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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and to track
associated risk factors of antibiotic resistant Salmonella, E. histolytica
and G. lamblia in Harar, Eastren Ethiopia. A total of 384 stool samples
were collected from Harar Hiwot-Fana Hospital and analyzed in Harari Regional
Laboratory. The results of the study revealed that 96(25%), 80(20.6%) and 56(14.6%)
of the samples were positive for Salmonella, E. histolytica and
G. lamblia, respectively. The antimicrobial sensitivity test showed that
all (100%) of the Salmonella isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin
while 85% were sensitive to nalidixic acid. Of the 56(14.6%) Salmonella isolates,
100, 100, 85 and 71.2% were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
and chloramphenicol, respectively. This study indicated that Salmonella,
E. histolytica and G. lamblia were prevalent in Harar and this
enterophathogens should be considered routinely in the diagnosis of patients
with diarrhoea. Moreover, physicians should also prescribe appropriate drugs
either after sensitivity testing or in areas where there are no facilities for
culturing and they have to refer updated information on local sensitivity patterns.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2014.99.111 2014/10/04 - 12:22

The Peach Fruit Fly (PFF), Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is a serious
pest of horticulture of crops in Egypt. The present study aimed to evaluate
toxicity of the biopolymer Chitosan (Chitosan1) and its derivatives, viz., Chitosan2
(N-(2-nitrobenzyl)), Chitosan3 (N-(2-chloro, 6-fluorobenzyl)), Chitosan4 (N-(4-propylbenzyl)),
Chitosan5 (N-(3,4-methelynedioxybenzyl)) as well as the bio-pesticide, Bio-fly
under laboratory conditions. Also, the effect of the tested compounds on AChE
and ATPase activities of both male and female flies of the PFF was assessed.
Results showed that Bio-fly was the most toxic compound against both female
and male flies of PFF (LC50 = 2408 and 2049 and 1333 and 1145 mg
L-1 after 24 and 48 h of treatment, respectively). Among Chitosans,
Chitosan2 and Chitosan4 were the most potent compounds against female and male
flies after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The respective LC50 values
were 4993 and 4817 and 6115 and 51775 mg L-1. AChE and ATPase activities
were significantly reduced whether for female or male flies at 48 h post-treatment.
Bio-fly exhibited the highest inhibition of AChE activity, whereas Chitosans
gave the highest inhibition of ATPase activity. Chitosan2 and Chitosan4 could
be incorporated in the integrated management programs of the PFF.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2014.112.121 2014/10/04 - 12:22

The fresh green and yellow banana peel of five different varieties of (Musa, CV, Cavendish) fruits were treated with 70% ethanol, further partitioned with chloroform and ethylacetae (EtoAc) sequentially. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxidation assay, estimation of vitamin C, catalase, peroxidase. The EtoAc extract of type-III and water extract of type-IV had shown the antioxidant activity.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2014.122.129 2014/10/04 - 12:22

Osteosarcoma along with other tumors like osteoma, osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma
are grouped as bone forming tumors. Several studies have shown link between
serum concentrations of IGF-I and increased risk of common cancers namely breast,
prostate, colorectal and lung cancer. Conflicting data are available regarding
leptin effects on bone with both positive and negative effects being reported.
No reports are available regarding leptin levels in osteosarcoma and its correlation
with IGF-I. Hence, the present study is planned to study serum IGF-I and leptin
levels in patients of osteosarcoma. Serum IGF-1 and leptin were analyzed in
thirty cases of osteosarcoma and these patients were compared with thirty age
and sex matched controls with musculoskeletal pain. Serum calcium and phosphorous
levels were decreased in patients with osteosarcoma as compared to controls.
Serum alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly raised in patients with
osteosarcoma as compared to patients of musculoskeletal pain (p<0.001). Serum
IGF-1and leptin levels were significantly decreased in osteosarcoma patients
(group-II) as compared to the patients of musculoskeletal pain (group-I), (p<0.001,
p<0.05, respectively). Inverse correlation was observed between IGF-1 and
calcium, IGF-1 and ALP, leptin and calcium leptin and ALP in group II as compared
to group I. Lowered serum IGF-1 and leptin levels observed in osteosarcoma patients
as compared to control in the present study and could be due to their possible
utilization in tumor formation. The present study suggests that these parameters
can serve as useful markers for diagnosis and follow up of disease.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2014.130.135 2014/10/04 - 12:22

Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to gastric ulcer and the present work was aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) administration on ethanol induced gastric mucosa erosion in rats. This study was carried out on 60 male rats. The rats were divided into four equal groups of 15 rats each. Group I: (Control group): Received no drugs. Group II: (Ulcerated non-treated group): Administered with a single oral dose of 1 mL rat-1 of absolute ethanol for gastric ulcer induction. Group III: (Ulcerated+ALA protected group): Received alpha lipoic acid (100 mg kg-1 b.wt. day-1) orally for 7 days before ethanol administration for the gastric erosion induction. Group IV: (Ulcerated+ALA treated group): Received alpha lipoic acid as in group III and the treatment was continued for 10 days later. Blood samples for serum separation were collected at the 8th and 18th days from the onset of treatment with ALA for the determination of serum Nitric Oxide (NO), Sialic Acid (SA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and L-Malondialdehyde (L-MDA). Also, gastric tissue specimens were collected for determination of (L-MDA), vitamin C, Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH), DNA-fragmentation and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage caused significant decreased in serum (NO) and (SA) concentrations and in gastric tissue vitamin C level, GPX, SOD and CAT activities. On the other hand, a marked increase in TNF-α, IL-6, MPO, L-MDA, GR and DNA-fragmentation were observed in ethanol induced gastric damage. Pretreatment of ALA was able to mitigate gastric mucosa damage induced by ethanol through increasing of SA, vitamin C, SOD, CAT, GSH in addition to decreasing DNA-fragmentation and MPO in gastric tissue. The results of the present study suggest that, ALA may be effective in enhances the healing of gastric ulcers by its radical scavenging and antiapoptotic activity, adjusting the pro-inflammatory cytokine, inhibited neutrophil accumulation and regenerating endogenous antioxidant mechanisms.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2014.48.63 2014/04/17 - 22:09

Plants contain many important and potential therapeutic agents for treating
several diseases of man. In this study, we investigated and compared the hypoglycemic
abilities and antioxidant enzymes activities of aqueous extracts of horseradish
(Moringa oleifera) leaf and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) seed on
Alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats with the aim of alleviating oxidative stress.
Hyperglycemia was induced in rats using alloxan intra-peritoneally (ip). Two
groups of fifteen wistar albino rats each were fed with water and rat pellets
for one week to serve as control stage 1 (Non-diadetic rats). Five rats from
each group were separately weighed and sacrificed. The remaining animals from
each group were injected with 0.5 mL each of alloxan (35 mg kg-1
b.wt.) which was observed for another week with normal feeding, this served
as stage 2 (Diabetic rats). Five animals from each group were also weighed and
sacrificed. After the second stage, the remaining animals from each group were
treated with 0.5 mL each of 30% aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera
leaf and Myristica fragrans seed, respectively for another week which
served as stage 3 (Treated rats). The last sets of rats from each group were
finally weighed and sacrificed. Blood samples were collected from each stage
and group for fasting blood glucose determination in whole blood. While glutathione,
glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and Malonaldehyde (MDA)
were determined from plasma. The results of this study revealed that all the
extracts caused hypoglycemea; increased weight, GSH, GPx, catalase and percentage
inhibition of SOD but reduced Malonaldehyde (MDA) concentrations after treatments.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2014.64.75 2014/04/17 - 22:09

Toxicity of pyridalyl, abamectin, spinosad and malathion and three plant oil
sviz. corn oil (Zea maize) sun flower oil (Helianthus annus )
and sesame oil (Sesamum indicum) either singly or as binary mixtures
in different mixing ratios were investigated on the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus
maculates (F.) adults through residual film bioassay. The LC50
of pyridalyl, abamectin, spinosad and malathion were 79663.06, 19964.04, 11380
and 884 ppm and that of corn oil sun flower oil and sesame oil were 4.452E+5,
5.064 E+5 and 17729.27 ppm, respectively after 9 days post treatment. The four
insecticides were tested in binary mixtures with the three plant oils at mixing
ratios of 99:195:5 and 90:10 (insecticide:oil). All plant oils when combined
with pyridalyl and abamectin proved to have synergistic effect against C.
maculatus adults except at 95:5 and 90:10 mixing ratios (abamectin+sun flower
oil) exhibited antagonistic effect. On the other hand antagonistic effect was
achieved when spinosad and malathion were mixed with the tested plant oils except
at 95:5 mixing ratio for spinosad+sesame oil which evoked synergistic effect.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2014.76.85 2014/04/17 - 22:09

Health promoting biochemical parameters of 15 distinct chickpea genotypes (Desi and Kabuli) showed wide variability in their chemical composition, crude fiber, total mineral content, total free amino acid Rhizobium inoculated was relatively higher than non inoculated. Reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, total sugar non inoculated was relatively higher than Rhizobium inoculated. Crude fibre content in chickpea ranged from 12.89-13.79% in control, Rhizobium inoculated 13.11-15.03%, total mineral content ranged from 3.55-3.79% in control, Rhizobium inoculated 4.14-4.45%, total free amino acids in chickpea seeds ranged from 2.35-2.51% in control, Rhizobium inoculated 2.38-2.65%, reducing sugar content in chickpea seeds ranged from 24.45-25.80% in control, Rhizobium inoculated 24.05-25.38%, non reducing sugar content in chickpea seeds ranged from 39.06-41.21% in control, Rhizobium inoculated 38.41-40.53%, total sugar content in chickpea seeds ranged from 63.51-67.00% in control, Rhizobium inoculated 62.46-65.91%. The research result about the biochemical characteristics of control and Rhizobium inoculated chickpea genotypes are expected to provide guidelines for the researches confronted with the need to use such typical food seed in India as well as in the rest of the world.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2014.86.92 2014/04/17 - 22:09

Oxidative stress and antioxidant status was evaluated in relation to glycemic
control in Type 1 and 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients (DM). A total of 69 DM patients
(34 T1 and 35 T2DM cases) were enrolled in the study along with 15 healthy subjects.
The patients were grouped into those with good glycemic control and others with
poor glycemic control. Serum fructosamine levels were also determined as a supportive
parameter for confirming glycemic status. Serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) level
was used as a marker of oxidative stress and serum catalase activity was quantitated
for an assessment of anti-oxidant status of the patients. Mean MDA levels in
poor glycemic control group of T1 and T2DM were significantly higher (p<0.01)
not only than the means of the healthy controls but also than the means of diabeteic
groups with good glycemic control (p<0.01). Mean serum catalase activity
was significantly reduced in DM patients of all the groups compared to that
of healthy controls (p<0.05) indicating considerable reduction in the anti-oxidant
status of the patients.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2014.93.98 2014/04/17 - 22:09

Knowing the appropriate applications of various analytical techniques used
in biotechnology, makes the experiment more easier and let the researcher obtain
a better result which also reduces the time period of experiment by eliminating
the trial and error methods. Along with the knowledge of application of the
analytical technique, the researcher also should have the knowledge of the sampling
techniques for the analytical instruments as it is one of the deciding factors
to choose a specific technique for the analysis. At the same time, the results
obtained by using the analytical equipments are relatively authentic and accurate.
With the development of biotechnology, the usage of analytical equipments has
increased by many folds. The areas of biotechnology such as nanotechnology,
cancer biology, genetic engineering and many more are dependent on the analytical
equipments for most of their experimental analysis. Analytical equipments find
its application not only in the research works but also at the industry level.
Various food and pharmaceutical industries rely upon the analytical techniques
like FT-IR and Raman for the quality analysis of the products.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2014.1.7 2014/03/08 - 12:37

Streptokinase (SK) is a major blood-dissolving agent that used in the treatment
of various circulatory disorders. Since the original host of Streptokinase is
pathogenic and secretes several toxins which complicate the purification, (SK)
gene was cloned in a strain of Bacillus subtilis as a nonpathogenic expression
system. The role of the promoter and signal sequence of B. subtilis in
the production of streptokinase was assessed by two different constructs, (vSKa)
and (vSKb). Secreted streptokinase from both constructs were analyzed
and specific activity of sucrose induced streptokinase from the construct of
(vSKb) was about 1.2 to 1.4 fold higher than that from (vSKa).
Streptokinase produced from (vSKa) and vSKb has an N-terminal
sequence identical to the native streptokinase of S. equismilis H46A.
Upon incubation of the immobilized plasmin (hPlm) with SK, several peptide fragments
were observed by PAGE electrophoresis. After purification, molecular masses
and the N-terminal sequences of these fragments were determined. Data obtained
from these sequences indicated that there are different processing sites. To
prevent proteolytic processing of SK at the C-terminus, two variants (SK1 and
SK2) were engineered via site directed mutagenesis. Characterization of streptokinase
derived from SK1 and SK2 by Western blot analysis demonstrated that both variants
were resistant to the proteolytic processing but a low percentage (10-20%) of
the secreted streptokinase from SK1 appeared in a degraded form. However, variant
of SK2, showed a biological activity 2.5 times higher than that of the wild-type
streptokinase. To prevent processing of SK at the N-terminus, Lys59
in SK2 was changed by site directed mutagenesis either to glutamine yielding
the mutant variant SK2K59Q or glutamic acid yielding SK2K59E.
Purified SK protein from SK2K59Q was resistance to proteolysis by
(hPlm) and showed better plasminogen activation in the radial caseinolysis assay.
This study indicates that blocking of the N-terminal cleavage at K59
site is critical to generate a proteolytic-resistant streptokinase variant.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2014.8.21 2014/03/08 - 12:37

The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effect of curcumin
administration on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, DNA fragmentation and
caspase-9 gene expression in colon cancer induced by 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine
(DMH) in rats. Seventy male albino rats divided into five groups containing
14 rats each. Group 1: (Control group) rats received no drugs. Group 2: (colon
cancer induced group) rats injected DMH (35 mg kg-1 b.wt week-1,
subcutaneously) for ten weeks. Group 3: (DMH+curcumin therapeutic group) rats
injected DMH and administered curcumin (100 mg kg-1 b.wt. day-1,
orally) from the 11th week until the 16th weeks. Group 4: ( DMH+curcumin treated
group) rats injected DMH and at the same time administered curcumin for 16 weeks
( end of experiment). Group 5: (control+curcumin group) rats administered curcumin
all over the experimental periods. At the end of 16th week treatment blood samples
and colon tissues were collected for determination of serum lactate dehydrogenase
(LDH) and Carcino Embryonic Antigen (CEA) in addition to Glutathione Peroxidase
(GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH),
L-malondialdehyde (L-MDA), Nitric Oxide (NO), glutathione-S-transferase (GST),
Caspase-9 gene and DNA fragmentation in colon tissues. The obtained results
revealed that, DMH potentially increased serum LDH activity and CEA level. In
addition, CAT, GPx, GST activities, MDA and NO concentrations in colon tissues
of DMH injected rats were significantly increased. However, SOD, GSH, Caspase-9
and DNA fragmentation in colon tissues were significantly decreased. Curcumin
treatment to colon cancer rats significantly decreased serum LDH and CEA, CAT
and GPx activities and attenuated the increased MDA and NO concentrations in
colon tissues. On the other hand, curcumin treatment enhanced the activity of
SOD and GST and the level of GSH, caspase-9 and DNA fragmentation in colon tissues.
From the obtained results it could be concluded that, inhibition of peroxidation
and oxidative stress markers and enhanced antioxidant status and increased caspase-9
gene expression and DNA fragmentation in rat colon tissues by curcumin suggest
the potential efficacy of curcumin as an addition chemopreventive agent in treatment
of colon carcinogenesis.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2014.22.34 2014/03/08 - 12:37

The hepatoprotective effect of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Vitex doniana
(EAEVD) stem bark on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage was
studied, to evaluate some biochemical parameters, to determine the in vitro
antioxidant effect of the extract on Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT)
glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and to quantify
the levels of some phytochemicals present in EAEVD stem bark. A total of twenty
four Rats were used for the study. Animals in group1 served as vehicle control,
Group 2 served as hepatotoxin (CCL4) treated group, Group 3 served
as positive control (Sylimarin) treated group, Group 4 was administered with
100 (mg kg-1 b.wt.) of the extract and group 5 was administered with
200 (mg kg-1 b.wt.) of the extract After the experimental period
of 14 days. The animals were sacrificed, blood and liver samples were collected
and used for the evaluation of the following biochemical parameters Aspartate
amino transferase (AST), Alanine amino transaminase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase
(ALP) in serum, as well as thiobarbituric acidreactive substances (TBARS), lipidhydroperoxides
superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and
glutathione-s-transferase (GST) in the liver. Administration of 100 and 200
mg kg-1 b.wt. (EAEVD) significantly decreased (p<0.05) AST, ALT,
ALP TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides with a significant increase (p<0.05) in
the levels of SOD, CAT, GPX and GST in in group 4 and 5. Twenty five mg kg-1
b.wt. sylimar in was used as standard, The results show that the oral administration
of EAEVD plant prevents the progression of hepatic damage in Ccl4
treated wistar albino rats and suggest that the extract could be effective in
the management of liver problems.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2014.35.41 2014/03/08 - 12:37

The present study reports on the isolation and characterization of new isolates
from crude oil from petroleum contaminated soil. The isolates were then screened
for their potential towards biodegradation of toluene by growing them in both
solid as well as liquid mineral medium supplemented with toluene as a sole carbon
source and further identified by GC-FAME analysis. The degradation potential
of these isolates strongly suggests that the isolates have TOL like plasmid
and carries xylM gene involved in the expression of the toluene monooxygenase.
The primer sets were used in PCR to assess the presence of the catabolic gene
in new toluene degrading isolates. The primer verification was done by using
bioinformatics tools. From the results it is conclusive that isolates were able
to degrade Toluene, and from PCR it is evident that the isolates contained gene
coding for Toluene degradation. The test results indicate that the bacteria
could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbon pollution.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2014.42.47 2014/03/08 - 12:37

The major constraint for cassava production in Africa in general and particularly
in Togo, is Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD), caused essentially by different species
of Begomoviruses. Thus, to undertake any strategy of effective control of this
disease, it is very important to know the different components of the species
of Begomoviruses behind the disease. For this purpose, a molecular characterization of Begomovirus
responsible viruses of CMD in Togo was carried out by using specific primers
targeting the Coat Protein (CP). A total of 114 of various isolates of these
Begomoviruses were sequenced. Phylogenetic sequence analysis and comparison
of the sequences obtained of the various isolates of these Begomoviruses with
those coming from the GenBank database was performed. The results of these analyses
revealed a molecular variability among the different groups of Begomoviruses
infecting cassava in Togo. Although the results obtained in this study are not
exhaustive, given the emergence of new viral diseases due to Begomovirses, it
is important to take them into account in the search for resistant/tolerant
clones to cassava virus diseases.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.341.355 2013/12/30 - 12:04

Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Burchidae) is a primary pest
of cowpea and other legumes worldwide, both in field and in stored seeds. Four
botanical oils namely, groundnut, parsley, sunflower and nutmeg and the two
conventional insecticides (Agrothion and malathion) 1% dust were evaluated as
cowpea seeds protectants against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). The tested
compounds were applied in two ways (of mixing with media); preventive way and
curative way. The results indicated that the mean number of laying eggs decreased
in the preventive way with the increase of concentration of tested materials
used. Also, the results showed reduction in F1 progeny especially
at the highest concentrations. The parsley oil was more effective than others
tested materials used following by sunflower oil. The preventive manner was
higher effective than the curative type for protecting cowpea seeds. Plant oils
and chemical insecticides protected cowpea seeds for three months. The effect
of plant oils for protecting cowpea seeds nearly equal that of the insecticides
used through storage period. Consequently, it could be recommended to use the
plant oils especially at the highest concentration in the present study to protect
cowpea seeds against C. maculatus after further studies on the quality
of treated seeds.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.356.368 2013/12/30 - 12:04

In laboratory study the interaction between two recently developed insecticides
(pyridalyl and spinetoram) were combined at different mixing ratios in binary
mixtures with eight compounds including three conventional insecticides (chlorpyrifos-E,
methomyl and deltamethrin), two IGRs (hexaflumuron and pyriproxyfen) and three
biorational compounds (Pepronyl butoxide, sesam oil and oleic acid) and investigated
against S. littoralis, 4th instar larvae. Based on co-toxicity coefficient,
both insecticides (pyridalyl and spinetoram) response positively when mixed
with chlorpyrifos-E and exhibited remarkable synergistic action at most tested
mixing ratios within 24 and 48 h post treatment. On the other hand, slight synergism
was only recorded for pyridalyl/pyriproxyfen mixtures at 9:1 and 4:1 while similar
trend was also recorded at 9:1, 4:1 and 1:1 of pyridalyl/hexaflumuron mixtures
whereas no synergism was almostly recorded for spinetoram/IGRs mixtures. In
contrast, the three biorational compounds (pbo, sesam oil and oleic acid) exhibited
highly considerable synergism at all tested mixing ratios with pyridalyl while
sesame oil and oleic acid evoked remarkable synergism only in their binary mixtures
with spinetoram.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.369.378 2013/12/30 - 12:04

Malaria, an infectious diseases, couses in almost 1 million deaths each year
over the world. Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide, is one of
the most effective antimalarial drugs purified from Artemisia annua L.
in China, 1970s. As the low content of this compound in plant many of studies
have been focused on using elicitors affecting gene expression involved in artemisinin
synthesis pathway. The main step to enhance artemisinin content in plant by
using elicitors is characterization of key genes promoter. Cytochrome p450 Reductase
(CPR) is one of the key enzymes that plays an important role in artemisinin
synthesis pathway. Promoter sequence of key genes involving in artemisinin biosynthesis
pathway included ADS, CYP71AV1 and DBR2 was isolated except CPRgene. We used
standard Thermal Asymmetric Interlaced Polymerase Chain Reaction (TAIL-PCR)
with some modification in thermal cycle numbers to isolate the unknown 5' flanking
region of the CPRgene from Artemisia annua. Subsequent bioinformatics
analysis to characterize functional cis-acting elements inside the promoter
was performed. The 5' flanking sequence of CPR was cloned in pGEM-T Easy vector
and sequenced. Subsequent sequence analysis for characterize functional motifs
using bioinformatics software indicated a group of putative cis-acting elements
such as TATA box, CAAT box, G box, W box and etc., inside the CPR promoter.
This sequence was submitted in GenBank databases under the accession number
KC243135. Present study demonstrated that characterization of cis-acting response
elements can facilitate using elicitors to enhance artemisinin production in
plant.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.379.387 2013/12/30 - 12:04

Dermatophytes and Candida are the most common sources of human fungal
infections. Identification of dermatophytes and Candida using the traditional
methods is sometimes problematic because of atypical microscopic or macroscopic
morphology. The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the genetic relationship
among 6 species of dermatophytes and 3 species of yeasts isolated from Egyptian
and Libyan patients with skin mycosis using three molecular techniques (RAPD,
ISSR and RFLP) and isozyme profiles. Each species was represented by two isolates,
one from Egyptian patients and the second from Libyan. Random amplified polymorphic
DNA (RAPD) in which four random 10-mer primers and two Inter-Simple Sequence
Repeat (ISSR) primers were used to amplify the DNA fragments of target fungi.
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) in which two universal primers
(ITS1 and ITS4) were used to amplify the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions
of the ribosomal (rRNA) gene in fungal isolates followed by digestion with HinfI
and HaeIII endonucleases. Results of RAPD and ISSR markers revealed 78.7%
Genetic Similarity (GS) between M. canis and other tested fungi reflecting
a relatively longer genetic distance from other isolates of dermatophytes and
yeasts. C. krusei and C. tropicalis were closely related showing
93.3% GS. C. albicans showed 90.9% similarity with other species of
Candida. E. floccosum was easily separated from all Trichophyton
species showing 87.3% similarity. Unique bands were displayed by certain fungi
and can be taken as a positive marker for isolate identification and discrimination.
RFLP technique revealed differences in the number (1-5) and size (8-378 base
pairs) of DNA fragments depending on the fungal isolate and restriction enzyme
used. Within each fungal species, different isolates of dermatophytes and Candida
from Egypt and Libya showed close relationship. Seven isozyme systems were
studied to detect the gene expression and genetic variability among the different
isolates of dermatophytes and Candida.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.271.292 2013/07/21 - 04:21

Biodegradable polymers derived from biomass have recently obtained much attention from the public because they are synthesized from renewable raw materials. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one such biopolymer. The objective of study is to identify PHB accumulating Pseudomonas sp. which is obtained from Microbial Type Culture Collection, Chandigarh. All the 5 species showed positive result for PHB accumulation by rapid screening method using Sudan black B stain and Microscopy. Optimization of time as carried out and it showed that 48 h of incubation found to be optimum for maximum accumulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biochemical analysis of various cheap substrates such as agricultural residues (rice bran and wheat bran), forestry residues (saw dust) and industrial residues (activated sludge) which can be used as a carbon source showed that activated sludge has less nitrogen, lignin and phenolic content which enhanced maximum accumulation than the other residues in P. aeruginosa. Biochemical analysis of PHB by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrophotometer was carried out and the peaks correspond to the chemical group of PHB. Agricultural application showed that PHB enhanced germination and overall plant growth in leguminous plants.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.293.303 2013/07/21 - 04:21

Neuropeptides of the adipokinetic/red pigment-concentrating hormone family (AKH/RPCH) regulate energy metabolism in insects. The present study was carried out to elucidate the primary structure of an adipokinetic neuropeptide in the mango leaf webber, O. exvinacea employing bioassay, High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis and mass spectrometric studies. The presence of adipokinetic activity in the crude extracts of brain-retrocerebral complexes of O. exvinacea was demonstrated by heterologous in vivo bioassay in the polyphagous plant bug Iphita limbata. The extract was separated by Reverse Phase-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) and the purified fractions were tested for their adipokinetic effects on the fat body. The maximum hyperlipemic activity was shown by fraction 10. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of the fraction indicated that the molecular ion peak m/z value 1030.471 Da is indicative of sodiated adduct of peptide with mass 1008.471. This molecular ion peak has similar mass as that of already known AKH/RPCH peptide, Manduca adipokinetic hormone (Manduca AKH). Tandem MS/MS confirmed that the primary structure of O. exvinacea AKH is pE-L-T-F-T-S-S-W-G-NH2 which is identical with Manse-AKH.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.304.313 2013/07/21 - 04:21

The characteristic bitter taste of Vernonia amygdalina has been attributed
to its anti-nutritional contents such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins and glycosides.
Recently the spermiographic effect of the plant in male rats has been reported.
The present study examined the effect of bitter leaf extract on 30 days oral
administration of 50, 100, 200 mg kg-1 and 60 days oral administration
of 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. of the extract on some fertility indices in
male wistar rats. At 30 days administration, the extract produced a significant
and dose dependent increase (p<0.05) in sperm concentration, percentage motility,
morphology and percentage live sperm. There was a decrease in the blood level
of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) but no significant increase in the levels
of Leutinizing Hormone (LH) and Testosterone. Administrations of bitter leaf
extract at higher dosage (200 mg kg-1 b.wt.) and duration provoked
varying degrees of testicular degeneration ranging from a significant reduction
in sperm concentration, motility, percentage normal morphology, percentage number
of live sperm to a significant increase in the number of percentage abnormal
sperm. Evidences suggest that higher dosage of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina)
extract administered for a longer duration could be deleterious to the testes.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.314.321 2013/07/21 - 04:21

Inhibition of the trypanothione reductase (Try R) activity interaction has been becomes a new therapeutic strategy to leishmaniasis. Trypanothione reductase is a genetically validated drug target enzyme for structure-based drug design against Leishmania, the causative agent of human trypanosomiasis. We used theoretical docking study, conducted on a sample previously reported for anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and antioxidant potential of Kaempferol, guggultetrol, γ-sitosterol and antcin-A at the binding site of Leishmania infantum trypanothione reductase (Try R) examine interaction energy. These studies indicate that γ-sitosterol and antcin-A displays potent activity against Try R with lowest binding energy and RMSD values to be -9.34 kcal mol-1 for γ-sitosterol,-8.36 Kcal mol-1 for antcin-A and 2.0 Å. Docking analysis of Try R with ligands enabled us to identify specific residues viz., Pro-59, Ala-200, Ala-205, Glu-203, Lue-62, Asp-218, Val-64, Cys-193 and Gln-280 within the TryR and Val-58, Leu-95, Ala-181, Val-201, Ile-206, Asn-266, Asp-277 and Met-282 binding pocket to play an important role in ligand binding affinity. The results of our study contributes towards the development of novel therapeutics based on trypanothione reductase inhibition.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.322.328 2013/07/21 - 04:21

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune nervous system disorder characterized by leukocytes recruitment into nervous system and demyelination. Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) is a cell surface glycoprotein, which is expressed by activated endothelium in a variety of pathologic conditions including MS. The aim of this study (case-control) was to evaluate the probable association of VCAM-1 T-1594C and A-540G single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with circulating levels of sVCAM-1 and susceptibility to MS. Analysis of VCAM-1 polymorphisms was performed by PCR with Sequence-Specific Primers (SSP) and concentration of sVCAM-1 in serum was performed by ELISA techniques. No significant differences were detected for allele frequencies of VCAM-1 polymorphisms in MS patients than in the controls respectively (p>0.05). Moreover, baseline serum sVCAM-1 concentrations significantly increased among patient in contrast to controls (p<0.001). This study shows that these SNPs in VCAM-1 my not a putative risk predisposing alleles for MS and its clinical covariates in southeast Iran population. The folding rate of the VCAM-1 protein increases for MS patients implicating a potential effect and function of VCAM-1 in immunopathogenesis of MS. Results invites further investigation relevant to understanding the mechanisms underlying the VCAM-1 overexpression in MS patients.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.329.335 2013/07/21 - 04:21

Radiation oncology is a widely accepted subject in all over the world for the
treatment of malignancy. To study the innate as well as humoral immune response
before and after radiation therapy in patients and also to estimate the level
of tissue damage in them the present study was performed. The extent of tissue
damage was determined by measuring the C-reactive protein and immunologic defense
was estimated by measuring complement C3 for innate resistance and immunoglobulin
IgG for the humoral response. The complement C3, IgG and C-reactive protein
levels of cancer patients were significantly higher than the normal level. More
increase in serum C-reactive protein level in every patient after radiotherapy
was observed. In majority of the cases decrease of C3 and IgG level was estimated
after prolonged radiation treatment. This indicated that radiation therapy,
despite being a successful treatment for cancer, causes massive tissue damage;
and cellular as well as humoral immunity remains at a low level after radiotherapy.
Age is a crucial factor to tolerate such prolonged therapy treatment. Prolonged
application of radiotherapy may also cause side effects on normal immune system
as they are already in immune deficient state due to the life threatening neoplastic
disease.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.336.340 2013/07/21 - 04:21

A MADS-box (Minichromosome maintenance-1, Agamous, Deficiens and Serum response factor) transcription factor namely SlMADS RIN (Solanum lycopersicum MADS Ripening inhibitor) seems to act as global regulator in climacteric fruit ripening process of tomato. Structure modeling of any plant MIKC (MADS-box, I-box, K-box and C-box) -type MADS-box factor were unknown till date, and the present study is an approach towards this direction. The template search of SlMADS RIN was performed by PSI BLAST (Position-Specific Iterative Basic Local Alignment Search Tool). Initial model was built with the help of MODELLER 9v4 package. The predicted 3D structure for SlMADS RIN protein was further validated by Ramachandran plot analysis using the PROCHECK tool. The submitted sequence of SlMADS RIN protein to PSI BLAST tool identified only one region (1-73 amino acids). DOPE (Discrete Optimized Protein Energy) score analysis revealed that the modeled structure showed overall lower DOPE score value (-3968.569336). Ramachandran plot analysis revealed that 94.1% residues were in favored region and 05.9% residues were in allowed region. Result revealed that the SlMADS RIN protein structure under study deviate largely by sequence with the known MADS-box, except the N-terminal 74 amino acid. Further, the side chain and loops of SlMADS RIN showed <1Å (0.233 Å) root mean square deviation. Thus, it can be concluded that this is the first report on prediction of three dimensional models for SlMADS RIN and this modeled structure can be used to predict the molecular function of the protein.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.188.201 2013/04/19 - 10:53

Dietary manipulation of heat induced oxidative stress is one of the most widely used method to alleviate the negative effect of heat stress. The combination of two or more potential antioxidants are known to protect against heat stress. Therefore, 200 day old broiler chicks were raised under hot climate to determine the effect of ascorbic acid and zinc bacitracin and their combination as antioxidants. Birds were divided into four treatments; the first treatment (T1), the control was provided with basal diet. Second (T2) and third (T3) treatments were provided with 1 g ascorbic acid and 100 mg zinc bacitracin per kg basal diet, respectively. The fourth treatment (T4) was provided with a combination of T2 and T3 for 42 days. Performance parameters were reported every fortnight. Blood samples were collected every fortnight and the harvested sera were used to determine oxidative stress biomarkers. Ascorbic acid and zinc bacitracin were safe for heat stressed birds since the liver and kidney function indicators were not changed. Ascorbic acid and zinc bacitracin lowered lipid peroxidation level (Malondialdehyde; MDA) and increased the activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) whereas, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity remained unchanged in all treatments. Serum ascorbic acid concentration was significantly (p<0.05) increased accompanied with hypocholesterolemia in heat stressed broilers receiving ascorbic acid compared to the control. Performance parameters were not influenced by feed additives. In conclusion, ascorbic acid was more potent than zinc bacitracin and their combination in increasing the level of enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.202.214 2013/04/19 - 10:53

The present study was aimed to evaluate the stem bark aqueous extract of Psidium guajava for modulatory effect against CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. A total of thirty six male rats, were randomly divided into six groups of six rats each. The extract was administered orally for 15 days at 125, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 b.wt. The results obtained showed that treatment with the extract significantly (p<0.05) restored liver weight. There was significant (p<0.05) increase in the level of Packed Cell Volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) and Red Blood Cell (RBC) counts and significant (p<0.05) decrease in White Blood Cell (WBC) counts compared to toxin control group. Also administration of the extract caused significant (p<0.05) decrease in the activities of Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) and the level of total bilirubin and significant (p<0.05) increase in total protein level compared to toxin control group. Similarly the extract caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in the activities of Catalase (CAT) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and significant (p<0.05) decrease in reduced Glutathione (GSH) and Thiobarbituric Reactive Substances (TBARS) level compared to group 2 (toxin control group). The histopathological study indicated that treatment with the extract restored and regenerated hepatic cells compared to toxin control group. This study found that administration of aqueous stem bark extracts ameliorated hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 in rats.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.215.227 2013/04/19 - 10:53

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Peristrophe
bicalyculata on lipid levels and activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme
in kidneys, lungs and heart of fat-fed obese Wistar rats. The angiotensin-converting
enzyme inhibition pattern of Peristrophe bicalyculata was also studied.
Apparently healthy male Wistar rats were grouped into: control group, fat-fed
control, standard control (atorvastatin at 70 mg kg-1) and low dose
(100 mg kg-1) and high dose (250 mg kg-1) extract groups,
after confirmation of the lethal dose (LD50). All rats, except those
in the control group were fat-fed until obesity was confirmed (BMI>0.3) and
treatment given for 4 weeks. From our results, serum and liver levels of Total
Cholesterol (TC), Triacyglycerol (TG) and Low Density Lipoprotein increased
significantly (p<0.05) in obese rats compared to the control rats; while
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) significantly decreased. Administration of atorvastatin
and the extract significantly (p<0.05) reduced TC, TAG and LDL levels and
increased HDL in serum and liver. The activity of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme
(ACE) in kidneys, lungs and heart of obese rats was significantly (p<0.05)
higher than that of rats in the control group. The extract reduced ACE activity
in the lungs, kidneys and heart by 97, 98 and 96%, respectively, which was 20,
30 and 15 folds that of the standard drug. Studies on the inhibition pattern
of the extract showed that Peristrophe bicalyculata inhibits ACE by competing
with the substrate for the active site, exhibiting a competitive type of inhibition.
The Km of ACE increased from 0.25 to 2.5 mM at 1% concentration and
5 mM at 2% with an unchanged Vmax and ki value of 1.1
mg mL-1. In conclusion, this study has confirmed that the aqueous
extract of Peristrophe bicalyculata may be useful in the reduction of
cardiovascular disease risk.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.228.239 2013/04/19 - 10:53

With the increasing application of ultrasonics in meat tenderization and processing,
physicochemical events initiated by sonic radiation at myofibrillar level and
propagated in complex tissue such as meat require a clear understanding. The
enormous amount of basic information collected by studying myofibrils, actomyosin
or their individual constituents has already clarified intricacies of muscular
contraction and, part of such basic information has find application in meat
sciences. In this investigation, chicken Natural actomyosin (NAM) has been taken
as a simple model to work out some effects of ultrasonication in a concentration
range of 0.5 to 1.8 mg protein mL-1. At each concentration, NAM solution
in 0.6 M NaCl (2.0 mL) was individually exposed to 20 kHz sonic waves for a
total of 10 min. Cooling was maintained by keeping NAM containers in crushed
ice and a lag of 5 sec after each 10 sec long sonic burst. Aliquots from each
sonicated NAM were subjected to biochemical analyses. Most striking differences
were observed in Ca2+-ATPase activity, which displayed a steady decline
that corresponded with the decreasing protein concentration. Ultrasonication
of NAM for 10 min caused a loss of ~47% of Ca2+-ATPase activity at
the highest dilution (0.5 mg mL-1). In the same order of protein
concentration, turbidity of ultrasonicated NAM also decreased which denotes
increasing transparency. Thus, ATPase and turbidity data demonstrate that due
to sonic radiation, interactions among constituents of chicken actomyosin complex
alter and these structural changes are devoid of any fragmentation. Under present
experimental conditions, SDS-PAGE profiles did not reveal any novel band which
could be attributed to ultrasonic fragmentation or proteolytic contamination.
The findings also suggest that unlike myofibrils, actomyosin is a model where
interactions and substructural changes of constituent polypeptides can be investigated
without interference of endogenous muscle proteases.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.240.247 2013/04/19 - 10:53

Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) could be induced in cucumber plants using different individual of seven microbial isolates against Cucumber mosaic Cucumovirus (CMV). These isolates were Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus polymyxa, Bacillus circulans, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens 2 and Pseudomonas fluorescens 8 as bacterial isolates and Trichoderma harzianum as fungal isolate. The occurrence of SAR was found by seed treatment with microbial liquid culture based on virus infectivity and the level of free and endogenous salicylic acid (SA), 14 days from CMV inoculation. Seven biotic inducers reduced CMV infectivity at range 16.6 to 39% and T. harzianum gave the highest percentage of reduction 39%. In addition, the level of total SA has been increased in treated plants, B. subtilis gave the highest level of SA 239.13 μg g-1 fresh weight (fwt) while, B. circulans gave the lowest level 70.1 μg g-1 fwt.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.248.255 2013/04/19 - 10:53

Calotropis procera (Sodom apple) or Bomubomu in Yoruba Language has been used locally in the Northern part of Nigerian and the Fulani set-ups in African settings as curdling agent in the production of ‘warankasi’ (a local soft cheese) when using cow milk; this plant is also known for its medicinal importance like antidote for snake bite, sinus fistula, rheumatism, mumps, burn injuries, body pain and treatment of jaundice in India and some parts of Africa. However, this present study was undertaken to characterize the milk clotting and proteolytic enzymes in the plant with the aim of establishing the optimal conditions of the enzymes to be used for cheese and allied milk products manufacturing and protein hydrolytic processes of medicinal importance. The results obtained from this study showed that the enzyme activities were evidenced in all the plant parts extract preparations except the root that had only proteolytic activity without noticeable milk-clotting activity for the period of one hour of investigation. The optimal pH for proteolytic and milk clotting enzyme activities were observed to be 4.0 for proteolytic and 5.0 for milk clotting enzyme activities in the crude extracts using casein and powdered milk as substrates, respectively while the temperature optima for the two enzyme activities were observed to be 70°C for milk clotting and 60°C for proteolytic. Calcium ion and cysteine were found to activate the two enzymes, with maximum activation at 800 mM Ca2+ for proteolytic activity and 10 mM for milk clotting activity while cysteine showed maximum activation at concentration of 6.0 mM for the two enzymes as Pb2+ ions caused inhibition of both enzymes at the very least concentration. The results of analyzes from this work showed how the proteolytic and milk clotting enzyme activities of the plant latex could be enhanced for protein hydrolytic processes of medicinal importance and industrial production of cheese and allied milk products.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.256.263 2013/04/19 - 10:53

The early detection of the Canine Parvo Virus (CPV) is of paramount importance.
The present study was aimed to know the molecular epidemiology of Canine parvo
virus. Canine faecal samples from 100 dogs showing the clinical signs of gastroenteritis
in and around Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India were collected and DNA was extracted
by phenol-chloroform method. CPV vaccine strain was used as a positive control.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was carried out to amplify VPI/VP2 gene using
a set of 20-mer primers [pCPV-RT (Forward): 5’-CAT
TGG GCT TAC CAC CAT TT-3’; (Reverse):
5’-CCA ACC TCA GCT GGT CTC AT-3’)]
from position 3136-3155 to 3276-3295 of VP1/VP2 gene. A PCR product of approximately
160 bp was generated with positive faecal samples and CPV vaccine strain. After
screening, 63 dogs were found positive for CPV but no sex variation was noticed
amongst the CPV positive cases. Dogs, of the age group of ≤6 months were
more susceptible in comparison to of >6 months and highest occurrence was
noted in unvaccinated dogs and dogs in co-habitation with other dogs. Breed
wise distribution of CPV in dogs revealed that the prevalence of CPV was the
highest in Doberman (77.78%), followed by Spitz (78.57%), German shepherd (70.00%),
Labrador (68.75%), Pomeranian (45.45%). It is concluded that CPV is prevalent
in the Mathura and nearby area and it is more common in pups of age less than
6 months old and more prevalent in German shepherd, Labrador and Pomeranian
breeds of dog.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.264.270 2013/04/19 - 10:53

Steviol glycosides are the major secondary metabolites synthesized through
steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway operating in the leaves of Stevia
rebaudiana. Present article documents the structural analysis of enzymes
specific to steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway, kaurenoic acid-13 hydoxylase
(KAH) and three UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGT85C2, UGT74G1 and UGT76G1). The
in silico protein structure prediction server SWISS MODEL was used to
predict and evaluate the models. The secondary structure data of predicted model
for KAH was in accordance to that of cytochrome P450s suggesting its nativeness
to the respective superfamily. Similarly, the secondary structure data of target
UGTs also showed conservation with the structural information of glycosyltransferases
superfamily. PROCHECK and QMEAN Z-score evaluations suggested that the models
predicted for the 4 query enzymatic proteins were of good quality. In addition,
Ligand binding site analysis and molecular docking analysis was carried out
for the predicted models. The following data suggested a possibility of the
presence of an alternate pathway for the synthesis of steviol glycosides.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.1.19 2012/10/04 - 13:10

Black pod disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora and Phytophthora
megakarya is an important disease of cocoa and host plant resistance is
one of the important components of management of this disease. Therefore, a
diverse array of 12 cocoa genotypes was evaluated to identify biochemical characteristics
conferring resistance to black pod disease. Resistance to black pod disease
measured as leaf disc scores, pod lesion numbers, pod lesion sizes and natural
field infection was associated with amounts of nitrogen, protein, soluble sugars,
insoluble sugars, total polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins and lignin in leaf
and pod of cocoa. The levels of these biochemical compounds in leaf and pod
increased after inoculation with P. megakarya. Principal component analysis
shows that 90% of the total variability in the eight original biochemical variables
is captured in the first two principal components and 95% in the first three
principal components. The first two principal components were defined by healthy
pod lignin and healthy pod insoluble sugar and principal component three was
mainly defined by healthy leaf protein. Phytochemical characterization of the
12 cocoa genotypes by cluster analysis revealed two major clusters. Cluster
one consisted of Imc67, Na33, T79/501, T63/971, Imc53 and Sca9 which were susceptible
to black pod and cluster two was made up of Pa150, T60/887, Sca6, Imc76, Pa7/808
and T85/799 which were resistant. Correlation coefficients, multiple and step-wise
regressions indicated that insoluble sugar, flavonoid, tannins and lignin were
the most reliable biochemical factors and these could be used as marker traits
to screen and select for resistance to black pod disease of cocoa.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.20.37 2012/10/04 - 13:10

This research was aimed at investigating qualitative and quantitative variation
among oils of some Syrian wild Iris species compared to those of Iris
germanica. Hydrodistillation was used to extract the essential oil from
different wild Iris rhizomes. 0.1- 0.2% of oil yield was obtained. Gas
Chromatography-mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oil have
indicated the presence of 23 compounds in Iris germanica, Iris barnumae,
Iris bostrensis and 19 in Iris aurantiaca. Results were statistically
analyzed by the SPSS computer program. The major compound in these essential
oils was myristic acid (61.42, 70.67, 51.15 and 79.67%) in Iris germanica,
Iris aurantiaca, Iris barnumae and Iris bostrensis, respectively. The other
sub major compounds obtained were lauric acid, decanoic acid (capric acid),
palmitic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester, elaidic acid methyl
ester (9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (e)-) and palmitic acid. This is the
first report on isolation and identification of oil from Syrian wild Iris
plants by GC-MS.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.38.49 2012/10/04 - 13:10

Female gender is an independent risk factor for the development of metabolic
syndrome (MES) (a cluster of features indicating metabolic disorders), that
is associated with kidney damage, insulin resistance and a significant reduction
in Nitric Oxide (NO), a major metabolite of L-arginine (ARG). This study aimed
to ascertain the effect of ARG on selected markers of MES related to kidney
damage in female Wistar albino rats. Two groups of rats were given 3 mL kg-1
body weight (b.wt.) of distilled water, DW and 60 mg kg-1 b.wt. of
ARG, respectively as control and treated groups. Exposing the female rats to
ARG caused a significant decrease (p<0.01) in the concentration of urea (6.34±0.23
mg/100 mL), creatinine (4.41±0.50 mg/100 mL) and albumin (14.30±0.15
mg/100 mL) in rats’ serum. It
decreased (p<0.01) creatinine clearance (1.78±0.27 mL min-1)
but elicited a significant increase (p<0.01) in the albumin:creatinine ratio
(3.27±0.32) of the rats. Improved kidney histology as indicated by lots
of renal corpuscles, was observed in the ARG-fed group while correlation analysis
showed that urea correlated positively (r = 0.01) with creatinine, albumin and
creatinine clearance, but negatively (r = 0.01) with Albumin: Creatinine ratio.
The study suggests that L-arginine ingestion could improve these renal function
markers and perhaps, metabolic syndrome related to kidney dysfunction, in female
Wistar rats. The effect could be concerted and significant as indicated by the
histomorpholgy and correlation results. Thus, with the abundance of ARG in nuts,
including walnut, cashew nut, ground nut and even coconut, the implication of
this study in the prevention and management of MES in, especially female, animals
is noteworthy hence, deserve follow up, probably in humans.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.50.60 2012/10/04 - 13:10

Utilizing the renewable waste biomass to procure advanced materials has been
the aim of research. Various reaction parameters were optimized for the graft
co-polymerization of Hibiscus sabdariffa cellulose fiber using binary
vinyl monomeric mixture. The graft co-polymers thus obtained were characterized
by XRD technique and the results received the supporting evidence by various
other advanced analytical techniques. The percentage crystallinity and crystallinity
index were found to decrease with increase in grafting while a reduction in
moisture absorption was observed. There was an increase in physico-chemico-thermal
resistance in the graft copolymers. These graft copolymer can be used in various
scientific applications.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.61.70 2012/10/04 - 13:10

PCR is the first method developed for amplification of DNA/nucleic acids in
vitro. It was the method of choice since it's invent. PCR has many limitations
which gave birth to alternative methods such as Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification
(LAMP), Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA), Self Sustained Sequence
Replication (3SR), Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA) etc. A comprehensive review
of the literature on the principles, limitations, challenges, improvements and
alternatives of PCR was performed. Though PCR encountered some limitation afterwards
and a no of technically improved alternatives has been devised worldwide, it
still holds its standings as a gold standard for nucleic acid amplification
preventing it from being obsolete. PCR has gone through some phenomenal modifications
making continuous improvement of this method. Although, latter techniques offer
better sensitivity and advantages where PCR has limitations, it is still commonly
applied in the field of molecular biology for its extensive information all
over the world, availability of reagents and methods, widespread validation
and very good technical understanding among researchers. PCR is not obsolete
despite of threats faced from other methods; rather it is continuously being
modified to overcome the limitations. It will remain one of the ultimate methods
of choice especially in developing countries for long.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.71.80 2012/10/04 - 13:10

The aim of this study was to see the effect of flavonoids quercetin and epicatechin
on the transcript expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes. For this,
tobacco seedlings were exposed to 50 and 100 μM quercetin and epicatechin
for 21 days. The transcript expression level of various antioxidant enzymes
like Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Ascorbate
Peroxidase (APx), Glutathione Reductase (GR), Catalase (CAT) and Superoxide
dismutase (SOD) were monitored in the root and shoot of exposed seedlings through
reverse transcriptase PCR. The activity of these enzymes was studied spectrophotometrically.
Interestingly, 50 μM epicatechin and 100 μM quercetin exposures were
found to increase the expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes in shoot.
In tobacco root, only Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) and GPx expression was
increased with 50 μM epicatechin and 100 μM quercetin exposures. Activity
assay of all the enzymes showed similar trend to that of the transcript expression
in shoot tissue. While in root, except CAT and SOD other enzymes activity also
showed similar trend to that of expression pattern. Results have suggested the
possible regulation of antioxidant enzymes by these two flavonoids at transcriptional
and post-transcriptional level. Additionally, appropriate levels of such flavonoids
seem to be essential for such regulations.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajbmb.2013.81.90 2012/10/04 - 13:10