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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology

A two-culture dynamic model which incorporated the effects of diurnally cyclic temperature was developed and used to predict the dynamic response of anaerobic reactors operated on dairy manure under two diurnally cyclic temperature ranges of 20-40°C and 15-25°C which represent the summer and winter in Nigeria. The digesters were operated at various hydraulic retention times and solid concentrations and some useful kinetic parameters were determined. The model predicted biogas production, volatile solid reduction, methane yield and treatment efficiency with reasonable accuracy (R2 = 0.70 to 0.90). The model, however, under-predicted the cell mass concentration in the reactor probably because the Volatile Suspended Solid (VSS), which was used as the estimator of the actual cell mass concentration in the reactor, was not a good indicator of the active cell mass concentration in anaerobic reactors operating on dairy manure.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.130.142 2014/08/30 - 20:19

One of the areas of biotechnology sunflower is the development and testing of DNA markers of important agronomic traits and in particular markers of resistance to downy mildew. Resistance of 16 Rf-lines of sunflower to the races 330 and 710 of Plasmopara halstedii has been studied. Genotyping of these lines was carried out using 9 STS-markers of three Pl-loci, Pl5, Pl6 and Pl8, associated with the resistance of sunflower to downy mildew. Only two out of nine STS-markers, НаР2 and НаР3 (locus Pl6), allowed us to identify the lines, which demonstrated resistance to the downy mildew under the conditions of artificial infection.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.125.129 2014/08/22 - 12:16

One of the areas of biotechnology sunflower is the development and testing of DNA markers of important agronomic traits and in particular markers of resistance to downy mildew. Resistance of 16 Rf-lines of sunflower to the races 330 and 710 of Plasmopara halstedii has been studied. Genotyping of these lines was carried out using 9 STS-markers of three Pl-loci, Pl5, Pl6 and Pl8, associated with the resistance of sunflower to downy mildew. Only two out of nine STS-markers, ???2 and ???3 (locus Pl6), allowed us to identify the lines, which demonstrated resistance to the downy mildew under the conditions of artificial infection.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.137.141 2014/08/16 - 17:36

One of the areas of biotechnology sunflower is the development and testing of DNA markers of important agronomic traits and in particular markers of resistance to downy mildew. Resistance of 16 Rf-lines of sunflower to the races 330 and 710 of Plasmopara halstedii has been studied. Genotyping of these lines was carried out using 9 STS-markers of three Pl-loci, Pl5, Pl6 and Pl8, associated with the resistance of sunflower to downy mildew. Only two out of nine STS-markers, ???2 and ???3 (locus Pl6), allowed us to identify the lines, which demonstrated resistance to the downy mildew under the conditions of artificial infection.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.137.141 2014/08/16 - 17:36

Background and objectives: Sickle cell disease has numerous consequences; one of the most characteristic is orthopedic complications. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are involved in the various orthopedic complications and play important role in bone physiology influencing bone growth, turnover, bone formation and cartilage induction. We investigate a possible association of sickle cell disease with orthopedic disorders through BMP6 gene polymorphism. Methods: Among the population studied in Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand states (a total of 200 cases and 172 control groups), the association was examined between SNP 567C/G of BMP6 and orthopedic complications in sickling patients by employing PCR-RFLP and biochemical analysis. Results: 567C/G SNP has not been implicated in disease and doesn’t increase the risk (OR = 1.27 OR = 0.85). We observed no significant association between the 567C/G polymorphism and case group in the studied population (P = 0.64, P = 0.91, respectively). However, significantly elevated Uric Acid (UA) level (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001 respectively) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) level (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001 respectively) in GG, CG and CC in case group as compared to control group among the studied population. Interpretation and Conclusions: 567C/G polymorphism in BMP6 gene is not associated with case group and in view of present observation, we suggest that evaluation of LDH and UA level and its association with polymorphisms in the BMP6 may be considered as a reliable molecular and biochemical markers possesses promising rational for diagnostic potential in clinical cases.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.125.136 2014/08/16 - 17:36

Background and objectives: Sickle cell disease has numerous consequences; one of the most characteristic is orthopedic complications. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are involved in the various orthopedic complications and play important role in bone physiology influencing bone growth, turnover, bone formation and cartilage induction. We investigate a possible association of sickle cell disease with orthopedic disorders through BMP6 gene polymorphism. Methods: Among the population studied in Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand states (a total of 200 cases and 172 control groups), the association was examined between SNP 567C/G of BMP6 and orthopedic complications in sickling patients by employing PCR-RFLP and biochemical analysis. Results: 567C/G SNP has not been implicated in disease and doesn’t increase the risk (OR = 1.27 OR = 0.85). We observed no significant association between the 567C/G polymorphism and case group in the studied population (P = 0.64, P = 0.91, respectively). However, significantly elevated Uric Acid (UA) level (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001 respectively) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) level (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001 respectively) in GG, CG and CC in case group as compared to control group among the studied population. Interpretation and Conclusions: 567C/G polymorphism in BMP6 gene is not associated with case group and in view of present observation, we suggest that evaluation of LDH and UA level and its association with polymorphisms in the BMP6 may be considered as a reliable molecular and biochemical markers possesses promising rational for diagnostic potential in clinical cases.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.125.136 2014/08/16 - 17:36

One of the areas of biotechnology sunflower is the development and testing of DNA markers of important agronomic traits and in particular markers of resistance to downy mildew. Resistance of 16 Rf-lines of sunflower to the races 330 and 710 of Plasmopara halstedii has been studied. Genotyping of these lines was carried out using 9 STS-markers of three Pl-loci, Pl5, Pl6 and Pl8, associated with the resistance of sunflower to downy mildew. Only two out of nine STS-markers, НаР2 and НаР3 (locus Pl6), allowed us to identify the lines, which demonstrated resistance to the downy mildew under the conditions of artificial infection.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.136.140 2014/07/25 - 05:15

Background and objectives: Sickle cell disease has numerous consequences; one of the most characteristic is orthopedic complications. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are involved in the various orthopedic complications and play important role in bone physiology influencing bone growth, turnover, bone formation and cartilage induction. We investigate a possible association of sickle cell disease with orthopedic disorders through BMP6 gene polymorphism. Methods: Among the population studied in Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand states (a total of 200 cases and 172 control groups), the association was examined between SNP 567C/G of BMP6 and orthopedic complications in sickling patients by employing PCR-RFLP and biochemical analysis. Results: 567C/G SNP has not been implicated in disease and doesn’t increase the risk (OR = 1.27 OR = 0.85). We observed no significant association between the 567C/G polymorphism and case group in the studied population (P = 0.64, P = 0.91, respectively). However, significantly elevated Uric Acid (UA) level (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001 respectively) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) level (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001 respectively) in GG, CG and CC in case group as compared to control group among the studied population. Interpretation and Conclusions: 567C/G polymorphism in BMP6 gene is not associated with case group and in view of present observation, we suggest that evaluation of LDH and UA level and its association with polymorphisms in the BMP6 may be considered as a reliable molecular and biochemical markers possesses promising rational for diagnostic potential in clinical cases.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.125.135 2014/07/10 - 22:39

The Arctic and sub-arctic regions are impacted by the growth of the global nanotechnology industry and the transport of chemicals to the North. New nanotechnology industries, such as neural prothesis, are bringing nanomaterials in direct contact with neurons and glial cells. Nanomaterials have unique chemical and physical properties that may lead to toxicological effects by interfering with normal cellular metabolism. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are now very common and widely used in daily life. Over the last decade there have been reports that ZnO NPs can have negative impacts on plants and simple organisms. However, there is a paucity of research on the effects and mechanisms by which ZnO NPs impact neuronal cells. This report investigates how ZnO NPs interact with the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Using transmission electron microscopy, we observed that the ZnO NPs form 36 nm particles, on average and increased the level of the cytokine VEGF in extracellular fluid. Moreover, ZnO NPs, in presence of TNF-α, decreased the level of extracellular VEGF when compared with TNF-α treatment alone. These findings suggest a basis for further studies on the interactions of ZnO NPs with signal transduction pathways and their impact on the release of cytokines. The importance of developing cellular model systems to evaluate the toxicity of nanomaterials before they are released to the marketplace will benefit both the ecosystem and human health.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.116.124 2014/07/05 - 14:04

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) of the n-6 and n-3 series play important roles in nutrition. Microorganisms are important sources of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids; however, most produce either n-6 or n-3 fatty acids as the major PUFAs and very few produce both. This differential production suggests that PUFAs metabolic pathway is strictly controlled in microorganisms. The major pathway of n-6/n-3 faty acids biosynthesis in lower eukaryotes is composed of Δ12 Desaturase (Des), ω3 Des (Δ15, Δ17), Δ6 Des, Δ6 Elongase (Elo), Δ5 Des, Δ5 Elo and Δ4 Des, among which Δ6 Des and Δ15 (ω3) Des, located at the branch point of PUFAs metabolic pathways, are key regulators of the flux of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) into either n-6 or n-3 fatty acid metabolic pathways. These latter two enzymes work together as a molecular switch that control the production of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. However the mechanism of the molecular switch is, so far, not clear. This review summarizes the recent advancement of the molecular base of the differentail production of n-6 or n-3 PUFAs in microorganisms.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.105.115 2014/07/02 - 13:05

The aim of this work is to carry out comprehensive studies that would allow to justify theoretically and experimentally use of probiotic poly-specific concentrates Bifilact A and Bifilact D and bifidogenic fiber intake BeneoTMSynergy1 as high-performance synbiotic supplements. The selection of bifidogenic fibers for administration into uniform synbiotic systems is substantiated. Indicators of synbiotic systems consisting of Bifilact A or Bifilact D probiotics and BeneoTMSynergy1 prebiotic are studied; at the same time the number of living cells of microorganisms in the system and the antagonistic activity of synbiotic systems was determined. The reasonability and efficacy of BeneoTMSynergy1 fiber intake as a functional ingredient with bifidogenic properties was determined. The effect of the BeneoTMSynergy1 prebiotic on the growth rate of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria is studied, which are the part of combined bacterial concentrates Bifilact A and Bifilact D. It was revealed that in synbiotic systems, fiber intake BeneoTMSynergy1 stimulates the growth of probiotics and also enhances the antagonistic activity of bacterial concentrates Bifilact A and D that confirms the reasonability of creating a synbiotic system, representing a combination of probiotics Bifilact A or Bifilact D and prebiotic bifidogenic fiber intake BeneoTMSynergy1. Conducted studies have shown the reasonaibility of creating a synbiotic system representing a combination of probiotics Bifilact A and Bifilact D and prebiotic bifidogenic fiber intake BeneoTMSynergy1, providing synergistic effects on physiological functions in the human body. Performed analysis of functional and technological properties of pro-and prebiotics made it possible to determine main areas of their application in creating functional food systems with predetermined target properties and structure.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.99.104 2014/07/02 - 13:05

Taif-roses are a famous rose type that cultivated in Taif region and well known with their deep and intensive fragrance in the Arabian World. Despite of the great economical importance of Taif-roses for the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, their genetic origin has not been yet elucidated. The present study was mainly aimed to assess the genetic relationship between Taif-roses and some rose genotypes that grown in some kingdom neighboring countries using molecular markers and aromatic amino acids contents. Three Taif-roses genotypes namely Hada, Shafa-1 and Shafa-2 were compared to nine different rose genotypes that are grown in Egypt and Syria. Out of 12 RAPD, 8 ISSR and 8 SSR primers used, clear and repeatable band profile of 8, 6 and 7 primers was obtained from the three markers, respectively. Total of 111, 64 and 15 bands with polymorohism of 96.4, 90.6 and 93.3% were obtained using RAPD, ISSR and SSR, respectively. The discriminating power of the three markers has led to efficient grouping of the 12 rose genotypes using Unweighted Pair Group Method (UPGMA). Among the 12 genotypes, Syrian-Gory rose shown the highest genetic similarity of 75, 92 and 65% with the three Taif-roses genotypes Hada, Shafa-1 and Shafa-2, respectively. The established dendrogram was clearly separated the 12 rose genotypes into four major groups in which the three Taif-roses genotypes were clustered in the same group with the Gory rose-Syrian genotype. Moreover, the data revealed that among the studied rose genotypes, the contents of aromatic amino acids in Syrian-Gory rose and the Taif rose-Hada was the highest and followed by the Egyptian Balady rose 1. While Dutch rose 1, 2, 3 and Dutch tulip 1, 2 were recorded to be the lowest. Together, these results indicate that Taif-rose has closed genetic relations to the Gory rose-Syrian cultivated in Syria. Additionally, a reproducible protocol for In vitro propagation, of Taif-rose genotype (Hada) was developed.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.88.98 2014/04/29 - 19:23

Generally, bacterial culture is performed manually and is subject to error. Here, we created a novel, well-ordered and reliable system for dispensing bacteria microscopically by using paper and an ink-jet printer for controlled patterning. For paper to accommodate a culture medium, hydrophobic/hydrophilic patterns were incorporated onto the paper by immersing paper in a toluene solution of polystyrene and drying for complete hydrophobization, followed by etching discrete, small areas of hydrophilicity by ink-jet printing with toluene. Agar was hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid for appropriate viscosity and dispensed with an ink-jet printer. In a separate experiment, bacterial cells were sequentially printed on a medium and colonies were observed microscopically. The results of this experiment ensured the successful dispensing of bacteria using ink-jet printing. An almost constant number of particles per droplet were ejected using a polystyrene latex as a model of bacterial dispersion. Consequently, we expect this technology to be adapted for the development of a paper-based bioassay system.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.81.87 2014/04/28 - 17:42

Comparative studies conducted on the genetic variation of metal-tolerant populations and their non-metal-tolerant counterparts have been performed on numerous species using isozyme markers. Analysis of genetic differences among plant populations growing in heavy metal-contaminated and uncontaminated regions are limited. The main objectives of the present study were to compare ISSR and microsatellite markers in assessing genetic variation in D. cespitosa populations that colonized metal-contaminated and uncontaminated regions in Northern Ontario, Canada. Total genomic DNA from D. cespitosa samples were amplified with ISSR and SSR primers using optimized PCR conditions. The level of polymorphic loci varies from 46 to 74% for ISSR analysis. The level of observed heterozygosity was moderate to high ranging from 0.44 to 0.68 for the SSR primers used. But no significant difference in genetic variation levels was detected between metal contaminated and uncontaminated sites with SSR markers. There was a significant reduction of polymorphic loci in samples from highly metal-contaminated areas of the Cobalt region compared to the reference sites based on ISSR analysis. Use of a combination of different marker systems is recommended to analyse genetic variation in plant populations.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.69.80 2014/04/09 - 18:36

Abnormal fat deposition has been identified as an important mechanism of obesity-associated with insulin resistance. Literature data also indicate that exercise can improve insulin action. The heme pathway enzyme δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) is a good marker for oxidative stress and this sulfhydryl enzyme is inhibited in such oxidative pathologies diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of physical exercise in mice fed high sucrose (20% in drinking water), on aspects of insulin resistance, profile of oxidative status in different tissues and influence on δ-ALA-D activity. Glucose (p<0.003), insulin (p<0.01) plasma levels and abdominal fat index (p<0.001) were significantly higher in mice fed the sucrose in the water when compared to control group. Not have difference on these parameters between exercised mice fed the sucrose and control group. Hepatic, ALA-D activity and TBARS from liver, kidney and brain, of sucrose fed animals with and without exercise were not different than that of control group. The results of the present study possibly indicate that the sucrose administration in the water, cause marked insulin resistance and that the physical exercise showed efficient in increase insulin sensibility in mice with insulin resistance.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.50.57 2014/03/28 - 15:05

Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent of most cases of gastritis. There is no established gold standard for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. A reliable diagnosis is crucial to confirm that eradication therapy has been successful. Eighty gastric biopsy and blood samples were obtained from fasting Jordanian patients with Esophago-Gastro-Doudenoscopy (EGD). Several diagnosis tests for H. pylori infections were used and compared including: Culture, microscopic examination, histopathology, Rapid Urease Test (RUT), serology, biochemical tests, antibiotic susceptibility test and molecular method. Forty two patients were considered H. pylori positive in both histopathology examination and RUT test. On the other hand, 57 patient were detected to have anti-IgA, IgG H. pylori antibody positive by ELISA test. Ten patients had equivocal results but not in both tests. A total of 19 biopsy samples were positive for H. pylori according to culture test. This result was confirmed by endoscopic examination, urease, catalase and oxidase. A high percentages of resistance to vancomycin, polymyxin B and amoxicillin was observed (100, 100 and 94.7%, respectively) with various degree of sensitivity to all of the first line of antibiotics. Molecular technique (PCR) was used to detect CagA gene which appeared positive in 14 patients. We conclude that the histopathology and RUT tests are reliable invasive diagnosis for H. pylori. However, culture test appear to be the most important (if the therapy failed) to detect antibiotic susceptibility to H. pylori strains.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.58.68 2014/03/28 - 15:05

The ability of the pathogen Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) to invade and survive within macrophages of granulomas is attributed to the product of the Mammalian Cell Entry (MCE) operon whose gene, mce4A, encodes a cholesterol transporter that transports host lipids into the bacterium that allows the bacterium to survive during chronic infection. Here, we proposed and tested the hypothesis that a mce4A siRNA molecular beacon can be used to attenuate mycobacterial infection in macrophages. Mce4A gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli (E. coli-4A) and differentiated U937 cells were transduced with piLenti-siRNA-GFP phage expressing the mce4A siRNA for 24 h. This was followed by infection with either E. coli-4A or M. smegmatis for 3 h followed by incubation for 0, 3, 6, 24 and 48 h. The cells were lysed and the lysates were plated on LB agar plates containing ampicillin (100 µg mL-1) or on 7H11 media and incubated at 37°C overnight. Our results showed that the siRNA treatment attenuated E.coli-4A infection in macrophages at 3, 6, 24 and 48 h by 0, 77, 59.6 and 99.7%, respectively. Our results also showed that the siRNA treatment attenuated M. smegmatis infection in macrophages at 3, 6, 24 and 48 h. by 94.8, 70.3, 98.9 and 93.4%, respectively. In conclusion, a mce4A siRNA molecular beacon was successfully delivered and stably expressed in macrophages which attenuated E. coli expressing mce4A (E. coli-4A) and M. smegmatis infection in macrophages.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.40.49 2014/03/05 - 15:19

This study demonstrated the applicability of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for the observation of amyloid fibrils without staining. As model specimens, two types of amyloid fibrils with different shapes and chemical compositions were controllably synthesized from hen lysozyme. The apparent fibril widths in the SEM images were considerably larger than the original diameters analyzed by the conventional techniques of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Although this broadening, which depends on the chemical nature of the fibril, is not desirable for detailed imaging, it makes SEM sensitive to fibrils several micrometers in length and as thin as 3.5 nm. Note that the sensitivity also contributed to clearly distinguishing amyloid fibrils from salt microcrystals in SEM images. These results suggest the considerable applicability of SEM for the imaging of amyloid fibrils, even in contaminated samples.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.31.39 2014/03/01 - 21:45

Laser-induced microfragmentation of LB nanotemplate-induced protein crystals in glycerol solution results in distinct, coherently diffracting domains. Only crystals produced according to the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) nanotemplate technique reveal in all four proteins being tested (lysozyme, insulin, thaumatin and ribonuclease) domains highly radiation resistant, while the crystals produced by the standard hanging drop crystallization method do not. Actually the very same laser exposure causes the disappearance of these “classical” protein crystals during the same time frame of 40 min needed for the laser cutting in all four proteins being tested. The microdiffraction of microcrystals prepered by the combination of Langmuir-Blodgett and Laser technologies proves that not only the Lysozyme survives the process, as shown recently by nanodifraction, but also all three other model proteins appear to behave similarly well, namely insulin, thaumatin and ribonuclease. The result confirms the emerging of a new biophysical technique uniquely usefull for synchrotron radiation studies based on small protein microcrystals uniquely radiation resistant when prepered by LB nanotemplate and subsequently fragmented by Laser.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.22.30 2014/02/11 - 13:57

As requirements for Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product (ATMP) production differ from other production processes (e.g., therapeutic protein production), cell detachment is often a crucial step for the process success. In most cases, cell detachment is done enzymatically. Although many peptidases are established in cell culture in R&D, e.g., Trypsin as gold standard, many of them seem to be unsuitable in ATMP production processes. Therefore, the present study investigated a novel endopeptidase used in food biotechnology for its applicability in ATMP processes where cell detachment is needed. The Prolyl-specific Peptidase (PsP) is of non-mammalian origin and considered as safe for humans. PsP was purified from the supernatant of the fungus Wolfiporia cocos. The isolation and purification resulted in an enzyme solution with 0.19 U mg-1 prolyl-specific activity. By in silico analysis it was confirmed that attachment-promoting proteins can be cleaved by PsP in a similar amount than with Trypsin. Further the proteolytic activity was determined for PsP and Trypsin by using the same enzymatic assay. Detachment with both enzymes was compared for cells used in typical therapeutic production processes namely a mesenchymal stem cell line (hMSC-TERT) as a model for a cell therapeutic, Vero and MA104 cells used for viral therapeutic or vaccine production. The cell detachment experiments were performed with comparable enzyme activities (1.6 U mL-1). hMSC-TERT detachment was faster with PsP than with Trypsin. For Vero cells the detachment with PsP was not only faster but also more efficient. For MA104 cells the detachment rate with PsP was similar to Trypsin. For all cell types, detachment with PsP showed less influence on cell growth and metabolism compared to standard Trypsin.Thus, three cell types used in ATMP, viral therapeutics or vaccine production can be detached efficiently and gently with PsP. Therefore, PsP shows potential for cell detachment in ATMP and viral/vaccine production processes.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.14.21 2014/02/09 - 07:27

This study mainly concentrates on the discussion of the relationship between FOXP2 gene and language functional articulation disorder. The children of functional articulation disorder are selected, the normal healthy subjects in the corresponding period served as the controls, by contrasting with five polymorphic sites in FOXP2 gene to have a correlative study on human genes and language acquisition with the language barriers as main characteristics, in order to further prove the significance of FOXP2 gene in cultivating language and speech.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.453.458 2014/01/22 - 18:42

The precision of growth of an animal is meticulously regulated by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, with focus on maintenance of organismal homeostasis. The clue to change in physiology or metabolism of an organism, at times can be derived from the changes in phenotypes. In the Drosophila melanogaster model system, GAL 4-overexpressed RNAi driver males (Mini-White Marker), targeted against specific genes, when crossed with Leon mutant (19-2/TM6B) females, yield progeny of different wing types. Different RNAi lines expressing the phenotypes in a gradient of sodden, mid to normal; explains the varying severity of the wing phenotypes. The comparison of flies co-expressed RNAi and Leon mutant with wild type or Leon mutant females; show changes in wing phenotype; in terms of wing venation, Anterior Cortical Vein (ACV) position, Posterior Cortical Vein (PCV) position, bristles on the wing margins and the inter-segmental distance. There is a distinct evidence of both rescue and deterioration phenotype observed at various levels, with the varying levels of RNAi expression in sodden, mid and normal type. A correlational study of these modified wing phenotypes to the physiological and metabolic functionalities; reveals the expression of most of these genes targeted by RNAi, mainly in the brain, heart, thoracic-abdominal ganglion, salivary gland, ovary and testis. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that the Leon mutant can be correlated with the RNAi.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.438.447 2014/01/17 - 10:44

Nucleoside transporters play key roles in the physiology of nucleosides and nucleobases in mammals and also contribute to the pharmacological actions produced by their analogs. Several mammalian nucleoside transporters have been identified at the molecular level. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the major nucleoside transporter isoforms in the mouse testis and ovary. Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 (ENT1) and ENT2 were expressed in the mouse testis and ovary, which was consistent with the general consideration that these transporters are ubiquitous in mouse tissues. The expression of Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter 2 (CNT2) and CNT3, but not CNT1 was detected in the mouse testis. These three CNT isoforms were also expressed in the ovary. Therefore, we concluded that the mouse testis and ovary simultaneously exhibit multiple transport processes for nucleosides and bases and also that these transporters are responsible for the homeostatic control of biological levels of nucleosides and bases in these tissues.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.448.452 2014/01/01 - 10:54

Optimization of alkaline protease production by Streptomyces ambofaciens NRRL 2420 in free and immobilized form was investigated using submerged fermentation technique. The optimum conditions for maximum alkaline protease production 342 unit mL-1 were 30°C at pH 8.5 and incubation time 96 h in free cell cultures using starch 20 g L-1 as carbon source and yeast extract 5 g L-1 as nitrogen source. The incubation time for the best yield of 344 unit mL-1 was reduced to 72 h under the optimized fermentation conditions by immobilized cells adsorbed on synthetic cotton fibers. Data obtained during 5 reusable cycles showed higher levels of enzyme in shorter time duration. Immobilization of Streptomyces ambofaciens NRRL 2420 on synthetic cotton fiber permit repeated reuse of the cells under the optimized fermentation conditions.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.1.13 2013/12/28 - 12:47

The precision of growth of an animal is meticulously regulated by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, with focus on maintenance of organismal homeostasis. The clue to change in physiology or metabolism of an organism, at times can be derived from the changes in phenotypes. In the Drosophila melanogaster model system, GAL 4-overexpressed RNAi driver males (Mini-White Marker), targeted against specific genes, when crossed with Leon mutant (19-2/TM6B) females, yield progeny of different wing types. Different RNAi lines expressing the phenotypes in a gradient of sodden, mid to normal; explains the varying severity of the wing phenotypes. The comparison of flies co-expressed RNAi and Leon mutant with wild type or Leon mutant females; show changes in wing phenotype; in terms of wing venation, Anterior Cortical Vein (ACV) position, Posterior Cortical Vein (PCV) position, bristles on the wing margins and the inter-segmental distance. There is a distinct evidence of both rescue and deterioration phenotype observed at various levels, with the varying levels of RNAi expression in sodden, mid and normal type. A correlational study of these modified wing phenotypes to the physiological and metabolic functionalities; reveals the expression of most of these genes targeted by RNAi, mainly in the brain, heart, thoracic-abdominal ganglion, salivary gland, ovary and testis. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that the Leon mutant can be correlated with the RNAi.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2014.438.447 2013/12/20 - 05:31

Mannosylerythritol Lipids (MEL’s) are glycolipid biosurfactants that contain 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-meso-erythritol as a hydrophilic moiety and fatty acids as a hydrophobic moiety. MEL’s are abundantly produced by several kinds of microorganism and are one of the most promising biosurfactants currently known. The search for a novel endogenous producer of MEL’s was undertaken based on the available collection of the yeast strains from the genus Pseudozyma. Using thin layer chromatography and based on morphological and molecular taxonomic analysis using the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit 26S rRNA gene, Pseudozyma hubeiensis Y10BS025 was found to be a potential producer of MEL’s from soybean oil. The structure of the major glycolipid produced by the strain was analyzed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and was found to be similar to those of well known MEL-A, -B and -C respectively. Under improved shaking culture conditions, using yeast extract as nitrogen source and soybean oil as substrate, a maximum yield of 115±3.2 g.L-1 of MEL’s for 8 days of fermentation was achieved. The major fatty acids of MEL’s produced by P. hubeiensis Y10BS025 were C-18 acids, considerably different from those of MEL-C produced by other Pseudozyma strains such as P. antarctica and P. shanxiensis. The main product, MEL-C produced by P. hubeiensis Y10BS025 exhibited surface-tension-lowering activity. The results demonstrated that the newly isolated P. hubeiensis Y10BS025 provided high efficiency in MEL’s production and would thus be highly advantageous in commercial production of promising biosurfactants.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.430.437 2013/12/03 - 04:57

Human alpha Interferons (hIFNα) have been shown to have antiviral, ant proliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The human interferon alpha2b (hIFNα2b), is one of the human interferon alpha2 sub variants, naturally synthesized as a polypeptide of 188 amino acid residues, the first 23 residues of which represents a signal peptide. In the present study, the hIFNα2b gene was expressed after being fused with Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) gene. The hIFNα2b gene was amplified from human genomic DNA by using a pair of specific primers, cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector and expressed in E. coli cells under the direction of the tac promoter. The expressed protein was purified using a one-step affinity chromatography column containing immobilized gluthatione-bound resin. The purified protein was shown to react specifically with anti-human-interferon-alpha antibody, confirming that the protein was the human interferon alpha molecule. This strategy has the potential to be used as an alternative mean for production of pure human interferon α proteins for therapeutic purposes and for further studies on their molecular characterization and mechanism of action.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.423.429 2013/10/11 - 09:59

The study was designed to investigate the possible protective role of virgin olive oil in mercuric chloride induced renal stress, by using biochemical approaches. The effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative and renal stress were evaluated by serum creatinine, urea and uric acid levels, kidney tissue lipid peroxidation, GSH levels, GSH-Px and GST activities. Administration of mercuric chloride induced significant increase in serum: interleukine1, interleukine6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) levels, creatinine, urea and uric acid concentration showing renal stress. Mercuric chloride also induced oxidative stress, as indicate by decreased kidney tissue of GSH level, GSH-Px and GST activities along with increase the level of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of kidney weight and decreased body weight. Virgin olive oil treatment markedly reduced elevated serum: IL1, IL6, TNFα, creatinine, urea and uric acid levels and conteracted the deterious effects of mercuric chloride on oxidative stress markers changes caused by HgCl2 in kidney. Our results indicate that virgin olive oil could have a beneficial role against mercuric chloride induced oxidative and renal stress in rat.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.415.422 2013/09/27 - 19:36

Isoflavones are large group of secondary metabolites produced in legumes such as soybeans. They have essential biological functions as nutraceutical and health functions for human. They are involved in plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing organisms and plant competition (allelopathy). In this report, isoflavonoids were expressed in wheat (Triticum aestivum) via introducing the key enzymes Isoflavone Synthase (IFS). Transgenic callli induced from wheat immature embryos were propagated and prepared for bombardment. Five gene constructs were prepared; the binary vector (plasmid) pAHC25, 35S-CRC, 35S-IFS, Oleocin-IFS, Oleocin-IFS-CHI and were used for wheat calli transformation. Putative transgenic calli were used to regenerate transgenic wheat plants. Evaluation of recovered transgenic plants was carried out using PCR, southern bloting of PCR products and IFS-specific probe and HPLC analysis of transgenic plant tissue extracts. Genistein and naranigenin were detected in transgenic plants carrying IFS gene, indicating that the introduced IFS was able to use the endogenous substrate from wheat. IFS showed activity under 35S promoter as well as oleocin promoter. The activity of oleocin promoter in monocots provides a good tool to use plant promoters to drive plant gene expression in plants. This also represents promoter compatibility that the cis acting elements of the oleocin promoter represent binding targets for trans acting elements of wheat. Engineering the isoflavone pathway in wheat would lead to enhancement of nutraceutical value of wheat grains and improvement of wheat resistance to diseases.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.404.414 2013/09/23 - 13:10

The H2O2 dependent degradation of adlerol by a crude versatile peroxidase from Bjekandera adusta, a new ligninolytic enzyme, was investigated. Adlerol (1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1,3-propanediol)) is a non phenolic β-O-4 dimer whose structural architecture represents the most abundant unit (50-65%) of the valuable renewable biopolymer lignin. Lignin removel plays a key role in utilizing lignocellulosic biomass in biorefineries. Steady state analyses in the µL scale showed saturation kinetics for both, H2O2 and adlerol with quite sensitive response to H2O2. This was characterized through slow transient states (lag phases) prior steady state and were enhanced by increasing H2O2 concentration. The major reason for such phenomena was found to be an accumulation of compound III (EIII) via reaction of compound II (EII) with H2O2; instead with adlerol to the enzyme’s ground state E0 in order to restart another catalytic cycle. As result, the enzyme deviated from its normal catalytic cycle. A corresponding threshold was determined at ≥ 50 μM H2O2 and an adlerol to H2O2 ratio of 15:1 for the given conditions. Furthermore, EIII did not represent a catalytical dead end intermediate as it is generally described. By an additional decrease of the adlerol to H2O2 ratio of ca. 3 at the latest, considerable irreversible enzyme deactivations occurred promoted through reaction of EIII with H2O2. At a mL scale deactivation kinetics by H2O2 were further examined in dependence on adlerol presence. The course followed a time dependent irreversible deactivation (two step mechanism) and was diminished in the presence of adlerol. The deactivation could be sufficiently described by an equation similar to the Michaelis Menten type, competitive inhibited by adlerol. Finally, first estimates of the kinetic parameters vmax, KmS1 (S1: H2O2), KmS2 (S2: adlerol), kiapp and Kiapp were made. Moreover, the peroxidase reaction mechanism was reviewed and recommendations are given preventing permature enzyme losses.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.365.394 2013/09/23 - 13:10

The p53 tumor suppressor gene is the most commonly mutated gene in cancer. In breast cancer, the presence of p53 gene alterations has been associated with worse prognosis. This study was attempted to associate p53 gene mutations with its protein expression in North Eastern Indian population. We used single-stranded conformation polymorphism to screen samples for mutations in five conserved regions, exons 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, of the p53 gene. Mutations were confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. Samples were also analyzed for expression of p53 immunohistochemically. We found two critical mutations in the exon 4. A well known missense mutation at codon 72 (pro to arg) with a frequency of 47% was found which was significantly correlated with the immunohistochemical analysis of p53 protein in such patients. A novel nonsense mutation at codon 107 which leads to stop codon was also found. Although the occurrence of this mutation was very less, we did not find expression of p53 protein immunohistochemicaly. We support that mutation in p53 gene can be exploited as a prognostic marker for the early diagnosis of breast cancer, although more clinical and epidemiological data is required to establish this claim.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.395.403 2013/09/23 - 13:10

Isoflavones are large group of secondary metabolites produced in legumes such as soybeans. They have essential biological functions as nutraceutical and health functions for human. They are involved in plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing organisms and plant competition (allelopathy). In this report, isoflavonoids were expressed in wheat (Triticum aestivum) via introducing the key enzymes Isoflavone Synthase (IFS). Transgenic callli induced from wheat immature embryos were propagated and prepared for bombardment. Five gene constructs were prepared; the binary vector (plasmid) pAHC25, 35S-CRC, 35S-IFS, Oleocin-IFS, Oleocin-IFS-CHI and were used for wheat calli transformation. Putative transgenic calli were used to regenerate transgenic wheat plants. Evaluation of recovered transgenic plants was carried out using PCR, southern bloting of PCR products and IFS-specific probe and HPLC analysis of transgenic plant tissue extracts. Genistein and naranigenin were detected in transgenic plants carrying IFS gene, indicating that the introduced IFS was able to use the endogenous substrate from wheat. IFS showed activity under 35S promoter as well as oleocin promoter. The activity of oleocin promoter in monocots provides a good tool to use plant promoters to drive plant gene expression in plants. This also represents promoter compatibility that the cis acting elements of the oleocin promoter represent binding targets for trans acting elements of wheat. Engineering the isoflavone pathway in wheat would lead to enhancement of nutraceutical value of wheat grains and improvement of wheat resistance to diseases.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.407.417 2013/09/10 - 06:03

An emerging evidence suggests that the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) and its endogenous ligands, the Endocannabinoids (ECS), are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior and body weight. Over-activation of ECS is associated with various metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemia and insulin resistance which may be involved in occurrence CAD and diabetes. The aim was to determine whether G1359A polymorphism of CNR1 is associated with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and with T2DM patients free of CAD and to elucidate the association of G1359A polymorphism of CNR1 with CAD risk factors. The study was carried on 50 patients with CAD (25 patients with T2DM and 25 patients without type 2 DM), 25 patients with T2DM free of CAD and a group of 20 healthy subjects as a control group. Full history taking, general clinical examination, coronary artery angiography for patient group, serum lipid profile (TG, TC, LDL and HDL) and assessment of G1359A polymorphism of CNR1 by RFLP method were done. CAD patients with and without T2DM had significantly higher age, fasting blood glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, male gender, smoking and Body Mass Index (BMI) compared with control. GG genotype and G allele of G1359A polymorphism were significantly associated with CAD patients with T2DM (p<0.05). G allele increased risk of occurrence of CAD with diabetes by 5.22 (OR) 95% CI (1.32-20.54). GG genotype was significantly associated with higher TC (p<0.01), LDLc (p<0.001) and BMI (p = 0.001). Association of G1359A polymorphism with BMI and disordered lipid may explain in part its association with CAD patients with T2DM and may encourage use of cannabinoid receptor antagonist in treatment of these disorders.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.355.364 2013/09/05 - 12:02

The H2O2 dependent degradation of adlerol by a crude versatile peroxidase from Bjekandera adusta, a new ligninolytic enzyme, was investigated. Adlerol (1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1,3-propanediol)) is a non phenolic β-O-4 dimer whose structural architecture represents the most abundant unit (50-65%) of the valuable renewable biopolymer lignin. Lignin removel plays a key role in utilizing lignocellulosic biomass in biorefineries. Steady state analyses in the µL scale showed saturation kinetics for both, H2O2 and adlerol with quite sensitive response to H2O2. This was characterized through slow transient states (lag phases) prior steady state and were enhanced by increasing H2O2 concentration. The major reason for such phenomena was found to be an accumulation of compound III (EIII) via reaction of compound II (EII) with H2O2; instead with adlerol to the enzyme’s ground state E0 in order to restart another catalytic cycle. As result, the enzyme deviated from its normal catalytic cycle. A corresponding threshold was determined at ≥ 50 µM H2O2 and an adlerol to H2O2 ratio of 15:1 for the given conditions. Furthermore, EIII did not represent a catalytical dead end intermediate as it is generally described. By an additional decrease of the adlerol to H2O2 ratio of ca. 3 at the latest, considerable irreversible enzyme deactivations occurred promoted through reaction of EIII with H2O2. At a mL scale deactivation kinetics by H2O2 were further examined in dependence on adlerol presence. The course followed a time dependent irreversible deactivation (two step mechanism) and was diminished in the presence of adlerol. The deactivation could be sufficiently described by an equation similar to the Michaelis Menten type, competitive inhibited by adlerol. Finally, first estimates of the kinetic parameters vmax, KmS1 (S1: H2O2), KmS2 (S2: adlerol), kiapp and Kiapp were made. Moreover, the peroxidase reaction mechanism was reviewed and recommendations are given preventing permature enzyme losses.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.365.397 2013/09/05 - 12:02

The p53 tumor suppressor gene is the most commonly mutated gene in cancer. In breast cancer, the presence of p53 gene alterations has been associated with worse prognosis. This study was attempted to associate p53 gene mutations with its protein expression in North Eastern Indian population. We used single-stranded conformation polymorphism to screen samples for mutations in five conserved regions, exons 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, of the p53 gene. Mutations were confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. Samples were also analyzed for expression of p53 immunohistochemically. We found two critical mutations in the exon 4. A well known missense mutation at codon 72 (pro to arg) with a frequency of 47% was found which was significantly correlated with the immunohistochemical analysis of p53 protein in such patients. A novel nonsense mutation at codon 107 which leads to stop codon was also found. Although the occurrence of this mutation was very less, we did not find expression of p53 protein immunohistochemicaly. We support that mutation in p53 gene can be exploited as a prognostic marker for the early diagnosis of breast cancer, although more clinical and epidemiological data is required to establish this claim.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.398.406 2013/09/05 - 12:02

The Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) system plays a critical endocrine role controlling nutrient metabolism in animals and it is a group of structurally-related polypeptides that regulate the growth of many types of mammalian cells. In liver, IGF-1 is dynamically regulated by lactation and energy balance. Less is known about the regulation of IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein mRNA in reproductive tissues and plays an important role in bovine follicular growth, acquisition of oocyte competence and embryo viability. The present study describes Polymorphisms in the IGF-1 Gene of Buffalo population in south of Iran. In order to characterization polymorphism, blood sample were collected from 95 buffalos from Ahvaz, Dezful, Shushtar, Shadegan and Susangerd cities. DNA extraction was based on Boom method and exon 1 of the IGF-1 gene was amplified to produce a 250 bp fragment. The amplified fragment were digested with Eco105I (SnaBI) restriction endonuclease. Also, the 265 bp of IGF-1 promoter in the 5´ Flanking Region was amplified and subsequently subjected to Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP). The results were revealed one pattern (B) in digestion and all the five populations were monomorph. But, the populations exhibited three different SSCP patterns. It is possible that this gene has not exposed to selection and inbreeding is estimated high.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.348.354 2013/08/06 - 23:15

Exergy is a measurement of how far a certain material deviates from a state of equilibrium with the environment. It is a useful tool for improving the efficiency of energy-resource use. The exergy values of four wheat straws (Absolvant, Max, Monopol and Vuka) were determined in this study. The effects of physical and chemical properties (moisture content, ash content, LHV and S, C, O, H and N contents) were evaluated. The moisture related exergy varied from 281.834 kJ kg-1 (Monopol) to 366.766 kJ kg-1 (Absolvant), accounting for 1.311-1.734% of the total exergy of wheat straws. A negative linear relationship between the exergy value and moisture content was observed. The ash related exergy varied from 53.468 kJ kg-1 (Absolvant) to 117.675 kJ kg-1 (Vuka), accounting for 0.253-0.556% of the total exergy of wheat straws. A negative linear relationship between the exergy value and ash content was observed. The S related exergy ranged from 6.817 kJ kg-1 (Max) to 11.077 kJ kg-1 (Vuka), accounting for 0.032-0.052% of the total exergy of wheat straws. A positive linear relationship between the exergy value and S content was observed. The O/C, H/C and N/C atomic ratios and the correlation factors varied in ranges of 0.7133-0.7537, 1.3475-1.5457, 0.0063-0.0225 and 1.133-1.138, respectively. The exergy values of the four wheat straws were between 21.156 MJ kg-1 (Absolvant) and 21.503 MJ kg-1 (Monopol). They were mainly determined by the correlation factors and the LHVs. A positive linear relationship between the exergy value and LHV was observed. The combined contribution of ash, moisture and S related exergy to the total exergy was very small (1.694-2.212%) and can be neglected.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.338.347 2013/08/03 - 22:32

Marine actinomycetes are potential source for the discovery of novel compounds and enzymes. Though extensive research on marine actinomycetes is underway globally, the actinomycetes research from Indian marine ecosystem is unexplored and understudied. Hence, the present research is focussed on the screening of bioactive compounds from marine actinomycetes isolated from Indian coastal region. This study is designed to determine the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory potential of Streptomyces sp. VITMSS05 strain, isolated from Marakkanam, southern coast of India. An actinomycetes strain designated as VITMSS05 was isolated. This strain was cultivated in Starch Caesin Agar medium (SCA) supplemented with sea water. The cultural, morphological and molecular characterization was determined for the isolate. The crude extract of the isolate was extracted with ethyl acetate. Antioxidant activity of the crude extract was determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay. Alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitory potential of the extract was determined. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis the strain was identified as Streptomyces sp. Significant antioxidant activity of the extract was observed with an IC50 value of 92.49 μg mL-1. The extract shows 64.1% inhibition on α-amylase and 91.5% inhibition on α-glucosidase at 100 μg mL-1 with an IC50 value of 385.97 and 42.89 μg mL-1. From the results it is evident that the ethyl acetate extract of Streptomyces sp. VITMSS05 has potent antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity in vitro. The combined effect of free radical scavenging and enzyme inhibition makes it a potent anti diabetic drug.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.282.290 2013/08/03 - 22:32

Araucaria cookii, Bauhinia blakeana and Brassaia actinophylla are ornamental plants. The presence of various phytochemicals and pharmacologically important compounds in these plants can be exploited for their medicinal use. But there are no reports on the phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of these plants and this study aims at investigating these. The plant extracts were prepared in different solvents like methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, hexane, water and chloroform. Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals were assessed. The anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity was determined for all three plant extracts. Anti-bacterial activity against three gram negative bacteria, E. coli, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella was done and Araucaria cooki showed highest antibacterial activity among the three plants. Maximum antioxidant activity was seen in methanol extract of Brassaia actinophyla with 81% inhibition. The order of the antioxidant activity of the three plants are in the order B.actinophylla>A cookie>B.blakeana. The results of phytochemical analysis suggest that phytosteroids are present in all the three plants. Maximum inhibition against the tested enzymes was exhibited by hexane and chloroform extracts of A.cookii. Hemolytic activity was done and the hexane extract showed maximum haemolysis where as aqueous extracts showed minimum activity. From the results it is clear that the three plant extracts has pharmacological applications. This is the first report of antimicrobial, antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of these three plant extracts. Further studies are needed to exploit the actual mechanism and active compounds of these plants.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.291.299 2013/08/03 - 22:32

The Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) system plays a critical endocrine role controlling nutrient metabolism in dairy cattle and it is a group of structurally-related polypeptides that regulate the growth of many types of mammalian cells. In liver, IGF-1 is dynamically regulated by lactation and energy balance. Less is known about the regulation of IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein mRNA in reproductive tissues and plays an important role in bovine follicular growth, acquisition of oocyte competence and embryo viability. The present study describes polymorphism of IGF-1 gene in Najdi cattle populations. In order to characterization polymorphism, blood sample were collected from 84 Najdi cattles from Shadegan, Mahshar cities and Shushtar station. DNA extraction was based on Boom method and exons 1 of the IGF-1 gene were amplified to produce a 249 bp fragment. The amplified fragment were digested with Eco105I (SnaBI) restriction endonuclease and then subjected to electrophoretic separation in ethidium bromide-stained 2% agarose gel. The results were revealed two alleles, A and B. Three genotypes were observed, Frequencies were 2.38, 14.28 and 83.33% for AA, AB and BB, respectively. This gives frequencies of 0/0952 and 0/9048 for A and B alleles. The populations were in hardy-weinberg equilibrium. It is possible that this gene has not exposed to selection. The heterozygosity is low and inbreeding is estimated high.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.300.306 2013/08/03 - 22:32