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American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Problem statement: There are indications that appropriate chew treats can contribute to the
control of canine periodontal disease. It was reasoned that the incorporation of a cellulose fiber
network into the treat may improve the efficacy, but for proof experimental data were required.
Approach: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with privately owned dogs was carried out to
assess the efficacy of a cellulose preparation (Arbocel BWW40®) in the treatment of periodontal
disease. With the use of a questionnaire, the clinical signs were evaluated by the owners. There were
10 clinical signs: extent and severity of dental plaque and calculus, extent of gingivitis, redness,
swelling, bleeding and firmness of gingivae and halitosis. For a period of 8 weeks, the test dogs daily
received a chew treat to which 4% of the cellulose preparation was added. The control dogs were given
a chew treat with identical formula, but without added cellulose. During the trial, all dogs were fed the
same, complete dry food. There were 16 test dogs and 15 control dogs. Results: When compared with
the baseline values, the administration of the test chew significantly improved 8 out of the 10 clinical
signs. In the placebo group there was a significant improvement for 6 clinical signs. When the
improvements over time for the two groups were compared, there were no statistically significant
differences. When the score changes for all 10 clinical signs were added up as an overall index of
improvement of periodontal disease, the test group showed a 17% greater amelioration than did the
control group. Conclusion: The addition of the cellulose preparation had further enhanced the efficacy
of the treat, possibly through an increase in mechanical cleansing and chewing time. This study
indicates that a cellulose-containing treat is beneficial for dogs with periodontal disease and it is
suggested that it may also impair its development. 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Recently, Salmonella hadar has been isolated and identified from goat
in Iraq. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ultrastructural changes in the ileum
epithelial cells of mice experimentally infected with Salmonella hadar. Approach: The white BALB/c
mice inoculated orally with Salmonella enterica serovar hadar strain and their ileums were examined
by transmission electron microscopy at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h after inoculation. Results: The
challenge organism appeared adhered to the mucosal microvilli of the ileum from 24 h postinoculation.
The early ultrastructural changes characterized by local derangement with slight swelling
of the proximal ends of the microvilli. In addition, there was ruffling of the apical cell surfaces of the
microvilli with cytoplasmic vacuolization of enterocytes due to invading by the organisms. The
Challenge organism was usually intact and enclosed by a membrane. The damage of the epithelial cells
started as a minor lesion at 24 h and became severe after 48, 72 and 96 h post infection. The more severe
ultrastructural changes in the ileum occurred at 120 h post infection, which revealed hypertrophy of
goblet cell, dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum, severe cytoplasmic vacuolization, thickening of the
nuclear membrane and several Salmonella Containing Vacuoles (SCV). Conclusion: Our results
revealed that the cellular invasion by Salmonella hadar may occurred early than 24 h because of the
obvious alterations seen in the cells of the ileum at this time of infection. In addition, the continuation
of cellular pathological changes for 120 h post infection may refers that S. hadar has some
mechanisms which aid it to survive and replicate within intestinal cells. We recommend further studies
with early observation periods in order to determine the invasion time. 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Esophageal surgery is associated with greater wound healing problems
than surgery on other portion of the alimentary tract. Omentum and fresh bone marrow are rich source
of angiogenic factors that promote the growth of blood vessels into wound tissue. The aim of this study
was evaluation of the effects of a combination of autogenous fresh bone marrow and omental free graft
in esophageal wound healing. Approach: This study was carried out on 8 male adult dogs, assigned
into two equal treatment and control groups. All dogs underwent cervical esophagotomy and
laparotomy operations, also bone marrow aspiratin, simultaneously. A 3 cm linear full thickness
incision was made on the cervical esophagus and then sutured. In treatment group, A small piece of
omentum was obtained from abdominal cavity and secured on esophageal suture line and then 1 mL of
fresh bone marrow was injected into the omental graft and wound edge. In the control group, the suture
line was left without any treatment and the harvested omentum and aspirated bone marrow were
disposed. During this study, the dogs were examined clinically and they were euthanized 14 days after
operation. The surgical site of esophagus was assessed macroscopically and then histopathologic samples
were taken from the repaired tissue of esophageal wall. The samples were stained by hematoxylin-eosin
and masson-trichorome. Results: The clinical evaluation of present study revealed that all dogs were
healthy with no major postoperative complications. There was no significant difference based on
macroscopic examination in surgical site of esophagus between the two groups. The microscopic study
revealed that inflammatory cells, angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation in wound bed of the
treatment group were significantly more than the control group. Conclusion: According to the results of
this study, application of a combination of autogenously fresh bone marrow and free omental graft can
improve wound healing process in esophageal incision wounds. 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Escherichia coli isolates are the most common bacterial agents of
salpingitis in commercial layer hens. The objectives of this study were to determine the phylogenetic
groups/subgroups and antibiotic resistance of E. coli isolates from salpingitis cases in commercial layer
hens farms in southeast of Iran. Approach: One hundred twenty one E. coli isolates from oviducts of
layer hens with salpingitis were examined to determine their O-serogroup, phylogenetic
group/subgroup and antibiotic resistance pattern. Results: O-serogroup determination test showed that
47 (38.84%) isolates were typeable and belonged to eleven different O serogroups including: O1, O2,
O6, O8, O15, O20, O25, O36, O78, O86 and O111 and 71 (58.67%) isolates were O-nontypeable.
Three most prevalent serogroup were O78, O2 and O1 respectively. PCR assays showed that the
isolates fall into four phylogenetic groups A (41.32%), D (33.88%), B2 (14.87%) and B1 (9.91%).
Ninety nine (81.81%) isolates fell into six phylogenetic subgroups including: A0 (17.35%), A1
(23.96%), B22 (5.78%), B23 (9.09%), D1 (13.22%) and D2 (20.66%). All of the E. coli isolates from
O78 serogroup belonged to A phylo-group whereas the O2 isolates mostly fell into D group. The
maximum antibiotic resistance was against tetracycline (100%) and minimum resistance was against
linco-spectin (37.19%). Twenty four isolates (19.83%) were resistant to all of the examined antibiotics.
Twenty three different patterns of multiple drug resistance were observed, out of which N-Te-Sxt-Fm-
Nfx-C and N-Te-Sxt-Gm-Fm-Nfx-C-Ls was the two most frequent patterns respectively. The resistant
isolates were found in all of the phylogenetic groups and or sub groups. Conclusion: There are
similarities between salpingitis derived E. coli strains and other avian pathogenic E. coli isolates in
phylogroups, O-serogroups and antibio-resistance patterns. 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: In many hot arid countries, pregnant Holstein Friesian heifers are
imported for herd replacement. The calves obtained from exotic cows are exposed to adverse climate
in feedlot system resulting in very high morbidity and mortality rates. Diarrhea, dehydration and deaths
are causing a major loss to the producers. This study examines the Risk Rates (RR) for morbidity and
mortality in pre-weaned calves. Approach: Thirteen commercial dairy farms of small, medium and
large sizes were surveyed using 1,280 newborn calves. A survey was conducted for calves from their
birth to weaning at 90 day. Parameters of the study were birth weights, colostrum feeding, growth rate,
incidences of diseases, clinical symptoms, post-mortem findings and results of laboratory investigations
of samples obtained from sick and dead calves. Calf housing and feeding management of 13 farms were
investigated. Results: RR for morbidity and mortality ranged from 0.3-1.00 and being highest during the
first week. Most common disease was diarrhea representing 90.6% of the total calves affected. Common
pathogens causing diarrhea were E. coli, Salmonella sp. Klebsiella, Pasturella and rotavirus.
Relationship between calf management and morbidity RR for diarrhea was significant (r2 = 627, p = 0.01)
and the growth rate was positively correlated (r2 = 0.761, p = 0.1). Diarrhea caused a significant negative
impact on gross margins of the calf enterprises. Conclusion: Colostrum feeding and housing
management were the key factors for causing a high RR for morbidity and mortality. Gross margin
loss was significantly influenced by morbidity and mortality RR of calves. 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Endogenous enzymes of broilers cannot adequately digest nonstarch
polysaccharides and subsequently the ingestion of high levels of soluble NSP leads to increased digesta
viscosity and reduced nutrient digestibility and absorption. Supplementation of NSPs degrading
enzymes may remove the anti nutritive effects of NSPs and release some nutrients (starch, protein)
from these elements. Therefore, in a completely randomized design the effects of a multi-enzyme
(Endofeed W produced from Aspergillus niger, with minimum activity of 2250 u g−1 xylanase and
700 u g−1 β-glucanase) supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, carcass composition
and some blood parameters in Cobb 500 broilers fed on corn-soybean meal-wheat diets were studied.
Approach: A total of 150 one-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were used in a completely
randomized design with 2 treatments and 3 replicates. The main ingeridients of diets included corn,
soybean meal and wheat. The enzyme levels added to the diets were 0.00 (control) and 500 mg kg−1
DM. Results: Enzyme supplementation significantly improved relative growth, energy efficiency and
protein efficiency from 11-28 days of age. Adding enzyme significantly decreased body weight gain,
feed intake and improved feed to gain ratio, energy efficiency and protein efficiency from 29-44 days
of age (p<0.05). Relative growth, energy efficiency and protein efficiency was increased and body
weight gain, feed intake and feed to gain ratio was decreased by enzyme supplementation from 1-44
days (p<0.05). Enzyme addition significantly increased carcass and thighs + drumsticks percentages at
44 days of age. Adding enzyme significantly increased the concentration of blood Triiodothyronine
(T3) at 28 and 44 days and reduced the concentration of blood Thyroxine (T4) at 44 days of age.
Enzyme inclusion increased the concentration of blood total cholesterol at 10, 28 and 44 days of age,
however triglyceride concentrations increased at 10 and 44 days (p<0.05). The concentration of blood
uric acid was significantly decreased at 28 and 44 days in broilers fed enzyme supplemented diets.
Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that supplementation diets with 500 mg kg−1 multi-enzyme
(Endofeed W) in corn-soybean meal-wheat based diet improved broiler chickens feed to gain ratio,
carcass yield and it can change the concentrations of thyroid hormones and some metabolites in blood,
but it had not significant effect on carcass composition. 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Adiponectin is a hormone expressed from adipose tissue in people,
rodents and dogs. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory action with beneficial effects on cardiovascular
health and insulin sensitivity. With increasing fat mass, adiponectin concentrations paradoxically
decrease. Adiponectin’s role in metabolism and diabetes mellitus is of interest in feline medicine
because cats are susceptible to developing type II diabetes with weight gain. This study determined
relative amounts of adiponectin mRNA expression from various body tissues and organs in domestic
cats. Approach: Two intact male cats and one intact female cat were evaluated post-mortem. All cats
were estimated to be young adults and had lean body conditions. Tissues samples from inguinal
subcutaneous adipose, visceral mesenteric adipose, liver, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, aorta,
stomach fundus, duodenum, pancreas, thyroid gland, adrenal gland (cortex and medulla) and renal
cortex were collected and frozen. Following RNA extraction, adiponectin mRNA expression of each
tissue was detected using Reverse Transcriptase (RT) real-time (Q) PCR. Results: Visceral adipose
tissue had the highest level of expression, averaging 12% higher than subcutaneous adipose. All other
tissues had negligible levels of expression compared to adipose samples. Conclusion: This study
provided a valuable step for adiponectin research in cats by determining which tissues express this
hormone. Cats differ from human beings by expressing higher levels of adiponectin in visceral
compared to subcutaneous fat. The metabolic impact of this expression pattern is not known and
provides a basis for future research. 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Hypercholesterol and fatty acids in plasma are the main causes for
cardiovascular disease. Reduction of risk factors from diet that associated with cardiovascular disease
has much attention in animals as well as in human. The objective of this study was to investigate the
effects of feeding liquid metabolite combinations produced by five L. plantarum strains on the fatty
acids and cholesterol concentration in plasma of postweaning piglets. Approach: A total of 120
postweaning piglets aged 26 day olds (Large White x Landrace x Duroc) were randomly assigned into
one of five treatments. (i) basal diet with free antibiotic (-ve control); (ii) basal diet with 0.03% of
chlortetracycline antibiotic (+ve control); (iii) basal diet with 0.3% metabolite of TL1, RG11 and RI11
(Com 1); (iv) basal diet with 0.3% metabolite of TL1, RG14 and RS5 (Com 2); (v) basal diet with
0.3% metabolite of RG11, RG14 and RI11 (Com 3). The experiment was conducted for 5 weeks. Fatty
acids were analysed by Gas Chromatography (GC) and cholesterol was detected using commercial
diagnostic kit. Results: The piglets fed with metabolite combinations were found to reduce plasma
cholesterol and Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA) concentrations, particularly in Com 2 group which was
significantly lower (p<0.05) than the -ve control group. In contrast, the Unsaturated Fatty Acids
(USFA) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in Com 2 than -ve control group. The ratio of USFA and
SFA was significantly higher (1.14%) in Com 2 as compared to -ve control group. However, there was
significantly lower (p<0.05) in Com 3 as compared to control groups for the ratio of omega-6 and
omega-3 in plasma of piglets. Conclusion: Metabolite combinations produced by L. plantarum strains
have potential effects in influencing the lipid contents and reducing the cholesterol profile of the pig’s
plasma. 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Using Guar Meal (GM) in poultry diets has being limited because of
having β-mannan, one of the Nonstarch Polysaccharides (NSP). In this study we try evaluating effects
of enzyme supplementation of GM-included diets on productive performance of laying hens.
Approach: A total number of 144 Lohmann LSL-Lite hens were divided in 24 cages (n = 6). Based on
a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, six iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets including 3 levels
of GM (0.0, 35.0 and 70.0 g kg-1) with and without enzyme (Hemicell® a β-mannanase-based enzyme,
0.0 and 0.6 g kg-1) were assigned to hens in 4 cages (replicates). Data was analyzed based on
completely randomized design using GLM procedure of SAS. Results: Dietary GM inclusion
significantly affected on Egg Production (EP) on weeks 2, 4 and 6 as well as the overall trail period.
Hens fed the GM-included diets did have decreased EP compared to hens fed the control diet. Almost
the same trend was observed in terms of Egg Mass (EM); so that hens fed the GM-included diets
showed decreased EM compared to the hens fed the control diet. Enzyme supplementation did not
have significant effect on EP in the present experiment, but EM was significantly improved in the hens
fed the β-mannanase-supplemented diets on weeks 3, 6 and the overall experimental period. Dietary
inclusion GM increased Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) of laying hens compared to the hens fed the
control diets on weeks 2, 4, 6 and overall trial period. Conclusion/Recommendations: Including GM
in laying hens’ diets more than 3% may decrease productive performance. Supplementing cornsoybean
or corn-soybean-GM diets by β-mannanase would have beneficial effects on performance of
hens especially in terms of FCR and EP. 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Endurance horses are generally exposed to severe stress during
endurance competitions. These horses are however conditioned to cover the long distances of the
competitions at moderate speeds. Approach: This study was conducted in Malaysia to determine the
post-race hematological, blood electrolyte and biochemical and physical parameters of horses of 40, 80
and 120 km endurance race categories and eliminated and horses that completed the races with good
performance. Whole blood, plasma and serum samples were collected after each race. Results:
After physical examination 7 (9.72%) 120 km-, 48 (66.67%) 80 km- and 17 (23.61%) 40 km-race
horses were eliminated. Eight horses, all from the 80 km-race category completed the race with good
performance. The mean heart of the good performance horses (74.2±13.9 beats min-1) was higher than
that of the eliminated 40 km- (68.2±14.7 beats min-1), 80 km-race (62.9±9.7 beats min-1) horses. The
blood lactate concentration of good performance horses was 9.2±2.2 mmol L-1, which was
significantly higher than in the 40 km- (6.0±2.9 mmol L-1), 80 km- (6.7±3.2 mmol L-1) and the 120
km-race (6.4±1.6 mmol L-1) horses. The blood glucose concentration was lower in the good
performance horses (1.6±0.9 mmol L-1) than the eliminated 40 km- (5.7±1.9 mmol L-1), 80 km-
(4.3±2.4 mmol L-1) and the 120 km-race (5.0±1.4 mmol L-1) horses. Conclusion: The study showed
that eliminated horses exhibited poorer glucose utilization than good performance horses, which may
have resulted in poor lactate production. Thus the blood lactate and glucose concentrations of horses
during training may be used to predict their performance in endurance races. 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: The objective of this experiment was to manufacture an Iranianlow fat
probiotic cheese. Approach: Iranian white brine cheeses (4 trials) were made by varyingprocesses,
i.e., lowering the fat content and use of probiotic adjunct culture on separate days. All types of cheeses
were ripened at 13°C for 2 weeks and at 6°C to the end of ripering period. Cheeses were analyzed for
the compositional, microbiological, color and sensory characteristics and also lipolysis and organic
acid profile. The Cheese of each trial was sampled at 1, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days during ripening.
Results: Decreasing the fat level resulted in significant increases (p<0.05) in the level of moisture,
protein and pH of whey. The results show that probiotic cheeses had higher moisture and pH than
cheeses with bacteria (p<0.05). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) between the
concentration of L. acidophilus of cheese groups when the fat content of samples was reduced. The
rate and extent of lipolysis in the full-fat cheese was higher than in the low-fat control cheese (p<0.05).
Results also showed decreasing fat content and addition of adjunct culture to the cheese treatments
decreased the acetic and lactic acid contents (p<0.05). Decreasing the fat content of cheese samples
and use of both factor in the treatments increased the a* value in the samples. Low fat cheeses received
higher flavor and odor scores than full fat cheeses. Also addition of adjunct culture significantly
(p<0.05) decrease the texture score of manufactured cheeses. Conclusion: Therefore the results of this
study showed that the Iranian probotic low fat cheese is a functional food. It has better flavor and odor
than normal cheese and can be used in many cases like as heart disease and obesity. 2011/01/11 - 03:28