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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Problem statement: To determine the effect of the Tetra calcium phosphate and Diacalcium phosphate cement in comparison with bone plate in fracture repair in rabbit. Experimental in vivo study. A total of 18 adult male White New Zealand rabbits, weighing 3.0±0.250 Kg and about 6 months old were used. They were fasted 4 h before start of experiment and were off-water even 2 h too. They were divided into 2 groups of bone plate (I) and cement (II) of 9 rabbits each which subsequently divided into 3 subgroups of 1(I a and II a) month and 2 (Ib and IIb)and 3 (Ic and IIc) months duration in each group. Approach: Under general anesthesia and aseptic condition the craniolateral surface of right radial was exposed and a piece of full thickness from mid-section of radial bone in length of 1cm was removed using electrical bone vibrator in the all rabbit. The both ends of this bone was stabilized using mini bone plate of 4 holes in the group I, whereas prehardened cylinders of cement were implanted into rabbit radial defects in the group II rabbits. Radiographs were taken on zero days after creation of gap and on 1, 2 and 3 months from each rabbit using parameters such as local changes, stabilization of implant and bone, bone formation and implant biodegradation. Results: Comparison of clinical signs in the I and II indicated that they had similar physical activity and same degree of lameness during observation period of 90 days Radiographyically keeping in view the parameters were used to evaluate the major changes revealed no sign of infection on the edges of each defect and both groups permitted stabilization of the defected bones and maintenance of correct position. The new bone formation and the implant biodegradation in the bone defects could be clearly reflected by the gradually weakened umbral on the radiographs during the whole process one repair in group I was not as perfect as those in cement or group II samples. Conclusion/Recommendations: Application of paste of tetra calcium phosphate and diacalcium phosphate indicated to have positive effect in integral formation of qualitative callus at the site of fracture and early re-organization of callus too.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2009.80.84 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Scales of the dorsal portions of shed skin of king cobras (Ophiophagus hannah) was used as the barrier membrane for in vitro permeation of nicotine and phenol at toxic or irritable concentration levels. The scales were placed between solutions of nicotine or phenol in a donor solution at pH 5.6 and a receptor solution at pH 7.4. Cumulative amounts of nicotine and phenol permeated, measured by UV-spectrophotometry which was checked by HPLC, showed a linear relationship with time (r2 > 0.99), giving permeation rates of 3.76, 8241.98 µg cm-2 h-1 and permeability coefficients of 0.38µ10-3, 90.2µ10-3 cm h-1, respectively. Photomicrographs of the scales by scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed 3 layers of which the innermost acting as the permeation barrier. Nicotine and phenol passed the micropits of the outer layer of the scales into the middle space where the compounds being reserved and then permeated the innermost layer of the skin. It is likely that this might be the pathway that these dose-dependent compounds were absorbed through snake skins.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.84.88 2011/01/11 - 03:28

In order to determine of nutritive value of alfalfa in different cuts using in situ and gas production technique, this study was carried out. Three wethers (49±2.6 kg) were used in in situ method. The gas production was measured at 2,4,6,8,12,16,24,36,48,72 and 96 h and ruminal dry matter and crude protein disappearance were measured at 0,4,8,12,16,24,36,48,72 and 96 h. Dry matter degradability’s in first, second and third cuts of alfalfa at 96 h were 60.47, 64.71 and 64.36%, respectively. Crude protein degradability’s of mentioned cuts were 60.47, 63.08 and 58.07%, respectively. The gas productions of them at 96 h were 322.54, 295.21 and 300.32 mL g-1 DM respectively. The relationship between dry matter and gas production values for alfalfa cuts obtained about 0.89, 0.85 and 0.84 and for crude protein and gas production data achieved 0.87, 0.88 and 0.84, respectively. High correlation between in situ and gas production techniques indicated that in situ degradability’s values can be predicted from gas production data.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.85.89 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Imported Holstein Friesian dairy cattle are exposed to hot arid climate in feedlot management in Kuwait. Desert climate is extreme reaching high 45-50°C in summer and low -4°C in winter at day and night respectively. High calf mortality, poor reproduction and milk yields were main constraints to viable dairying. The objectives of this study were to assess the magnitude of calf mortality, its causes; implement strategic intervention measures for improving calf survival rates and evaluate dairy herd performance. Approach: Two scenarios were used: (1) studying dairy herd performance without applying intervention measures and (2) introducing improved management with interventions. Performance of the herds of situations 1 and 2 were compared. Three classes of dairy herds, pre-weaned calves, heifers and first lactation cows born in Kuwait were used. Results: Implementing intervention measures resulted in significant (p = 0.001) reduction of crude calf mortality rates from a mean of 43.6% to a low 4.67%. Growth rates of calves and heifers increased significantly, resulting in breeding of locally raised heifers at 15 mo age instead of usual practice of breeding at 18-22 mo. Feed cost was significantly reduced by 14-25% by early breeding of heifers. Herd culling rate was reduced from 62-33% and conception rates increased by 41%. The milk yield was increased by 1.25-1.50 fold through replacing the imported cows by locally born heifers. Adult cattle mortality rates reduced from high 9 to a low 1%. Case study showed that locally born and reared dairy herd formed a mean of 65.8% of total dairy cattle in cooperating farms. Conclusion: A systematic applied research studies in the commercial dairy farms had resulted in a visible improvement in the performance of all categories of locally born dairy herds and they were better adapted to the local hostile climate.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2009.85.91 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Intestinal protozoan parasites are important enteropathogens in dogs. Moreover, several canine intestinal protozoan parasites are zoonotic and are considered important to public health. This study investigates the level of intestinal protozoan parasites in stray dogs, in Kerman city, Iran. Approach: Determination of the prevalence of infections was based on faecal examination. Stool samples (n = 98) collected from dogs of different ages and gender were analyzed using five techniques, i.e., centrifugal flotation in sucrose solution, centrifugal flotation in 33% Zinc solphate solution, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, trichrome staining and iodine staining. Results: The overall prevalence of parasitism was 13 (13.26%) dogs. The parasites most frequently detected were: Giardia spp. (7.14%), Isospora spp. (5.1%) and Cryptosporidium spp. (4.08%). Single parasitic infection was present in 11 (11.22%) dogs. There was no significant difference in the prevalence between male (13.3%) and female (13.2%) dogs (p>0.05). There was significantly (p<0.05) greater prevalence of parasites in dogs less than 1 year old. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results of this research showed that stray dogs are reservoirs for zoonotic intestinal protozoan parasites and should be considered important to public health. So that, it is imperative for human to avoid faecal contamination in streets, public gardens and parks. Also stray dogs should be euthanized in dog population control programn Iran.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.86.90 2011/01/11 - 03:28

The effect of using a low protein regime in pullet development and subsequent layer performance was studied. The experiment consisted of two periods of rearing and laying. Two hundred and sixty Hy-line W36 chicks were used. In the rearing period, dietary protein level and ME content series of the control group used during starter (18-42), grower (43-63) and developer (64-119d) phases were 20, 2930, 18, 2930, and 16, 3025, respectively. Dietary protein sequence of the low protein group was 18.5, 16.5, and 14.6% during the respective periods. In the laying period lasted from week18 to week32 of age, CP content of the control and reduced-protein diets were 17.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Reduced-protein diets were kept isoenergetic with their corresponding controls in each period and phase and they balanced to keep the same total sulfur amino acid to lysine ratio as well. Results indicated that birds on reduced-protein diet during starter phase of the rearing period consumed less feed (p = 0.003) and as a result they had significantly (p = 0.012) better feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control. However, dietary protein regime had no significant effect on weight gain, feed intake and FCR during grower and developer phases. In the laying period, there was no significant difference in terms of layer performance and egg quality criteria. In conclusion, reduced-CP diets can be satisfactory used for rearing pullets and laying hens up to 32 weeks of age.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.89.92 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Chlamydophila abortus is one of the pathogens which induce abortion in small ruminants; this pathogen has a tropism for ruminant placenta and causes the disease commonly referred to as Ovine Enzootic Abortion (OEA). In Europe are estimated economic losses of around 20 million pounds a year by OEA. In the American Continent the disease has been reported only in Canada, the United States, Colombia and Chile while in Mexico it is unknown whether OEA is common and it is causing abortions in flocks of sheep from “Estado de Mexico”. The objective of this study was investigating the prevalence of anti-Chlamydophila abortus IgG antibodies and detection of C. abortus DNA in sheep with clinical abort history by mean of ELISA assay (C. abortus ELISA, Institute Pourquier, Montpellier, France) and molecular identification of the principal outer membrane protein (POMP 90-91B) gene by PCR, respectively. A cross-sectional study was carried out to enroll and random sample of ewes from november 2003 until march 2005. A total of 349 sera and vaginal swabs samples were collected from 35 flocks of sheep from Xalatlaco. The results showed that the seropositive rate was 31.1% (14/45) for healthy and 21.3% (65/304) for sheep with history clinical of abort. In vaginal swabs, the PCR showed 0% (0/45) for healthy animals and 0.65% (2/304) for aborted sheep. Samples from the lungs and liver of the fetus of one of these animals were also positive for C. abortus. In conclusion, these results confirmed that infection with C. abortus is common and is affecting sheep flocks in the Mexican highlands. Therefore, is necessary that the authorities responsible for animal welfare in Mexico (SAGARPA) to set up appropriate epidemiological surveillance and control programs to eradicate this disease.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.91.95 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Omphalitis is one of the most common causes of mortality in chicks during the first week after hatching. Escherichia coli strains are the most common isolated bacteria from omphalitis cases of chickens. Bacterial colonization in the host cells surfaces is a critical first step in the pathogenesis of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates. Thus the current study was undertaken to determine the presence and prevalence of several adhesin-encoding genes in E. coli isolates from omphalitis of chicks. Approach: One hundred four E. coli isolates were recovered from omphalitis cases and were identified by standard biochemical tests. The omphalitis-derived isolates were examined for the presence of fimbrial and non-fimbrial adhesin-encoding genes by PCR technique. Results: Most (93.26%) of the E. coli isolates exhibited at least one of the examined adhesin-encoding genes. None of the isolates contained the afaI B-C, afa E-VIII and f17A genes. The two most prevalent genes were crl (87.50%) andfimH (77.88%). P (papC) and S (sfa) fimbriae encoding genes were detected in 8 (7.69%) and 5 (4.80%) isolates respectively. Seven combination patterns of the adhesin-encoding genes were detected. In 83 (79.80%) isolates combinations of 2-4 genes were detected. The gene combinations of crl-fimHand fimH-papC were the two most prevalent patterns respectively. Fourteen (13.46%) isolates showed crl gene alone and 7 (6.73%) isolates were negative for examined genes. Conclusion: The current study showed that some of the adhesin-encoding genes are more prevalent in E. coli isolates from omphalitis of chicks but, E. coli isolates may be expressing still unknown adhesins that could have a role in the pathogenicity of omphalitis-derived isolates.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.91.96 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: In beef cattle production, of meat quality and carcass traits are important. Traditionally beef cattle breeding programs unfortunately are time consuming and also recording of carcass and growth traits need heavy cost, Approach: Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) should be utilized in beef herds, along with economically important phenotypic traits, for genetic progress to made with respect to improving the uniformity and consistency of beef. Blood samples were collected from 41 nelor cattle in Malaysia. Forward and reversed primers amplified a 1552 bp fragment from calpastatin gene. XmnI enzyme was used for restriction analysis of PCR products. Result: Overall, the frequency of alleles A and B in the studied breeds were estimated as 0.42 and 0.58, respectively. In this study we calculated genotype frequency AA, AB and BB 12.2, 58.53 and 29.27% respectively and also observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and average value of heterozygosity were 0.58, 0.49 and 0.48 respectively. Highest frequency of allele was B (0.58) and lowest was A (0.42) This Nelor cattle population was in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Conclusion: Perhaps, this molecular genetic information helps breeders for designing the proper genetic selection program in the development direction of this breed.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2009.92.94 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Thirty early-weaned 5±3 month-old calves with an average body weight of 96±23 kg were used; 24 were artificially infested with 90 larvae (L3), of H. contortus per kilogram body weight. Calves grazed on African Star Grass (Cynodon plectostachyus) from 0600 to 1300 hours. Grazing was supplemented with lucerne hay (Medicago sativa) or cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta), and 500 g-1 head-1 day-1 of a commercial feed containing 16% crude protein and trace-mineralized salt, offered during the time spent in confinement. Five treatments were compared: (1) infested, supplemented with lucerne; (2) as treatment (1), drenched; (3) infested, supplemented with cassava; (4) as treatment (3), drenched; (5) non-infested, supplemented with cassava. Each treatment had three replicates of two calves. Those that were drenched orally received 7 mg kg-1 albendazole on day 21 after being infested. The experiment lasted until 35 days after infestation. The response criteria were number of nematodes in the abomasum and egg count per gram of feces, both taken at weekly intervals. Numerical data were analysed as a completely randomized design, including the effect of sampling week for egg counts and feed intake. The average number of nematodes found in the abomasums did not differ between treatments (P<0.05), the observed values being from 200 to 496 H. contortus. Regarding the egg count in feces, the highest figure (822 g-1) was observed in the undrenched control treatment and the lowest (115 g-1) in the cassava-albendazole treatment. In general, there was a 50-85% reduction in egg counts when cassava foliage was used; the response seemingly being improved when the nematicide was administered. Dry matter intake was lower (P<0.05) for the cassava treatments. In conclusion, cassava foliage could be used for controlling and reducing the infestation of cattle by H. contortus.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.93.98 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Supplementation of broiler diets with cristalline amino acids (i.e. lysine, ethionine and threonine) may support equal broiler growth and improve overall amino acids balance and enable a reduction in CP level of diets. Approach: A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental L-leucine in diets containing recommended levels and low crude protein (20 and 18%, respectively) with constant metabolizable energy (3200 kcal kg-1) for broilers from 21-42 day of age. Six experimental diets were formulated with three levels of supplemental L-leucine, 0, 0.5 and 0.67% and two levels of crude protein. A total of 180 1 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were randomly divided into 36 experimental pens, 5 chickens in each pen, with each diet replicated 6 times. The dietary treatments were offered from 21-42 days of age. Feed intake, body weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were measured on a weekly basis. At the end of the feeding trial the birds were slaughtered and carcass analyses conducted. Results: Feed intake, weight gain and FCR were not affected by increasing levels of L-leucine supplementation. Weight gain was significantly reduced (p<0.05), whereas feed intake and FCR were not significantly affected with decreasing dietary crude protein. A positive response in breast meat yield was achieved by the addition of L-leucine to levels up to 0.5% in the diet but a significant decrease was noted when the level reached 0.67% in diet. Supplementation of L-leucine significantly (p<0.05) decreased the relative weights of the liver and gizzard. However, the addition of L-leucine significantly reduced carcass weights when L-leucine was added at 0.67%. Lowering the dietary protein level also significantly reduced breast yield and carcass weight (p<0.05). However, abdominal fat, gizzard, liver and heart were not affected by protein level. Conclusion/Recommendations: It can be concluded that supplementation of L-leucine at levels up to 0.67% of the diet did not affect performance but deleteratious the carcass weight.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2009.95.100 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem Statement: Hypothyroidism has been a common disorder in humans and dogs. Amongst a sundry of functions, the thyroid gland plays a key role in metabolism and consequently, hypothyroidism has been a common diagnosis for a decrease in performance in sled dogs. Research has indicated that a variety of environmental factors influence thyroid hormone production, of which, light exposure, climate, latitude, exercise and season demonstrate pronounced effects. Sled dogs are exposed to many of these variables and often display thyroid hormone levels that are clinically below normal ranges. Approach: This study took a cross-latitudinal naturalistic approach in determining the effects of day length, time of day, season, climate and exercise on thyroid hormone function in sled dogs. In the process, appropriate reference ranges for racing sled dogs were established that correlate with other studies involving working dogs. Results: There was a clear indication that thyroid hormones play an integral role in thermoregulation and are greatly affected by environmental cues. Unexpectedly, sled dogs in the sub Arctic were not more prone to hypothyroidism but in fact, had higher levels of most thyroid hormones than dogs residing at lower latitudes. Conclusion: An evolutionary adaptation may account for up-regulation of thyroid function in times of environmental extremes. Consequently, the normal range for most thyroid hormones in sled dogs is lower than clinical standards.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.96.103 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: There are indications for a beneficial effect of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans on the clinical signs of dogs with osteoarthritis. Data from a controlled trial were necessary to prove or disprove the indications. Approach: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with privately owned dogs was carried out to assess the efficacy of a preparation of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans in the treatment of osteoarthritis. With the use of a questionnaire, the clinical signs were evaluated by the owners. For a period of 8 weeks, the test dogs daily received a complete dry food without or with 800 ppm beta-1,3/1,6-glucans. There were 23 dogs per experimental group. Results: When compared with the baseline values, the administration of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans significantly improved activity (vitality) and significantly reduced stiffness, lameness and pain. In the placebo group there only was a significant change in the clinical signs of stiffness. When the changes over time for the two groups were compared, there were no statistically significant differences, but the test group showed greater numerical improvement as to the scores for activity, stiffness, lameness and pain. Conclusion: Beta-1,3/1,6-glucans can be considered safe and it is suggested that a dose of 800 ppm in a dry food would be beneficial for dogs with osteoarthritis.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.97.101 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Heat stress is one of the major factors adversely affecting animal welfare and thus economic benefits of farms. This study was designed to determine the effects of three different spraying methods on goats for reducing heat stress. Thirty goats divided into three groups for the trial (One time sprayed a day: OTS, Two times sprayed a day TTS and Non-sprayed: Control). Respiration and pulse rates, rectal and surface temperatures (from head and udder skin) were taken three times a day (08.00-09.00, 16.00-17.00 and 12.00-01.00) on hot summer days in July-2005 under Mediterranean conditions. Some behavioural aspects such as eating, ruminating, drinking, walking and resting, daily feed and water consumption were regularly measured. The results showed that rectal temperatures (p&le;0.005), pulse (p&le;0.054) and respiration rates (p&le;0.049), udder (p&le;0.041) and head temperatures (p&le;0.033) in three groups were significantly different. Depending on rising air temperature, rectal, head and udder temperatures and respiration and pulse rates increased during daytime and retired to normal level at night time. TTS goats were superior to the others regarding above-mentioned physiological data. TTS goats spent more time than OTS and Control goats while eating (p&le;0.02), ruminating (p&le;0.04) and walking (p&le;0.01) but less time while drinking (p&le;0.01) and resting (p&le;0.01). Significant changes between three groups were ascertained regarding feed and water consumptions. TTS goats consumed more concentrate feed (p&le;0.042) and alfalfa hay (p = 0.032) than other two groups, whereas Control groups consumed more water (p&le;0.012) than the others. Ultimately, the spraying has positive effects on yearling goats for alleviating heat stress and improve animal welfare.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.99.103 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: There are indications that the intake of gelatin hydrolysate has a beneficial impact on the clinical signs of osteoarthritis in dogs. Data from a controlled trial were required to substantiate these indications. Approach: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with privately owned dogs was carried out to assess the efficacy of a preparation of gelatin hydrolysate in the treatment of osteoarthritis. With the use of a questionnaire, the clinical signs were evaluated by the owners. For a period of 8 weeks, the test dogs daily received 10 g of gelatin hydrolysate; as a placebo, soya protein isolate was used. The supplements were mixed with the diet; all dogs were fed on the same dry food. There were 15 dogs per treatment group. Results: The administration of gelatin hydrolysate significantly improved activity (vitality) and significantly reduced stiffness and lameness. Conclusion: Gelatin hydrolysate is commonly used as a component of human foods and is generally considered as safe. It is suggested that a dose of about 2.5% in a dry food would be beneficial for dogs with osteoarthritis.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.102.106 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Traditional medicines remain a source of potential for discovering of new compounds with valuable pharmacological activities. Leaves of Ficus carica were dried, powdered and extracted using methanol (ME).An aliquot of ME was dried and re-extracted by water:chloroform and the other aliquot by water: peteruleum ether. Effect of aqueous fractions of the former (ACR; 0.08, 0.1 and 0.13 mg dL-1), the latter (APR; 0.07, 0.1 and 0.15 mg dL-1) and ME (0.03, 0.05 and 0.08 mg dL-1) of Ficus carica leaf on the secretion and cell content of cholesterol in HepG2 cells were studied. Extracts were added to the media in both basal and glucose stimulated conditions and incubated for 48h.While glucose significantly increased cholesterol secretion (17±0.76 mg dL-1) vs basal condition (6.91±0.66 mg dL-1), co-incubation with extracts reduced secretion of cholesterol in many concentrations of the stimulated condition. On the other hand, cholesterol content of HepG2 in glucose stimulated condition (2.73±0.39 mg dL-1) showed significant increase compared to the basal status (1.96±0.14 mg dL-1) (p<0.001).Moreover such decrease was shown in response to many concentrations of the extracts. These properties making the hydro-extracts of fig leaf a potentially safe intervention to modulate postprandial hyperlipidemia.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.104.107 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Hypospadias, a more extreme form of congenital urethral defect, is seen in young phenotypically male goats. In hypospadias, the urethra remains open on the ventral surface of the penis and is visible externally on the preputial midline. Problem statement: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical treatment outcome in hypopadiac kids. Approach: Thirty six male goat kids with sings of hypospadias were referred to the Animal Hospital of Veterinary Medicine Faculty of Kerman, Iran. The age of patients ranged from one week to 3 months old. The kids were showed symptoms of dysuria and stranguria, during urination. Urine leaked into the subcutaneous tissue of ventral abdominal wall and prepuce. Surgical reconstruction is the only possible therapeutic option for hypospadias. In the current study, permanent urethrostomy operation was carried out for treatment of all kids. Results: Two weeks after surgery the goat kids were in good condition. After 2 months, no significant postoperative complications were observed. Conclusion: Permanent urethrostomy is a reliable technique to treatment of hypospadiac kids.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.107.110 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Some feedstuffs which used in ruminants diet (corn grain, soybean meal, wheat bran and alfalfa) were analyzed for chemical composition, apparent in vivo nutrient digestibility, in vitro fermentation gas production and metabolizable energy. Chemical composition of test feeds differed in nutrient contents. Initially apparent in vivo digestibility of alfalfa nutrients were obtained then digestibility of nutrients for the other test feeds were determined by difference method, using 16 Ghezel mature rams (mean weight of 43.9±4 kg). In vivo DM, CP, NDF and OM apparent digestibility were different among the test feeds (p<0.05). Regarding to the results, corn grain had a high DM and OM digestibility between test feeds and soybean meal had a high CP and NDF digestibility between test feeds (p<0.05). Cumulative gas production was recorded at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation and the equation of p = A (1-e-ct) was used to describe the kinetics of gas production. Potential gas production (A) and rates of gas production (c) differed (p<0.01) among feeds. Corn grain showed higher potential gas production (A) (326.5 mL g-1 DM) and wheat bran had higher rate of gas production (c) (0.097 h1) than the other feeds, inverses alfalfa (257.6 mL g−1 DM) and corn grain (0.048 h1) had lower potential gas production and rate of gas production than the other test feeds, respectively. The metabolizable energy (MJ kg-1 DM) content of feeds was calculated using in vivo organic matter digestibility and gas production data. According to in vivo organic matter digestibility data, the ME values ranged from 9.2 in alfalfa to 13.3 MJ kg−1 DM in corn grain. It was concluded that regarding to different chemical composition of test feeds, the in vivo digestibility, in vitro gas production and ME of feeds showed different values.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.108.113 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: In the past, aquafeeds were comprised largely of fish meal and fish oil derived from marine reduction fisheries. In addition to being highly palatable and readily digested by cultured fishes, these feedstuffs were historically inexpensive sources of protein, energy and essential nutrients. However, increasing cost and concerns over safety and sustainability have greatly incentivized the transition from fish meal and oil to alternative sources of protein and lipid for aquafeed formulation. Fish oil replacement is proving more difficult than originally anticipated, particularly for marine carnivorous species. Approach: If complete fish oil replacement is not a viable goal for fish nutritionists and aquafeed manufacturers, at a minimum, we must strive for judicious use of limited marine-derived resources. In the present review, we explore the opportunities of using rendered fats as alternatives to marine-derived fish oils in aquaculture feeds, beginning with a discussion of the products themselves before reviewing the most recent literature and concluding with a discussion of the future of these products in aquafeed formulations. Results: Rendered fats have not been as intensively evaluated in aquaculture nutrition as grain and oilseed-derived lipids, although a number of recent publications on the subject suggest increasing interest in the use of rendered products in aquafeeds. Conclusion: Poultry fat, beef tallow, pork lard and to a lesser extent, yellow/restaurant grease and catfish oil, have been investigated individually or in combination with other lipids in feeds for a broad range of cultured taxa with generally acceptable results.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2009.108.128 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: There is evidence that the type of fiber influences the development of nephrocalcinosis in rats, but the effect of pectin was unknown. Approach: The effects of dietary pectin and cellulose on kidney calcification were studied in female rats. The diets used contained either 0.4-0.6% phosphorus and either cellulose (10%, w/w) or pectin. The purified diets used were balanced for residual calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in the fiber preparations. Results: Increasing the phosphorus concentration of the diet from 0.4-0.6% caused massive nephrocalcinosis in rats fed the cellulose diets. Pectin (10%, w/w) versus cellulose in diets containing 0.4% phosphorus significantly increased calcium and phosphorus concentrations in kidney. When compared with cellulose, pectin did not influence the apparent absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Urinary concentrations of calcium and magnesium were not affected by pectin feeding, but those of phosphorus were increased. When pectin was given with the diet containing 0.6% phosphorus, its nephrocalcinogenic action as compared with cellulose was not observed. Conclusion: Pectin instead of cellulose in diets containing 0.4% phosphorus induced nephrocalcinosis in female rats. The effect of pectin may be explained by an increase in urinary phosphorus concentration. The lack of nephrocalcinogenic action of pectin in a diet with 0.6% phosphorus indicates that the nephrocalcinosis-inducing effect of high phosphorus intake had overruled any effect of fiber type.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.111.116 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Myofibre characteristic, texture, structure and rheological properties of selected muscles (BF, SM and L) of roe deer of different carcass weight were compared. Muscle texture and rheological properties was determined with the TPA and relaxation test, respectively, performed with a Instron 1140 device. Fibre type percentage and structural elements (muscle fibre cross sectional area and perimysium thickness) were measured in muscle samples using a computer image analysis programme. Of the muscles tested, the highest hardness, chewiness, sum of viscous and elastic moduli and the lower tenderness were found in BF which, at the same time, showed the highest fibre cross sectional area and the thickest perimysium. The most delicate histological structure and the lowest percentage of type I fibres as well as the lowest hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness and sum of viscous moduli were found in L. The young roe deer muscles showed lower percentage of I fibre type as well as lower values of textural parameters, while the sum of viscous and elastic moduli were higher than in old roe deer muscles. The muscle fibre cross sectional area and the perimysium thickness of young animal muscles were lower than those in the meat of older roe deer.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.114.120 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: In our earlier study, dietary pectin has been shown to promote nephrocalcinosis in rats when compared with the feeding of cellulose. It was not known whether this pectin effect relates to its structure or to its monosaccharide component, galacturonic acid. Approach: The effects of dietary pectin, galacturonic acid and glucose on kidney calcification were studied in female rats. The purified diets used had similar concentrations of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Results: It was confirmed that the feeding of pectin (10%, w/w) versus cellulose in diets containing 0.4% phosphorus results in significantly greater calcium and phosphorus concentrations in kidney. The new finding was that pectin had a nephrocalcinogenic effect when compared with either galacturonic acid or glucose. Conclusion: The stimulatory effect of pectin on the development of nephrocalcinosis is specific and is related to its structure rather than to its galacturonic acid component.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.117.120 2011/01/11 - 03:28

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) on natural helminthes infection in lambs. Forty, four-month-old entire Santa Ines lambs were grazed on pasture, over a 20 week period. They were divided into 4 treatments: Without drenching (ND), 3 g A. indica/animal (A3), 6 g A. indica/animal (A6) and 9 g A. indica/animal (A9) over 5 consecutive days, with an interval of 25 days between drenchings. Faeces were collected weekly and lamb weight and blood collection were carried out fortnightly. Four weeks after the last drenching all lambs were slaughtered, and worm burdens calculated. No significant differences were observed for lamb performance between treatments. Blood parameters highlighted the progress of the worm infections, with sheep on treatments A6 and A9 ending the experiment showing anemia. There was an increase in the total number of worms associated with increasing levels of neem, especially due to the increase in number of H. contortus in detriment to the number of T. colubriformis for highest levels of neem (A6 and A9). The increasing doses of neem did not improve the control of endoparasites in sheep naturally infected.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.121.126 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Modern diets high in Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA) and low in Monounsaturated (MUFA) and Polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids are mostly blamed for the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Since dietary fatty acids are absorbed by monogastric animals and deposited in their tissues without significant modification, considerable potential exists for the manipulation of the fatty acid profile of poultry meat and eggs. In the present study, effects of different sources and levels of supplemental fat to low energy diets on energy and protein intake and efficiency during grower and finisher periods and cholesterol and Triglyceride (TG) contents of breast and thigh meat of broiler chicks were investigated. Approach: One hundred and eighty 1 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 15 pens containing 12 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 5 dietary treatments of 2 sources (soybean oil and beef tallow) and 2 levels of fat (20 and 40 g kg-1) in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement. There was also a control treatment (without supplemental fat) in this experiment. All chicks were fed with a commercial starter diet from 1-10 day, where-after fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Results: There were significant differences in energy and protein intake and energy and protein efficiency among treatments in all phases of the experiment (p<0.05). Energy and protein intake was significantly higher in the chicks fed with 40 g kg-1 soybean oil that compared to other groups. The effect of different sources and levels of supplemental fat on cholesterol and TG contents of thigh and breast meat of broiler chicks in 42 day of age was significant (p<0.05). Adding 20 g kg-1 soybean oil significantly decrease levels of cholesterol in thigh and breast meat (p<0.05). The highest TG value of breast meat was observed in control chicks compared with other groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation of broiler diets with 20 g kg-1 soybean oil improved energy efficiency, decreased cholesterol content of breast and thigh meat of broiler chicks in comparison with other groups.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.121.126 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Based on earlier studies in veal calves and rats, the hypothesis tested was that high calcium intakes by ruminating dairy calves reduce fat digestibility, but do not affect growth performance due to enhanced colonization of the intestine with lactobacilli. Approach: In dairy calves that were fed on a combination of milk replacer, concentrate on grass hay, the effects of supplemental calcium on growth, nutrient digestibility and fecal lactobacilli were studied. Four concentrates with different levels of calcium were used. Results: Final body weight and weight gain were raised by the calcium level in the concentrate in a dose-dependent, linear fashion. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and crude fat were not influenced by the level of calcium in the concentrate. The number of fecal lactobacilli was significantly increased by higher dietary calcium levels, the effect having a linear trend. Calcium intake did not change the number of fecal E. coli. The apparent absorptions of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were lowered in a linear, dose-dependent fashion by the calcium level in the concentrate. Conclusion: Increased calcium intakes stimulate weight gain in dairy calves fed a combination of milk replacer, concentrate and grass hay. This calcium effect may be related to an enhanced colonization of the intestine with lactobacilli.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.127.131 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is a nucleus-encoded protein that is a key activator of mitochondrial transcription as well as a major participant in mitochondrial genome replication. Genomic characterization of the porcine TFAM gene is, therefore, necessary to determine its involvement in regulation of fat depots and meat quality traits in pigs. Approach: Genomic DNA sequence was determined using a comparative in silico annotation approach. RT-PCR was used for analysis of alternative splicing. Genome location was determined using Radiation Hybrid (RH) mapping. Genetic marker was identified by sequencing and genotyped by the PCR-RFLP method with SacI. GENEPOP version 3.3 software was used for statistic analysis. Results: We determined both full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of the porcine TFAM gene. Gene expression analysis revealed an alternative 5’ splice site, which excludes exon 4 of the pig gene. We assigned this gene to porcine chromosome 14 (SSC14). A G/A substitution was detected in intron 1 of porcine TFAM gene and genotyped on a total of 252 animals, including 165 from seven Chinese and 87 from five Western pig breeds. The Bayesian analysis via MCMC (Markov chain Monte Carlo) revealed that these two groups of pigs were well separated at this locus during the breed history; 95% of the posterior difference of TFAM allelic frequency between these two pig groups was greater than zero. Conclusion/Recommendations: All these data provided basic genomic information needed for further functional characterization of the porcine TFAM gene. Because marked differences in fat and lean tissue deposition exist between Western and Chinese pig breeds, the G557A mutation in the TFAM gene deserves further evaluation to determine its phenotypic effect on fattening and carcass traits in commercial pig populations.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2009.129.135 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: As the intestinal function is intimately affected by fed diets, many kinds of natural substances and probiotics have been supplemented to broilers to raise poultry productivity due to activating intestinal function. Besides, the intestinal histology is clearly altered by intestinal functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Sugar Cane Extract (SCE) and commercial probiotic (SPB), either alone or in combination, could improve growth performance and how intestinal histological alterations would be observed in these birds. Approach: A total of 64, 7-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups, consisting of 4 replicates of 4 birds each. Commercial mash starter and finisher diets were supplemented with 0.05% SCE, 0.4% SPB, or a mixture of 0.05% SCE and 0.4% SPB (SCE + SPB). Results: Body weight gain was better in all the experimental groups than the control. The greatest improvement was observed in the SCE + SPB group. Most values of villus height, villus area, cell area and cell mitosis in all intestinal segments were higher (p<0.05) in the experimental groups than in the control group. Most epithelial cells on the villus apical surface of the experimental groups were composed of protuberant cells. In addition, cell clusters composed of these cells were observed in the duodenum of the SCE + SPB group and in the jejunum of the SCE group. In the ileum, the SCE + SPB group had the most protuberant cells. Conclusion: The present results of enhanced light microscopic parameters and protuberant epithelial cells in SCE and SPB groups suggest that the intestinal villi and epithelial cells might be hypertrophied by SCE and SPB. The fact that a synergistic effect was observed with regard to growth performance and intestinal histology in the SCE + SPB group suggests that SCE is a good supplement to probiotics.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.132.138 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: A wide range of studies for the assessment of genetic diversity in livestock breed were conducted using genetic distance. For high-accuracy and unbiased estimation sampling methods, criteria of choosing type of DNA markers, distance measurement strategies, cluster analysis will be important for any genetic diversity projects. Approach: Main objective of this short review is focusing on application statistical procedures and methods in analysis of genetic diversity data in animals. Results: There is no simple strategy to address for best and effectively genetic diversity results by the way regarding to some important factors can make reliable results for next analysis. Conclusion: There is still a distinct need for developing comprehensive and user-friendly statistical packages that facilitate an integrated analysis of different data sets for generating reliable information about genetic relationships, genome diversity, and favorable allele variation. Equally important and perhaps more challenging, is the concerted and planned utilization of genome information in animal breeding programs on the basis of knowledge accrued from studies on genetic diversity.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2009.136.141 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Osteoporosis; the major health problem is an imperative disease requires a significant attention to discover different aspects of this threatening abnormality. There are some problems in osteoporotic human population to conduct researches such as lack of a homogenous sample size or ethical problems. So, there was a need to have protocol in animal model to let the scientists discover various feature of this disease to promote health status of the human population. The aim of this research was to make such protocol in animal model. Approach: About 15 rabbits were utilized in the current research. Six animals of Group 1 have undergone bilateral ovariectomy which was followed by IM injection of 1 mg kg-1 day of methylprednisolone. Six rabbits of second group only undergone bilateral ovariectomy and three animal of Group 3 served as a control group. They neither undergone any surgery nor received any medications. After surgery up to four weeks radiographs were taken. At week four animals were euthanized and samples of cortical and chancellors' bone were evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopes. Results: Group 1 completely manifested features of osteoporotic bone. Complete radiolucent view with cortical thinning in radiographs as well as broken, thinned and perforated chancellors bone trabecullae in light and electron microscope confirmed the osteoporotic nature of both cortical and chancellors' bone. Ovariectomy alone did not show sufficient potential to induce osteoporosis in rabbits in such short period. Conclusion: As the conclusion, bilateral ovariectomy following injection of mild doses of glucocorticoids could result in a fast, easy and trustable protocol to induce osteoporosis in rabbit model. This procedure could be utilized in creating osteoporotic rabbits for better understanding of unknown aspects of the recent growing syndrome.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.139.145 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Bacteria can perform a variety of beneficial functions, for example many lactic acid bacteria are responsible for fermentation of silage in the process of forage conservation. In the making of silage, epiphytic lactic acid bacteria are usually insufficient in numbers to promote efficient lactate fermentation. This study was conducted to identify the predominant indigenous bacteria, with emphasis on lactic acid bacteria, from Guinea grass (Panicum maximum). Approach: Two different condition of growth using nutrient and MRS agar were prepared for isolation of the bacteria. In total, 18 purified isolates were identified by BIOLOG identification system which comprised of 9 bacterial species. Standard plate count in the both conditions was considered. Results: Three bacterial species based on the first condition of growth were identified which were belonging to Flavimonas oryzihabitans,Enerobacter cloacae, Sphingomonas paucimobilis B. Lactic acid bacteria based on the second condition of growth were belonging to Weissella confusa, Weissella paramesenteroides, Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum, Lactococcus lactis ssp. hordniae. Result of plate count showed that 8.3x03 CFU lactic acid bacteria are available per gram of fresh guinea grass. Conclusion: Three hetero-fermentative and one homo-fermentative lactic acid bacteria were identified which would be suggested to use as bacterial inoculants because of the insufficient amount of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria and the availability of pathogenic bacteria in the grass.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.146.150 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: In trying to finding phytogenic antibiotic-substitutes this study was done and effects of adding graded levels of Medicinal Herbs (MH) including garlic (Allium sativum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) to laying hens'diet on productive performance investigated. Approach: A total number of 108 Lohmann LSL-Lite hens after production peak were randomly divided in 18 cages (n = 6). Three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets (ME = 2720 Kcal Kg-1 and CP = 154.2 g Kg-1) including three levels (0, 1 and 2 g kg-1) of ground mixture of garlic and thyme (1:1) were fed to hens with 6 replicates per diet during 6 week trial period. Collected data of Feed Intake (FI), Egg Production (EP), Egg Mass (EM) and calculated Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) as well as egg traits were analyzed based on completely randomized design using GLM procedure of SAS. Results: Dietary treatment did not have significant effect on EP, EM and FCR in laying hens (p>0.05). Dietary inclusion of MH decreased FI in weeks 1-6 (p≤0.05). Including diet with 0.1% MP improved means of egg weight (g) comparing to the other two experimental diets. Adding 0.2% MH to diet increased egg yolk color as well as blood lymphocyte counts and decreased egg shell weight comparing to other dietary treatments (p≤0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, dietary inclusion of garlic and thyme can have beneficial effects on performance of laying hens in terms of improving egg weight and yolk color.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.151.154 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: The Linguatula serrata is one of the parasitic zoonoses. Human beings may also be infected by both the nymph stage, a condition called nasopharyngeal linguatulosis or Halzoun syndrome and the egg, a condition called visceral linguatulosis. Approach: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of nymphal stages of L. serrata in mediastenal and mesenteric lymph nodes of cattle slaughtered in Kerman slaughterhouse, south east of Iran. For this purpose, mesenteric and mediastenal lymph nodes of 450 cattle of different sex and age were examined. Results: A prevalence of 16.22% was observed in mesenteric lymph nodes. Higher prevalence of infection was observed in animals aged above four years and during autumn season. The infection rate increased with age (p<0.05). Also prevalence of L. serrata nymphs in different seasons was significantly different (p<0.05). Conclusion: The high prevalence of infection observed in a ruminant is of concern owing to the zoonotic nature of the parasite and the risk of infection to humans and other animals.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.155.158 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Uterine cervix which separates the uterus from the vagina, shows remarkable anatomical and histological differences among mammalian species. Since no cleared observations have been found in regards with the Caspian miniature horses' cervix, the aim of the present study was to supplement this missing information which could be helpful for providing a stricter basis in detecting reproductive diseases and abnormalities in this valuable species. Approach: Cervices from 4 female adult healthy Caspian miniature horses dissected immediately after death and samples of 1cm thickness from 3 regions of cervix (endocervix, midcervix and exocervix) fixed with 10% buffered formalin. Routine histological laboratory methods were used and 6 µm paraffin slides stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Periodic acid-Schiff, Masson's trichrome and verhoeff methods and studied under light microscope. Heights of primary, secondary and tertiary folds and mucosal glands measured with computer software. Results: The cervix comprised of primary, secondary and tertiary fold with Simple columnar epithelium in endocervix and midcervix and most cranial part of the exocervices and changes into the non keratinized stratified squamous and a transitional form with stratified squamous with columnar cells, near the vagina. Lamina propria and sub mucosa made of collagenous dense connective tissue with abundant arterial and venues plexus. Simple tubular glands observed at the base of secondary folds of endocervix and midcervix. The muscularis layer contained of inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscles. Serous layer covered the cervix from the outside. Conclusion: Our finding showed that the cervix uteri in Caspian miniature horse, like other horses and ruminants, are a collagenous structure, with tall longitudinal fold throughout the length. Secretion of mucus from the mucosal glands is less obvious than ruminant.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.159.162 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: The consumption of black cumin (Nigella sativa) seed has immunomodulatory and anti-bacterial activity, but in rabbits this had not yet been tested. Approach: In the present studies, rabbits were fed diets without or with black cumin seed and antibody production, phagocytotic activity, hypersensitivity and resistance against Pasteurellosis were assessed. Results: Feeding black cumin seed significantly increased serum concentrations of antibodies in response to intramusculary injected serum bovine albumin. Blood derived from rabbits fed the diets containing either 15 or 20% black cumin seed significantly reduced the growth of Staphylococcus aureus on sheep-blood agar plates. Skin thickness as index of hypersensitivity towards tuberculin was significantly reduced at 48 h after intradermal injection of the agent. Ingestion of black cumin seed significantly extended survival time after intraperitoneal administration of Pasteurella multocida. Conclusion: The feeding of black cumin seed to rabbits stimulated their immune system, but did not enhance inflammation.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.163.167 2011/01/11 - 03:28

This research examines the effects of moving loads on viscously damped axial force Rayleigh beam. The authors especially tried to find the effect of the moving mass and moving force in connection with the length of the span of a Rayleigh beam. The authors also examined the effect of the lengths of the beam and of the load. It was observed that as mass of the moving load increases the deflection along the length of the beam also increases. It was further observed that the deflection of the moving mass is greater than that of the moving force.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.1110.1116 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of
carbadox on Apparent Ileal Digestibility (AID) of Amino Acid (AA) by nursery pigs. Approach: Fifteen
weanling barrows (initial BW: 9.6 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum.
Animals were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments with five pigs per treatment during a 6-
period experiment. Dietary treatments included: (1) a basal diet (BD) containing mainly corn and
soybean meal, (2) BD + 27.5 mg kg-1 of carbadox and (3) BD + 55.0 mg kg-1 of carbadox. Treatment
diets were provided during period 2-4; the BD was fed to all pigs during period 1, 5 and 6. Ileal
samples were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results: In pigs fed only the BD throughout the
experiment, the AID of CP and many AA was greater during period 2-4 than during period 1 (p<0.05).
This showed that the AID of CP and AA increased during the first few wk of the experiment. This
analysis showed that pigs fed the diet containing 55.0 mg kg-1 of carbadox had greater increases
(p<0.05) in the AID of CP and most AA from period 1 to period 2-4 than pigs that were fed the diet
containing no carbadox. The AID for some AA was less during period 5 and 6 compared with period
2-4 for pigs fed diets supplemented with 27.5 or 55.0 mg kg-1 of carbadox (p<0.05). This observation
suggests that there is no carryover effect of carbadox on AA digestibility. Conclusion: Inclusion of
carbadox at 55.0 mg kg-1 in diets fed to weanling pigs increased the AID of AA, but carryover effects
of dietary carbadox were not observed.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.168.174 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of feed restriction
and different energy and protein contents of diet on ghrelin gene expression in broiler chicken.
Approach: Feeding programs consisted of ad libitum and feed restriction, two energy levels (3100 and
2800 kcal ME kg-1) and three protein levels (22.3, 19.3 and 16.3% CP). Feed restriction was applied
during 22-32 days of age. Proventriculus samples were collected at 21, 32 and 49 days of age. Ghrelin
mRNA expression in proventriculus tissue was quantitate using Real Time quantitative PCR. Results: We
found that ghrelin gene expression was increased in restricted chicks compared with those fed ad
libitum at 32 days of age (p = 0.09) but feed restriction had no effect on ghrelin gene expression at 49
days of age. A positive response in ghrelin gene expression was achieved by decreasing energy level in
the diet at 21 days of age (p<0.07) and at 32 days of age (p<0.05). Also, we showed that dietary protein
had no effect on ghrelin gene expression, whereas there was a tendency for an increase in ghrelin gene
expression as protein decreased at total period. Conclusion: The present study, we investigated the
effects of feed restriction and different energy and protein contents of the diet on ghrelin gene
expression in broiler chicken. We have characterized chicken ghrelin cDNA in proventriculus tissue in
broiler chicken. We also found that ghrelin gene expression is differently suppressed by diet
manipulations. Additional studies are necessary to investigate the role of nutrition on ghrelin gene
expression in proventriculus tissue in broiler chicken.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.175.179 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is a chronic, relapsing infectious
disease of horses caused by Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV). The objective of this experiment
was compared EIAV effectiveness detection in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) and
Bronchoalveolar wash (BAW) from naturally infected horses. Approach: Fifty seven DNA samples
isolated from PBMCs and BAW of naturally infected animals were used for a nested PCR amplifying a
408 bp gag gene fragment region. Equine Dermal cells (ED) infected and non infected by EIAV was
used as nested PCR negative and positive control. Horses’ blood samples were firstly tested as positive
in Agar Gel Immunodiffusion Assay (AGID). Results: Results demonstrated 89% (51/57) of gag gene
amplification in PBMCs samples and only 47% (27/57) of gag gene amplification in BAW samples.
Conclusion: The nested PCR assay used in the present study detected more EIAV positive samples in
PBMC than in BAW, indicating PBMCs as a reliable source for EIAV diagnosis.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.180.182 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Males rather than females of the White-Tailed deer (Odocoileus
virginianus texanus) are more susceptible to hunting because their physical characteristics, therefore
their elimination can increase a genetic degradation and a lower productivity because of the effect of
gender. Thus, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of age and postmortem time of
White-Tailed deer on its epididymal-tail sperm motility and morphology and the response to sperm
cryopreservation. Approach: Twenty two hunted deer were used and were classified into three agegroups:
A = 1.5-3.5; B = 4.5-5.5 and C = 6.5-7.5 years old and four groups according to postmortem
time: 1= 0-3; 2 = >3-5; 3 = >5-7 and 4 = > 7 h. Two samples per animal (one per each epididymal)
were diluted and frozen with Triladyl® and Tris-Fructose. Thawing was done 72 h post freezing.
Results: Age did not neither affect motility nor morphology (p>0.05). Postmortem time had a
deleterious effect on motility (p<0.05), a significant drop in this trait was found after 5 h postmortem
(58.1, 56.1, 37.5 and 38.3% motility in groups 1-4, respectively). However, did not affect morphology
until 7 h postmortem and after 7 h an unexpected, significant (p<0.05) improvement was found (66.4,
74.9, 62.2 and 83.8% of normal sperm in groups 1-4. As regarding freezing ability, though without a
statistical difference (p>0.05), the percentage of samples with acceptable motility after freezing and
thawing was greater with Tris-Fructose than with Triladyl (36 Vs 18%). Conclusion: It was concluded
that these results indicate that age as studied does not affect epididymal sperm quality in this species,
while post-mortem time has a detrimental effect on motility and epididymal sperm can be successfully
cryopreserved, for which Tris-Fructose would be better as an extender than Triladyl.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.183.186 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Boar sperm cells are sensitive to the freezing process, which
compromises viability of frozen-thawed sperm. In a constant search for minimizing or suppressing
sperm cell damage caused by the temperature and osmolarity changes during the freezing process,
crioprotective and antioxidant substances have been added to the freezing media, such as coconut
water, in order to increase the viability of frozen-thawed swine semen. The addition of any substance
to the freezing diluent, directly affects osmolarity of the media, which can have positive or negative
effects over the sperm cell. Approach: There are no published studies currently that indicate the effect
of adding coconut water over the osmolarity of freezing media and their effect over viability of sperm
cells, therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of coconut water based
diluents osmolarity over the Motility (Mot), Acrosome Integrity (AI), Membrane Integrity (MI) and
Mitochondrial Activity (MA) of thawed boar sperm cells. The treatments used were control T1 (LEY
with bidistilled water + LEYGO) with an osmolarity range of 296-368 mOsmol Kg-1, T2 (LEY and
deionized coconut water + LEYGO) between 381 and 480 mOsmol Kg-1 and T3 (LEY and in natura
coconut water + LEYGO) between 519 and 1041 mOsmol Kg-1. The Westendorf modified method
was the freezing method used. The obtained data were statistically analyzed by GLM, using the SAS
software (SAS, 2000). Results: A significant difference was observed on T2 compared to T1 regarding
Mot 41.9 Vs 36.9% and MI 58.0 Vs 50.2. T3 had a detrimental effect on all studied variables.
Conclusion: Under our study conditions, the osmolarity range of T2, due to the non ionic solutes
content, contributed to improve the viability of frozen-thawed sperm cells.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.187.191 2011/01/11 - 03:28