrate induced diabetic control by using Wistar Albino rats. The toxicity study was performed on aliquot doses of EETC (100 to 500 mg kg-1 b.wt.) and predetermined the LD50 value on 30 days evaluation; also the behavioral changes, symptoms and mortality have been checked, the EETC showed the nil toxicity up to 500 mg kg-1 b.wt. The effect of EETC (200 mg kg-1 b.wt.) was compared with the glibenclamide (600 mg kg-1 b.wt.) that is often used as a standard drug and the anti-diabetic activity has been conducted for 30 days. After the completion of the study, animals were dissected through cervical dislocation and collected the blood, serum and pancreas. The collected samples were performed under parameters like biochemical and anti-oxidant enzymes related to diabetes such as, weight variation, blood glucose, plasma insulin, serum and liver protein, serum and liver cholesterol, serum and liver triglyceride, serum and liver phospholipids, SGOT (Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetic Transaminase), SGPT (Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase), ACP (Acid Phosphatase), ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase), GSH (Glutathione reductase), GPT (Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase), GPX (Glutathione Peroxidase) ,CAT (Catalase) and histopathological sections of the pancreas, the above parameters calculated and showed that the significance at p<0.001 to 0.05. The histopathological changes caused after induction of alloxan showed the granular cytoplasm, dilatation, shrunken nuclei and inflammation, which were reduced after treatment of the EETC (200 mg kg-1 b.wt.). Excess proliferation of epithelium in the pancreas was observed in diabetic rats, which was reduced after administration of the EETC (200 mg kg-1 b.wt.). From the evaluation of the present study on EETC has been confirmed that having the pharmacological action against the diabetic condition, even though the mechanism of the action is unknown, also it can be used further molecular compound analysis and define the chemical to the action.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2012.135.142 2012/03/21 - 16:37

The purpose of this study was to develop Freeze-dried Tablets (FDTs) for rapid absorption of carvedilol, an antihypertensive drug with poor solubility and poor bioavailability. Binary and ternary systems were first made of drug and different ratios of HPMC and Inutec and then were formulated into FDTs. Formulation of FDTs was based on 23 factorial design to study the influence of formulation variables namely, concentration of polymer matrix-former, concentration of collapse protectant and type of polymer used in formation of drug binary and ternary systems on tablet characteristics such as friability, in vitro disintegration time, in vivo disintegration time and initial dissolution. An optimized FDT formulation (RO) containing 2% gelatin, 1% glycine and binary system made of Drug: Inutec in the ratio 1:0.5 showed excellent mechanical strength, in vitro and in vivo disintegration times of less than 10 sec and more than 30% drug dissolved during the first 3 min compared to only 11% for the drug powder and 8% drug from an immediate release commercially available tablet (Carvepress). When the optimized FDT (RO) was administered to hypertensive rats it resulted in a significant decrease (p = 0.0015) in systolic blood pressure within the first 15 min compared to the immediate release conventional tablet as a reference which indicate the rapid dissolutionand absorption of carvedilol from the FDT.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2012.55.71 2012/02/13 - 18:00

Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel 101, AV 101) has been widely used as the excipients for tablet formulation. The objective of this research was to produce cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum (A. xylinum) which is used as alternative excipient for tablet formulation instead of AV 101. The bacterium was isolated from kombucha tea preparation. Bacterial pellicle formation was cultivated in stationary conditions using a Herstin-Schramm nutrient (HS) medium. The produced Bacterial Cellulose (BC) was compared with AV 101 by carrying out Moisture Sorption Capacity (MSC), Loss on Drying (LOD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), FT-IR Spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction analysis, micromeritic properties and compactibility studies. Comparisons revealed that MSC for AV 101 was higher when compared to BC due to crystalline nature of BC. LOD of BC was 4.635% which is required for good compression. The particles of BC were small sized densely packed reticulated structure consisting of fine thread like fibrils whereas AV 101 was irregularly large sized elongated structures. The IR spectra showed that there were no significant difference in the spectra of BC and AV 101. BC had higher crystallinity than AV 101. Micromeritic properties and compactibility studies showed that BC have high bulk density, better flow property, easy fragmentation of the particles and rearrangement at a lower compression load, lesser elastic recovery and higher tensile strength than AV 101. The result provides evidence that BC produced by HS medium can be suitably used as pharmaceutical excipient for tablet formulation instead of AV 101.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2012.72.86 2012/02/13 - 18:00

Simvastatin is anti-hyperlipidemic drug which is used to control elevated cholesterol or hypercholesterolemia. The drug undergoes extensive first pass metabolism and has a t1/2 of 3 h. It has poor bioavailability (about 5%) and high protein binding (>95%).The dosage form currently available is conventional uncoated tablet administered once daily. The objective of the present study was to improve the bioavailability of the drug by formulating an intraperitoneal implant and to sustain the drug release for atleast 15 days. The formulation was prepared by polymer precipitation method. In this method, the polymer drug solution is injected into the aqueous buffer from which the solvent dissipates into buffer and forms a solid implant. The optimized formulations were evaluated for drug content, cumulative percentage drug release, solvent ratio, surface morphology and drug interactions. From our studies, it was observed that the drug entrapment efficiency increased and the burst release decreased with increase in the polymer concentration. We could achieve sustained release of the drug with optimized formulation. The formulation with 20% polymer concentration exhibited moderate burst release and sustained release for 15 days. The in situ implants showed no drug polymer interactions. The SEM configurations showed polymer precipitation and the crosslinking of the polymer. Pharmacokinetic studies performed on rats confirmed sustained drug release up to 15 days. The bioavailability of the drug was also found to be improved and showed a 3 fold increase when compared to control tablets (ZOCOR 10 mg). Hence in addition to our studies, further research and clinical investigations can certainly help in proposing Simvastatin in situ implants as a treatment alternative in hyperlipidemic patients.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2012.87.100 2012/02/13 - 18:00

In developing countries, typhoid fever has a substantial negative socioeconomic impact. Highly invasive organism, Salmonella typhi is the causative agent for this enteric fever. The virulence of Salmonella is associated with the presence of a capsular polysaccharide, Vi antigen. The Vi polysaccharide biosynthesis protein, tviC, of Salmonella typhi whose three dimensional structure was not elucidated till date and its sequence was retrieved from KEGG database. Homology modeling was performed using Swiss model and the resultant structure was verified using WHATCHECK tool. Docking studies were done on the modeled structure with plant derived inhibitors such as allicin, apigenin, caffeic acid, curcumin, eugenol, piperin and luteolin. The hydrogen bond interactions between the protein and ligand were visualized by PYMOL software. Docking studies revealed the e-value for eugenol (-329) is better than the other selected ligands.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2012.101.109 2012/02/13 - 18:00