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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

American Journal of Applied Sciences

Increasing the country population and the trend of industrialization caused increasing Malaysia’s electricity consumption. Light Emitting Diode (LED) is a new sustainable technology that has taken over the conventional lighting in built and environment in a few developed counties in the recent years. However, Malaysia is left behind in using this technology due to unfamiliarity of the decision makers on its advantages. The research is using a mixed qualitative and quantitative method for finding advantages of LED for lighting the streets and built and environment. A group of scholars traveled to Canada and USA and observed seven factories and interviewed 40 professional of LED and discussed use of this technology in the context of Malaysia. The result of those observation and interview is synthesized and presented in this paper. The conclusion of this research confirms despit all LED advantages, it is very high cost in term of replacement, primary investment and maintenance.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1722.1726 2014/10/02 - 15:18

This study aims to analyze, from a technical and economic point of view, the choice between alternative investments in aquaculture under conditions of risk and uncertainty. In particular, a comparative analysis has been conducted between an inshore and an offshore farm producing European sea bass in the Mediterranean Sea. The applied model refers to the theory of subjective probability, assigning a different probability to expected incomes during the investment period. Results show an economic convenience of inshore with respect to offshore farming.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1727.1734 2014/10/02 - 15:18

In Italy, the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) is nowadays landfilled or processed through aerobic composting. The Italian towns currently support a high cost for OFMSW disposal and cause a high environmental impact, because of long distances travelled from towns to a few available landfills and fewer treatment places, as well as the used waste management methods. An interesting option for OFMSW is Anaerobic Digestion (AD), producing biogas and “digestate”. In this survey a theoretical biogas plant was placed near a town of Sicily Region (Italy), centralised with reference to the area considered for producing OFMSW. The distances travelled every year to transport OFMSW from the nine towns considered to the nearest composting plant and the biogas one were calculated using QGIS software. Therefore, the energy balance was computed for each of the four considered scenarios. Within the implementation of Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) method, AD resulted in an energy balance much higher than that of aerobic composting. In fact, differently from composting, AD can significantly contribute to energy recovery, while retaining the nutrients in the digestate produced and reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The use of a rational network of towns for OFMSW collection and transportation results relevant, in terms of increased energy balance, only in the case of composting. Therefore, if AD would be implemented as OFMSW management method, by means of biogas plants, each of them placed in an area including some towns, e.g., that considered in this survey, it could highly reduce the cost and the environmental impact of waste disposal.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1631.1644 2014/10/02 - 15:18

A jet of fluid discharging into a cross stream, also known as Jet In Crossflow (JICF), has received many experimental and numerical investigations. In addition to the fundamental understanding of three-dimensional mixing and shear flow characteristics, the fluid dynamics research community often regarded it as a benchmark test case for validating turbulence models. Although many authors considered the canonical case of a jet issuing from a circular orifice, the rectangular shape has received less numerical investigations. The present study deals with a jet issuing from a rectangular duct into a confined crossflow domain in which five jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios ranging from 3.3 to 10 are considered. The analysis focuses on the reliability of three two-equation turbulence models, namely k-ε, k-ω and SST in predicting this type of complex flow phenomena. Comparisons with previous large-eddy simulation results and available test data for the same problem have revealed good agreement in predicting ‘mean’ flow properties, but relative poor agreement in predicting the second-order statistics. It indicates that this type of flow exhibits significant non-equilibrium behavior for which the commonly used two-equation turbulence models are unable to deal with. Thus it is necessary to apply anisotropic turbulence model such as Reynolds stress model or high-fidelity large-eddy simulation method.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1645.1658 2014/10/02 - 15:18

A novel design for flow and level control in a hydroelectric power plant using Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)-Human Machine Interface (HMI) and neural cascaded with fuzzy scheme is proposed. This project will focus on design and development of flow and level controller for small scale hydro generating units by implementing gate control based on PLC-HMI with the proposed scheme. The existing control schemes have so many difficulties to manage intrinsic time delay, nonlinearity due to uncertainty of the process and frequent load changes. This study presents the design of neuro controllers to regulate level, cascaded with fuzzy controller to control flow in gate valve to the turbine. A prototype model is fabricated in the laboratory as experimental setup for flow and level control and real time simulation studies were carried out using PID and neural cascaded with fuzzy scheme. The designed prototype model is fabricated with 5 levels in the upper tank and 2 levels in the lower tank. Based on the outputs of the level sensors from the upper and lower tanks, the ladder logic is actuated. This project work uses PLC of Bernecker and Rainer (B and R) Industrial Automation inbuilt with 20 digital inputs and provides 12 potential free outputs to control the miniaturized process depicted in this work. Finally, the performance of the proposed neural cascaded with fuzzy scheme is evaluated by simulation results by comparing with conventional controllers output using real time data obtained from the hydro power plant. The advantages of the proposed neural cascaded with fuzzy scheme over the existing controllers are highlighted.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1659.1670 2014/10/02 - 15:18

Since the 1960 s, the South Korea economy has achieved a rapid economic growth, whereas from the mid 1990’s and beyond, servitization showing the growth of the service section over the nominal GDP has rapidly developed. On the other hand, the service industry productivity declined, even lower than the OECD average. These results continue recently through the deterioration of income inequality. Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine the status and characteristics of the servitization of South Korea economy, analyze the causes for the service industry’s productivity slowdown and income inequality. By presenting the policy issues for securing the service industry’s competition, this study attempts to define the policy implications to build the framework for economic advancement.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1692.1702 2014/10/02 - 15:18

The field of strategic management is undergoing significant changes due to the constant changes taking place in the business environment due to issues like emergence of new economic power, conflicts within among countries, environmental crisis and social crisis. This study explicates how inclusiveness of strategic agilities, ethical issues and legal issues into the strategic management process will help organizations to anticipate and manage changes arises to attain business sustainability and meet the organization’s vision. It will begin with examining and analyzing the gap existing in the current strategic management process. The paper concludes with a more comprehensive strategic management process that incorporates strategic agilities, ethical issues and legal issues.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1703.1713 2014/10/02 - 15:18

Decreasing the residual donors density and deep traps spectra densities in undoped GaN films grown by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) is very important for promoting the use of such material in high- voltage/high-power rectifiers, radiation detectors. In this study we studied the effects of changing the growth temperature of undoped HVPE GaN films on these properties. The two groups of undoped GaN HVPE samples analyzed in this study were grown at growth temperature being either 850ºC or 950ºC. Measurements by means of Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) profiling, deep levels transient spectroscopy, Micro Cathode Luminescence (MCL) spectroscopy and imaging and by Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) showed a much lower density of residual donors (by almost two orders of magnitude), of deep electron traps and hole traps (by about an order of magnitude) and considerably (about 1.5 times) longer diffusion length of charge carriers in the films grown at 850ºC compared to samples prepared at 950ºC. The data obtained indicate that there is an optimal reduced growth temperature (close to 850ºC) resulting in lower concentration of shallow donors and deep traps while still preserving the high crystalline quality of the layer. This is of paramount importance for device applications of HVPE grown undoped GaN films.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1714.1721 2014/10/02 - 15:18

The aim of this study is the thermal recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn after a preliminary physical treatment. Separation of the metals is carried out on the basis of their different phase change temperatures, the boiling point of zinc being 906�C and 1564�C that of Mn3O4, the main Mn-bearing phase in the mixture. After wet comminution and sieving to remove the anodic collectors and most of the chlorides contained in the mixture, chemical and X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) analyses were performed. The mixture was heated in CO2 atmosphere and the temperature raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture. Other tests were carried out by addition to the mixture of activated charcoal (95% C) or of the automotive shredder residue (fluff) containing 45% C.A zinc product was obtained suitable, after refining, for the production of new batteries. The treatment residue consisted of manganese and iron oxides that could be used to produce manganese-iron alloys. From these results, an integrated process for the recovery of the two metals was proposed.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1566.1573 2014/10/02 - 15:18

Nowadays, the retinal imaging technology has been widely used for segmenting and detecting the exudates in diabetic retinopathy patients. Unfortunately, the retinal images in Thailand are poor-quality images. Therefore, detecting of exudates in a large number by screening programs, are very expensive in professional time and may cause human error. In this study, the clinical applications for detection of exudates from the poor quality retinal image are presented. An application incorporating function, including retinal color normalization, contrast enhancement, noise removal, color space selection and removal of the optic disc, was also designed to standardize the workflow of retinal analysis. Afterward, detection of exudate based on optimal global thresholding and improved adaptive Otsu’s algorithm was applied. Two experiments were conducted to validate the detection performance with local databases and a publicly available DIARETDB1 database. The first experiment showed the average sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 93.8, 95.3 and 94.9%, respectively. The cross validation results of the second experiment, 60% (53) of the retinal images were used for training and 40% (36) for testing, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 84.2, 85.9 and 85.2%, respectively. This result indicates the proposed clinical application provides an effective tool in the screening of exudates.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1743.1756 2014/09/28 - 20:21

As experience of the developed countries shows, the best solutions to the problems related to ensuring competitiveness of enterprises can be found within clusters. Drawing up mechanisms for government regulation of the cluster will facilitate formulation of strategies and plans of cluster development which is an important competitive advantage of the modern economy. The purpose of this study is to research theoretical and methodological approaches to ensuring efficiency control of the institutional environment of the cluster. The approach to solving this problem is based on institutional methodology which offers innovative solutions within the frames of local economic development policies. Furthermore, the paper thoroughly examines impacts of government regulation on business development. Particular attention is given to analyzing public private partnership institutions in order to reveal their innovative features. The authors express the opinion that implementation of the principles of economic control of cluster development, as well as monitoring efficiency of transaction costs may help to reduce the negative effect of transaction costs on economic development of Russia’s constituent entities. The paper offers the method for calculating performance efficiency of an institution for economic agents in the cluster, as well as efficiency of informal institutions including cases when their economic informality lies in the ‘grey (shadow) area’ i.e., illegal by nature. Basing on studies of foreign and Russian experience of cluster formation and identification of risks in cluster development, the article formulates recommendations for implementing control principles to ensure effective cluster policy and reduce transaction costs in order to improve government regulation of clusters and development of the country’s economy.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1594.1597 2014/09/23 - 22:17

Annotation: Tasks with comic content are especially difficult for the thinking of children, as they have to resolve the contradiction and inconsistence with their expectations. The article provides an analysis of cognitive mechanisms of understanding comic texts; emphasizes the role of dialectic thinking at resolution of problematic and contradictory situations, statement of colliding properties and relations of an object. The undertaken research is oriented to revealing the acts of dialectic thinking, which participate in the understanding of comic texts by grade school students. The experimental research involved a set of methods for studying the acts of dialectic thinking of grade school students: The Opposites methodology; the study of dialectic act of unification; the methodology of the research of the content seriation; Dialectic Stories. During the research, the students demonstrated the ability to change the habitual system of explanation stating connections between pictures in a series in the reverse order, thus turning the original sense of the situation represented by the pictures into opposite. The grade school students turned out to be able to carry out transition from one alternative to another; to go beyond the context of the existing situation by getting a new angle on the subject. It was revealed that grade school students faced difficulties in finding the colliding relations of an object, a substance. Their sensitivity to contradictions was studied using the Coping Humor Scale and the Pictures Arrangement subtest by D. Wechsler. The inability of grade school students to realize and restore the internal mental content of the character, his thoughts, motives, goals hindered the understanding of the humorous sense of the situation, led to misunderstanding of the cause and effect relationship, on which the narrative events were based. The correlative study confirmed our assumption that dialectic-thinking acts are involved in the understanding of comic, contradictory situations: The acts of unification, content seriation and alternative replacement.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1671.1675 2014/09/13 - 10:26

Image processing is one of the essential tasks to extract suspicious region and robust features from the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). A numbers of the segmentation algorithms were developed in order to satisfy and increasing the accuracy of brain tumor detection. In the medical image processing brain image segmentation is considered as a complex and challenging part. Fuzzy c-means is unsupervised method that has been implemented for clustering of the MRI and different purposes such as recognition of the pattern of interest and image segmentation. However; fuzzy c-means algorithm still suffers many drawbacks, such as low convergence rate, getting stuck in the local minima and vulnerable to initialization sensitivity. Firefly algorithm is a new population-based optimization method that has been used successfully for solving many complex problems. This paper proposed a new dynamic and intelligent clustering method for brain tumor segmentation using the hybridization of Firefly Algorithm (FA) with Fuzzy C-Means algorithm (FCM). In order to automatically segment MRI brain images and improve the capability of the FCM to automatically elicit the proper number and location of cluster centres and the number of pixels in each cluster in the abnormal (multiple sclerosis lesions) MRI images. The experimental results proved the effectiveness of the proposed FAFCM in enhancing the performance of the traditional FCM clustering. Moreover; the superiority of the FAFCM with other state-of-the-art segmentation methods is shown qualitatively and quantitatively. Conclusion: A novel efficient and reliable clustering algorithm presented in this work, which is called FAFCM based on the hybridization of the firefly algorithm with fuzzy c-mean clustering algorithm. Automatically; the hybridized algorithm has the capability to cluster and segment MRI brain images.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1676.1691 2014/09/12 - 05:14

In the article we attempt to identify indicators that have a significant impact on the level of innovation activity, for a deeper understanding of the essence and principles of the innovative process. This article presents the econometric analysis. The model of multiple regression was built. Econometric modeling was carried out based on statistical data on regions of Russia. The study proved the high importance of organizational innovations and investments for increase of innovative activity of economic entities."

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1579.1583 2014/09/12 - 05:14

This article discusses some of the problems (population dynamics, knowledge of the native language) among indigenous peoples of the North, who live in the Krasnoyarsk region (Siberian Arctic, Russia). In their own territories began a new industrialization. Reduced opportunity for these peoples to preserve their unique culture. The necessity to take urgent regulations (laws), which should protect the rights of indigenous peoples who live in the Krasnoyarsk region, to preserve the unique culture, to use their native language in everyday communication."

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1574.1578 2014/09/12 - 05:14

Password authentication has become a widely recognized element of computer security practices where human users are proven or confirmed as legitimate users for access to secure systems. Using this system, every user needs to recall its password correctly before access can be granted to an intended services or applications. Remembering the secure passwords is an everyday problem for all users because of individual memory limitation. In an effort to solve this problem, graphical password was presented as one promising athentication alternative taking advantage of picture superiority over texts. The main objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive survey of array of graphical password schemes in different categories based on their common features with the primary aim of identifying the memorability features and propose a new graphical authentication system with enhanced memorability features.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1065.1069 2014/09/09 - 10:39

Now-a-days finding a path from source to destination for practical multimedia applications by satisfying the QoS requirement is a big challenge. Achieving quality of service in a mobile adhoc network is an NP complete problem due to its dynamic nature of the network and limited resource availability. In this study, we propose a new QoS module which uses genetic algorithm based approach to find an optimal path from the source to the destination. An optimal path is selected by a suitable encoding scheme where the possible paths are in the form of strings. Analysis is done in a proactive protocol (OLSR) and for a reactive protocol (AODV) and the comparison between them was given as OLSRGA and AODVGA. To achieve Quality of Service (QoS) in the network, we have taken link state information such as delay and bandwidth in the network.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1070.1078 2014/09/09 - 10:39

In the article we attempt to identify indicators that have a significant impact on the level of innovation activity, for a deeper understanding of the essence and principles of the innovative process. This article presents the econometric analysis. The model of multiple regression was built. Econometric modeling was carried out based on statistical data on regions of Russia. The study proved the high importance of organizational innovations and investments for increase of innovative activity of economic entities.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1578.1583 2014/09/02 - 16:49

This article discusses some of the problems (population dynamics, knowledge of the native language) among indigenous peoples of the North, who live in the Krasnoyarsk region (Siberian Arctic, Russia). In their own territories began a new industrialization. Reduced opportunity for these peoples to preserve their unique culture. The necessity to take urgent regulations (laws), which should protect the rights of indigenous peoples who live in the Krasnoyarsk region, to preserve the unique culture, to use their native language in everyday communication.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1573.1577 2014/08/21 - 12:36

In the international literature, the subject of the analysis of the cost of production is often confined to the analysis of short-term convenience. However, the quantification of the cost of production per unit of product has a particular importance in the processing enterprises, especially in the initial phase of choice that concerns realization of investments in facilities and technologies to improve productivity. About this general theme, the research applies the Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to quantify the cost of production in the long-term operation in the processing of pig meat in the Parma PDO ham sector. The research considers not only the analysis of a single good or service such as a plant or a building, which is what frequently appears in LCC application, but also the quantification of the cost of an industrial production, in its whole cycle, during a long-run period. The research applies the LCC approach to a sector with high capital intensity for a typical food production. In the research, the application of the LCC shows that innovative firms that have made investments to improve business efficiency, have lower production cost in the long run; these firms are able to gain efficiency in the production cycle, as result of the investments made to reduce production costs, calculated applying LCC approasch. It then can be stated that the LCC approach represents a useful tool for analysis of convenience-cycle management of companies not only in the short period but even in the long run, particularly those operating in sectors with high capital intensity and with a long payback period of investments in fixed capital, as considered in the research. Moreover, it could be useful to deep the analysis applying the suggested LCC approach to a larger sample, even in other sector, to verify the usefulness of the LCC application in quantifying whole life cost.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1492.1506 2014/08/17 - 13:00

The ever-increasing demand for broader bandwidth per user, which results from the continuous development of new bandwidth-hungry services and applications, creates the motivation to upgrade the currently deployed Time-Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Networks (TDM-PONs) to Next-Generation Optical Access Networks (NG-OANs). Beside the need for more bandwidth per user, a further extension in the range and an increase in the split ratio are highly desirable in PONs. These additional requirements can be achieved by adopting so-called Long-Reach Optical Access Networks (LR-OANs). LR-OANs offer a promising solution that ensures a significant number of users can be supported over a longer range. Moreover, they introduce a cost-effective approach in which both the access and metro segments of the telecommunication network are combined into one backhaul segment, which results in the consolidation of many central offices into one trunk-exchange. This cost-effective approach gave us the motivation to provide a comprehensive survey on the LR-OANs. In this study, we first provide a brief review of different potential technologies, proposed for next-generation optical access. We then provide a review of different stat-of-the-art LR-OAN architectures including opportunities and challenges in each one. A comparison among them based on key network specification is also provided.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1604.1615 2014/08/15 - 15:49

Poor indoor air quality can be particularly harmful to children and interfere with the growth of their lung function as they spend much of their time indoors. In order to understand the mechanism of exposure in the airways, biomarkers were used as a surrogate for biological responses towards indoor air pollutants. This study aims to investigate the association between indoor air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10 and NO2) among school children in different area of urban and rural site in Klang Valley. A cross sectional comparative study was conducted among 430 healthy schoolchildren from a national primary school. Methods involved questionnaires based on American Thoracic Society and sputum samples for biomarkers assay. Indoor exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 (Dust Trak Aerosol Monitor) and NO2 (LaMotte Air Sampler) were measured in the classroom. Mean concentration of PM2.5 (50.72 µg/m3) in urban schools were significantly higher compared to rural (28.36 µg/m3) school. Similar trend found in indoor level of PM10 in urban and rural schools with 87.04 µg/m3 and 56.76 µg/m3 respectively. The mean exposure level of NO2 of urban schools (0.12 ppm) is nearly 4 times higher than the level in rural areas (0.032 ppm). A significant association was found between indoor air concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10) with TNF-alpha level. Children from rural areas are exposed to less air pollutants compared to those from urban area and this study also suggests that higher exposure to PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 are associated with increasing of TNF-alpha level.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1616.1630 2014/08/15 - 15:49

This study presents two degree distributions namely low and medium nodal degree distributions aiming to build a low overhead Luby Transform (LT) codes. The motivation is to design a fast encoder/decoder especially for real-time multimedia streaming and multicasting applications using LT codes. The key idea of this study is to restrict the average degree of the transmitted encoded symbols as minimal. The impacts of low and medium degree encoded symbols on the performance of LT codes over an Additive White Gaussian Noise channel (AWGN) have been analyzed by the means of Bit Error Rate (BER), encoder/decoder delay, ripple size, throughput, overhead and bandwidth utilization as the performance metrics. Simulation results show that the proposed nodal degree distributions for LT codes achieve better throughput and BER performance at low overhead and delay with minimal decoding iterations by having a constantly decreasing ripple in comparison with conventional Robust Soliton Distribution (RSD) based LT codes.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1584.1593 2014/08/13 - 11:38

The interactions between a given commercial enterprise, its territory and development, have become a key issue in recent years. Theories of economic development tell us that a territory may undergo development provided viable, economically sustainable commercial activities exist. Based on the latter postulate, the present paper analyzes the economic sustainability of farming enterprises growing early potatoes in a Mediterranean setting. In particular, the study was conducted in south-eastern Sicily, island in the centre of the Mediterranean. The results underscore their modest profitability, mainly due to a lack of entrepreneurial strategies aimed at enhancing production. This situation leads to shortcomings in terms of economic viability of the considered activities, which according to economic theory underlie an ultimate impoverishment of the territory.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1598.1603 2014/08/13 - 11:38

Removal of dyes from wastewater is important for industry and environmental protection. The adsorption technique, using biomass is attractive method for environmental and economical reasons. This study studies removal of Congo Red dye (CR) from aqueous solutions by adsorption using date palm Leaf Base (LB). The adsorption of congo red dye CR onto LB has been examined in aqueous solution by considering the influence of temperature up to 60°C and pH on the percentage removal of CR. The results showed that the percentage removal of CR increased with increasing temperature and decreased with increasing pH. The Langmuir and Freundlich models have been applied to describe the equilibrium data and the thermodynamic parameters, Gibbs free energy ΔG°, enthalpy change ΔH° and entropy ΔS°, have been determined. The negative value of ΔH suggests that adsorption of CR by the date palm leaf base is exothermic. The positive values of ΔG° at all studied temperatures indicate that CR adsorption is a unspontaneous process. LB is a promising adsorbent for the removal of CR from aqueous solution over a range of concentrations.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1553.1557 2014/07/27 - 02:38

Since first years of exploitation in 1960-70, neutron scattering has emerged as a unique and non-destructive means to probing inside matter properties at the nanometer length scales. Because the neutron production is scarce and expensive, the detection has to be extremely efficient. We take advantage of the recent improvements of light sensors in photon detection and detection dynamics, to develop a new type of two-dimensional neutron detector combining high detection efficiency and high spatial resolution. A prototype named Barotron (from the name of the inventor) has been built on this strategy. This 2D-neutron detector displays exceptional performances: Wide reciprocal space observation, spatial resolution lower than 0.5mm, low detection threshold (<1 neutron/cm2/s), reduced dimensions and a permanent possibility of upgrading. We underline the advantage of associating an accurate wavelength selection and point out the possibility to operate in time of flight mode. This type of instruments certainly foreshadows the future neutron scattering landscape.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1558.1565 2014/07/27 - 02:38

The aim of this study is the thermal recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn after a preliminary physical treatment. Separation of the metals is carried out on the basis of their different phase change temperatures, the boiling point of zinc being 906°C and 1564°C that of Mn3O4, the main Mn-bearing phase in the mixture. After wet comminution and sieving to remove the anodic collectors and most of the chlorides contained in the mixture, chemical and X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) analyses were performed. The mixture was heated in CO2 atmosphere and the temperature raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture. Other tests were carried out by addition to the mixture of activated charcoal (95% C) or of the automotive shredder residue (fluff) containing 45% C.A zinc product was obtained suitable, after refining, for the production of new batteries. The treatment residue consisted of manganese and iron oxides that could be used to produce manganese-iron alloys. From these results, an integrated process for the recovery of the two metals was proposed.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1566.1572 2014/07/27 - 02:38

Logging activities have encroached into the hill dipterocarp tropical rainforest area since the lowland dipterocarp forests have decreased in size. Hill dipterocarp tropical rainforest is rich in habitat diversity and provide a variety of resources for avian species such as food, habitat and shelter. Therefore it is important to examine the logging effects of hill dipterocarp rainforest on avian species. We compared the avian richness and diversity in different aged post-harvested hill dipterocarp tropical rainforest at the Berkelah Hill Dipterocarp Rainforest Reserve in Maran, Pahang, West Malaysia using mist-netting method. We captured a total of 1908 individuals representing 86 species and 29 families (i.e., 18.55% from two years post-harvested forest, 25.10% from ten years post-harvested, 23.90% from twenty years post-harvested and 32.44% from thirty five years post-harvested forests). Forty nine species were caught in two years and ten years, 55 species in twenty years and 59 species in thirty five years’ post-harvested forest. Seventeen species were common in all four types of forest. Pycnonotidae, Timaliidae and Nectariniidae were the most dominant families in all types of post-harvested hill dipterocarp tropical rainforest. Diversity analysis indicated that the bird species in twenty years post-harvested hill dipterocarp rainforest was most diverse (i.e., Fisher’s Alpha Diversity Index; 16.34) and evenly distributed (i.e., McIntosh Evenness index E; 0.933) as compared to two years, ten years and thirty five years post-harvested forest. However, thirty five years post-harvested forest was richest in avian species (i.e., Margalef’s Richness index R1; 9.02) as compared to other post-harvested forest. The findings of this study revealed that logging and recovery process may affects on avian distribution and diversity. However, these effects may vary from species to species.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1519.1529 2014/07/15 - 23:10

An important progress within the last decade in the development of the selectivity model approach to overcome the inconsistent results if the distributional assumptions of the errors terms are made this problem is through the use of semi-parametric method. However, the uncertainties and ambiguities exist in the models, particularly the relationship between the endogenous and exogenous variables. A new framework of the relationship between the endogenous and exogenous variables of semi-parametric sample selection model using the concept of fuzzy modelling is introduced. Through this approach, a flexible fuzzy concept hybrid with the semi-parametric sample selection models known as Fuzzy Semi-Parametric Sample Selection Model (FSPSSM). The elements of vagueness and uncertainty in the models are represented in the model construction, as a way of increasing the available information to produce a more accurate model. This led to the development of the convergence theorem presented in the form of triangular fuzzy numbers to be used in the model. Besides that, proofs of the theorems are presented. An algorithm using the concept of fuzzy modelling is developed. The effectiveness of the estimators for this model is investigated. Monte Carlo simulation revealed that consistency depends on bandwidth parameter. When bandwidth parameters, c are increased from 0.1, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 as the numbers of N increased (from 100 to 200 and increased to 500), the values of mean approaches (closed to) the real parameter. Through the bandwidth parameter also reveals that the estimated parameter is efficient, i.e., the S.D, MSE and RMSE values become smaller as N increased. In particular, the estimated parameter becomes consistent and efficient as the bandwidth parameters approaches to infinity, c→∞ as the number of observations, n tend to infinity, n→∞.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1542.1552 2014/07/15 - 23:10

An important progress within the last decade in the development of the selectivity model approach to overcome the inconsistent results if the distributional assumptions of the errors terms are made this problem is through the use of semi-parametric method. However, the uncertainties and ambiguities exist in the models, particularly the relationship between the endogenous and exogenous variables. A new framework of the relationship between the endogenous and exogenous variables of semi-parametric sample selection model using the concept of fuzzy modelling is introduced. Through this approach, a flexible fuzzy concept hybrid with the semi-parametric sample selection models known as Fuzzy Semi-Parametric Sample Selection Model (FSPSSM). The elements of vagueness and uncertainty in the models are represented in the model construction, as a way of increasing the available information to produce a more accurate model. This led to the development of the convergence theorem presented in the form of triangular fuzzy numbers to be used in the model. Besides that, proofs of the theorems are presented. An algorithm using the concept of fuzzy modelling is developed. The effectiveness of the estimators for this model is investigated. Monte Carlo simulation revealed that consistency depends on bandwidth parameter. When bandwidth parameters, c are increased from 0.1, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 as the numbers of N increased (from 100 to 200 and increased to 500), the values of mean approaches (closed to) the real parameter. Through the bandwidth parameter also reveals that the estimated parameter is efficient, i.e., the S.D, MSE and RMSE values become smaller as N increased. In particular, the estimated parameter becomes consistent and efficient as the bandwidth parameters approaches to infinity, c→∞ as the number of observations, n tend to infinity, n→∞.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1542.1552 2014/07/15 - 23:10

The rating life of ball bearings is reduced when hard particle contaminants are present in the lubricant. Usually, this life reduction is taken into account in the calculation of modified rating life by using the contamination factor through a general characterization of the lubrication conditions. However, the impact of contaminant’s variables such as size, hardness and concentration level has to be specified in detail. This need is resolved by the present work, where greases contaminated with hard steel particles of different sizes are tested with the purpose of finding a pattern in the relationship between steel particle sizes and the progress of wear inside the bearings. A laboratory rig is utilized for these tests and vibration analysis is performed to estimate the condition and the residual life of the bearings. After the tests, optical inspections performed in a stereoscope verify the predictions of vibration analyses. It was found that large contaminating particles, after their initial deformation, produce high stresses and therefore higher wear of the bearings and that the wear mechanism is closely related to the interruption of the lubricating film in such a way that local overheating caused point melting and adhesion of the particles adhered on the raceways. In case of grease contaminated with steel particles, vibration analysis can indicate the severity of wear and monitor its progress. From the conducted tests of the present work it is proved that the size of the contaminant particles affect strongly the wear process in such a way that the larger steel particle contaminants cause greater damage to the bearing. The vibration levels were higher and the damage was greater as particle size increased. It is difficult to establish an equation that describes and quantifies the wear progress involving all the parameters of size and concentration levels of the steel contaminant particles due to the stochastic nature of the wear mechanisms and therefore presently a statistical approach of the wear and the residual life expectancy seems to be more practical. The collection of a large number of experimental results is underway.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1530.1541 2014/07/15 - 23:10

The rating life of ball bearings is reduced when hard particle contaminants are present in the lubricant. Usually, this life reduction is taken into account in the calculation of modified rating life by using the contamination factor through a general characterization of the lubrication conditions. However, the impact of contaminant’s variables such as size, hardness and concentration level has to be specified in detail. This need is resolved by the present work, where greases contaminated with hard steel particles of different sizes are tested with the purpose of finding a pattern in the relationship between steel particle sizes and the progress of wear inside the bearings. A laboratory rig is utilized for these tests and vibration analysis is performed to estimate the condition and the residual life of the bearings. After the tests, optical inspections performed in a stereoscope verify the predictions of vibration analyses. It was found that large contaminating particles, after their initial deformation, produce high stresses and therefore higher wear of the bearings and that the wear mechanism is closely related to the interruption of the lubricating film in such a way that local overheating caused point melting and adhesion of the particles adhered on the raceways. In case of grease contaminated with steel particles, vibration analysis can indicate the severity of wear and monitor its progress. From the conducted tests of the present work it is proved that the size of the contaminant particles affect strongly the wear process in such a way that the larger steel particle contaminants cause greater damage to the bearing. The vibration levels were higher and the damage was greater as particle size increased. It is difficult to establish an equation that describes and quantifies the wear progress involving all the parameters of size and concentration levels of the steel contaminant particles due to the stochastic nature of the wear mechanisms and therefore presently a statistical approach of the wear and the residual life expectancy seems to be more practical. The collection of a large number of experimental results is underway.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1530.1541 2014/07/15 - 23:10

Large data volumes and the inability to analyse them enables fraudulent activities to go unnoticed in supply chain management processes such as procurement, warehouse management and inventory management. This fraud increases the cost of the supply chain management and a fraud detection mechanism is necessary to reduce the risk of fraud in this business area. This study was carried out in order to develop a data warehouse design that supports forensic analytics by using the Benford’s law in order to detect fraud. The approach relies on a generic and re-usable store procedure for data analytics. The data warehouse was tested with two datasets collected from an operational supply chain database from the inventory management and warranty claims processes. The results of the research showed that the supply chain data analyzed obeys to Benford’s theory and that parameterized stored procedures with Dynamic SQL provide an excellent tool to analyze data in the supply chain for possible fraud detection. The implications of the results of the study are that the Benford’s law can be used to detect fraud in the supply chain with the help of parameterized stored procedures and a data ware house, this can ease the workload of the fraud analyst in the supply chain function. Although the research only used data from the inventory management and warranty claim processes, the proposed store procedures can be extended to any process in the supply chain making the results generalizable to the supply chain management process.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1507.1518 2014/07/09 - 14:41

In the international literature, the subject of the analysis of the cost of production is often confined to the analysis of short-term convenience. However, the quantification of the cost of production per unit of product has a particular importance in the processing enterprises, especially in the initial phase of choice that concerns realization of investments in facilities and technologies to improve productivity. About this general theme, the research applies the Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to quantify the cost of production in the long-term operation in the processing of pig meat in the Parma PDO ham sector. The research considers not only the analysis of a single good or service such as a plant or a building, which is what frequently appears in LCC application, but also the quantification of the cost of an industrial production, in its whole cycle, during a long-run period. The research applies the LCC approach to a sector with high capital intensity for a typical food production. In the research, the application of the LCC shows that innovative firms that have made investments to improve business efficiency, have lower production cost in the long run; these firms are able to gain efficiency in the production cycle, as result of the investments made to reduce production costs, calculated applying LCC approasch. It then can be stated that the LCC approach represents a useful tool for analysis of convenience-cycle management of companies not only in the short period but even in the long run, particularly those operating in sectors with high capital intensity and with a long payback period of investments in fixed capital, as considered in the research. Moreover, it could be useful to deep the analysis applying the suggested LCC approach to a larger sample, even in other sector, to verify the usefulness of the LCC application in quantifying whole life cost.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014 .1492.1506 2014/07/05 - 22:17

Within a business enterprise, process innovations lead to reduced production costs and to increased profit margins. In this study, we shall examine an olive farm that operates in a perfectly competitive market that has introduced a process innovation so as to contain labour costs and therefore production costs. So, the paper aimed at comparing economic competitiveness of an olive farm that introduced mechanical olive pickers (process innovation) for harvest respect to manual harvest. In the case under scrutiny, for the same price, the reduced production cost determined a shift from a situation of being at a loss to one of profit for the business. Economic analysis showed that introduction of mechanical olive pickers can determine a competitive advantage in small and medium-sized olive farms of Mediterranean areas which decide to mechanize the harvest.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1486.1491 2014/07/05 - 22:17

A steady two-dimensional MHD free convection of heat transfer in flow past a semi-infinite flat plate in transverse magnetic field with heat flux has been examined. The governing partial differential equation are non-dimensionalised and transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential similarity equations, in a single independent variable η and using Runge-Kutta Gill method with shooting technique. The velocity and temperature distributions are discussed numerically and presented through graphs. Skin-friction coefficient and the Nusselt number are derived, discussed numerically and their numerical values for various values of physical parameter are presented through tabular form. The effects of magnetic parameter, permeability parameter and Prandtl number on the velocity and temperature profiles were displayed graphically for different values of parameters entering into the problem. Significant changes were obtained in heat transfer coefficient due to the parameters. In addition, the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number were shown in tabular form.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1480.1485 2014/07/05 - 22:17

The application of diverse database technologies in enterprises today is increasingly a common practice. To provide high availability and survavibality of real-time information, a database replication technology that has capability to replicate databases under heterogenous platforms is required. The purpose of this research is to find the technology with such capability. In this research, the data source is stored in MSSQL database server running on Windows. The data will be replicated to MySQL running on Linux as the destination. The method applied in this research is prototyping in which the processes of development and testing can be done interactively and repeatedly. The key result of this research is that the replication technology applied, which is called Oracle GoldenGate, can successfully manage to do its task in replicating data in real-time and heterogeneous platforms.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1450.1455 2014/07/05 - 22:17

The motivation for the study is to improve the quality of life for elderly in residential care particularly the mental health aspect. Hence, the aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of depression and to identify risk factors related to depression among Malay elderly in residential care. Changes in social structure and economic status have shifted the direction of care for elderly people, as the value of filial piety has gradually declined among the modern Malays. The researchers hypothesized that the level of depression among institutionalized Malay elderly people is high. Altogether, 98 of Malay elderly (men 41.8%, women 58.2%) participated in this study from eight residential cares in Peninsular Malaysia. They were chosen according to the following criteria: Malay ethnic, aged 60 years and above, able to communicate and with no severe mental and/or physical health problem. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30) was used to assess depression among the elderly. Overall, the study found that 70.4% of the Malay elderly in the residential care were diagnosed with depression, where 39.8% had mild depression and 30.6% were suffered from major depression. Five factors were identified as the high risk factors of depression among the Malay elderly i.e., sadness, helplessness, isolation, loneliness and loss of interest in activities (76.8-86.9%). As a conclusion, the prevalence of depression among the Malay elderly in the present study is high. Besides arranging a regular program on screening for depression, it is also important for the residential care providers to create and organize special activities for the elderly in order to reduce them from the risk factors of depression. They should be ensured to have a healthier and happier life at the institutions, if the residential care providers would like to increase the elderly mental health status.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1456.1462 2014/07/05 - 22:17

Large amounts of a solid waste consisting mainly of outer bracts and stems are produced from the industrial processing of artichokes. In this study, the recovery of polyphenols from the two waste components was investigated. Extraction experiments were carried outby an environmentally friendly procedure using aqueous ethanol as solvent. The total polyphenol content, expressed as mg of GAE per g of dry weight, was 10.23±0.68 mg/g for bracts and 16.36±0.85 mg/g for stems. To evaluate the effect of Temperature (T), Extraction time (E) and liquid-to-solid Ratio (R) on the extraction yields, a central composite design coupled with response surface methodology was used. Under the best conditions (T = 50°C, E = 110.4 min and R = 20 mL g-1), extraction yields between 90 and 93% were obtained. Statistical analysis of the data showed that E was the most influential factor, followed by T and R. Simplified polynomial models were developed to describe the effect of individual factors and their interactions on the extraction yield of polyphenols. Overall, the results of this study support the potential of using artichoke waste as a source of natural phenolic antioxidants and give useful directions on how to improve recovery by proper selection of extraction conditions.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1463.1471 2014/07/05 - 22:17

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) would gradually be replaced by Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) as the next generation of Internet protocol. The Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP), one of the main protocols in the IPv6 suite, comprises Neighbor Discovery for IPv6. NDP is used by both hosts and routers. Its functions include Neighbor Discovery (ND), Router Discovery (RD), Address Auto configuration, Address Resolution, Neighbor Unreachability Detection (NUD), Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) and Redirection. If not secured, NDP is vulnerable to various attacks: Neighbor Solicitation (NS) spoofing and Neighbor Advertisement (NS) spoofing, redirection, stealing addresses, denial of service are examples of these attacks. Since its early stages of designing and development NDP assumes connections between nodes will be safe but deployment stage prove this assumption is incorrect and highlight the security holes. This fact leads Internet Engineer Task Force (IETF) to request solutions in order to overcoming these drawbacks. SEcure Neighbor Discovery or SEND is then proposed, SEND solve a part of the threats associated with NDP and request for more researches to find a better solution that manage to forbid all these threats and ignore its limitations. This study presents a new mechanism to avoid security threats for IPv6 NDP based on digital signature procedures. The proposed solution is manage to eliminate the threats because it do mapping and binding between IP address, MAC address and public keys of the nodes in the node’s neighbors cache, intruders will not be able to spoof other nodes’ IP addresses.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2014.1472.1479 2014/07/05 - 22:17