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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences

A broad and very detailed histopathological knowledge on cutaneous wound healing particularly in human skin is available, but few studies have documented this event in bovine claw sole ulcers. It seems the mechanism of wound healing might be basically the same followed by second intention healing which is finished in a period of time by formation of granulation tissue in damaged corium and subsequently completed by keratinized epidermis.This study was aimed for more histopathological information when wooden block and solka Hoofgel are applied as a treatment device for uncomplicated sole ulcers. Sixteen milking cows (age 2-5 years) which suffering from uncomplicated sole ulcer, following treatment by claw block (wooden block) on the healthy claw to reduce weight bearing on the affected claw and topical solka gel on affected claw from a farm in the vicinity of Tehran were considered. In all cases Lameness score was 3 (1-3 are ordinal scale), Lesion score was assessed 4 (1-4 are ordinal scale) and the mean lesion size was 16× 9 mm. Regardless of the location's of the sole ulcers, The sampling sites were settled at caudo-medial part in the center sole namely "Specific ulcer site". 16 safe ulcers in lateral claw of left rear foot, contained the corium and the part of the epidermis were collected in three time intervals 1,10,21 days and examined histopathologically. These samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections (3-5 µm thick) were taken from the paraffin-embedded tissue and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Inflammatory changes were evident on day 1 because of disruption of the superficial dermis vessels. Some areas and horn layer surrounding the ulcer shows dilated tubules which were parallel to the sole and microcracks extending to the stratum spinosum. In day 10,the progressive epidermal regeneration from the edges of the lesion and reattachment between the over growing epidermis and the base membrane were seen. The proliferation in connective tissue was accompanied by the formation of new dermal vessels. The vascularization in the dermis was completed on day 21. The lesion was covered by moderate differentiated cornified epidermis. The dermal papillae showed marked mononuclear cells infiltrate. From these histopathological changes which is occurred during these stages of healing, it seems that by applying wooden block to the healthy claw to reduce weight bearing on the affected claw and using Solka hoofgel® which is a product, has some ingredient such as zinc and some organic acid, the time of wound healing process was decreased. So use of a modified treatment, influence on the healing process in macroscopical and histopathological aspect.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2006.27.30 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: There is a concern related to loss of nitrogen to the environment from animal manure and the high cost of the protein supplement. Thus, the current study was undertaken to determine the effect of reduction of CP and increased of lysine on growth and carcass yield in turkeys.
Approach: A factorial experiment was carried out with commercial turkeys to evaluate the effect of two dietary levels of CP (90 and 100% of the NRC recommendations) and three dietary lysine levels (90, 110 and 130% of the NRC recommendations) on performance and carcass yield of male turkeys evaluated from 8-16 week of age. Results: The CP × lysine interaction was significant (p<0.05) for daily gain and Food Conversion Ratio (FCR). 100% CP level increased daily gain (0.13, 0.15 and 0.15 kg day-1) and improved FCR (3.43, 3.12 and 3.01) as dietary levels of lysine in the diet increased (p<0.05), but the opposite was true for the birds fed 90% CP. The CP × lysine interaction (p<0.05) observed at 16 week of age showed that carcass weigh, breast weight, leg weight and thigh weight increased as the lysine level increased in the diet with 100% CP and the contrary occurred in the 90% CP treatment. Conclusion: The results of this experiment suggest a positive relationship between amino acids and CP; however, the increment of amino acids in the diets with low CP should be made keeping a proportional relationship among the dietary amino acids.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.27.32 2011/01/11 - 03:28

The aim of this study was evaluation of the astrocytes number in different subfields of rat's Hippocampus after spatial learning with usage of Morris Water Maze technique and working memory method. In this study, between 2005-2006 years in Pasteur institute of Iran-Tehran and histological department of Gorgan University with usage of Morris Water Maze and working memory technique, we used 14 male albino wistar rats. Seventh rats were in control group and 7 rats in working memory group. After histological preparation, the slides were stained with PTAH staining for showing the Astrocytes. Present results showed significant difference in astrocytes number in CA1, CA2 and CA3 areas of hippocampus between control and reference memory group. The number of astrocytes is increased in working memory group. Then we divided the hippocampus to three parts: Anterior, middle and posterior and with compare of different area (CA1, CA2 and CA3) of hippocampus, we found that the differences between Anterior-middle and Middle-Posterior of CA1 and CA2 area of hippocampus were significant, whereas the difference between Anterior-Posterior parts was not significant in CA1 and CA2 areas. In CA3 area, the difference between Anterior-Middle and Anterior-Posterior parts was significant, whereas the difference between middle and posterior parts was not significant. We concluded that the number of astrocytes increased due to spatial learning and working memory technique.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.28.31 2011/01/11 - 03:28

A 2-year-old, Suffolk ram with ruptured urethra due to complete obstruction by calculi was treated by tube cystostomy. The surgical procedure was successful in bypassing the obstruction; however the patency of the urethra was never restored. Despite surgical and medical treatment, the condition of the ram was deteriorated and the ram was euthanized. Necropsy identified multifocal renal and epididymal infarcts. Histologically, there were multiple thrombotic small and medium sized arteries through out both kidneys and epididymis. Renal and epididymal infarctions due to thrombotic lesions should be suspected in small ruminants suffering from chronic obstruction of the urethra.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.29.31 2011/01/11 - 03:28

The study was performed on 10 New Zealand white rabbits 6 month old and weighing 3.0 to 4.5 kg so as to evaluate the effects of Tanscutaneous Electrical Stimulation (TES) on the right radial fracture healing. A piece of 0.5 cm full thickeness of right midshaft of radial bone was removed in all rabbits under general anesthesia. They were divided into two groups (control and experiment) of 5 rabbits each. No treatment was given to control group, whereas experimental rabbits were subjected to TES. Radiographs were taken from all rabbits before surgery and on 15, 30 and 45 days. The callus sample was collected from the exact defected part on 45 days that was fixed and was stained with H&E stain for histomorphological interpretation. Clinically there was faster skin wound healing in experimental rabbits as compared to the control group. Radiographical interpretation revealed periosteal reaction on 15 days and callus formation was much more on 30 and 45 days/ in experimental one as compared to control group. In experimental group there was the least cartilaginous and fibrotic tissues with thick bony trabeculae formation. It was concluded that TES has got positive effect on skin wound healing besides accelerating callus formation at the site of radial defect with early restoration of full limb function.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2006.31.34 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Ultrasonographic examinations of 10% bitches with known breeding dates were made on successive days to establish the identifiable characteristics of pregnancy. Subsequent serial examinations were made to sonographically characterize normal canine prenatal development based about the first mating. The initial detection of the fetal and extra-fetal structures were as follows: gestational sac at day 17.88±1.13 (16-21); zonary placenta in the uterine wall at day 23.70±0.78 (23-25); embryo initial detection at day 22.80±1.03 (21-24); heartbeat at day 23.0±094 (22-24); yolk sac membrane at day 24.8±0.78 (24-26); amnionic membrane at day 26.81±0.60 (26-28); fetal movement at day 30.40±1.64 (28-32); stomach at day 33.40±1.07 (32-35); urinary bladder at day 34.90±1.19 (33-37); skeleton at day 35.10±073 (34-36).

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.32.35 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Monopterus albus (Zuiew), Asian Eel, is one of the common fish found mainly in Asia. At present, the habitats of Asian Eels have been on the decrease. Contrarily, consumption of Asian Eel has increased. Whereas, data regarding blood cell characteristics, blood cell sizes and hematological values of Asian Eel are limited. As such, the objective of this study was to establish the blood cell characteristics, blood cell dimension and hematological values of capture and culture Asian Eel. Basic knowledge from this study is important for hematological research, conservation, clinical diagnosis and in-depth study of this Eel. Approach: Blood samples of capture (n = 13) and culture (n = 19) Asian Eel, Monopterus albus (Zuiew) were collected in northeastern Thailand. Hematological values, morphometric and morphology of the blood cells were determined using standard techniques. Hematological values and morphometric between captive and cultural Eel were compared. Results: Hematological values and morphometrics of the capture and cultural Eel were not significantly different (p>0.05), but the hemoglobin and neutrophil of the capture eel were significantly higher than those of the culture eel (p<0.05). Neutrophil, monocyte, eosinophil and thrombocyte characteristics of Asian Eel were not different from other Eels. Nucleus characteristics, cytoplasmic shape and nucleus: Cytoplasm ratio of small cell I and small cell II were different. Lymphocyte of Asian Eel was different form the previous report. Conclusion: This study indicated that sources of eel influenced to some hematological values.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2009.32.36 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Holstein cows were administered zona pellucida (ZP) DNA vaccine and used to determine the potential of recombinant rabbit ZP glycoproteins (rZP) as immunocontraceptive antigens. Zona pellucida proteins were purified and quantified. Cows were assigned to one of four treatment groups in which plasmids encoding rabbit ZP proteins were administered, i.d., using a gene gun (ZP55, n=2; ZP75, n=2; Hep55, n=2; and Control, n=3). Blood samples were taken before initial vaccination, once weekly for 5 wk and at 148 wk post-immunization. An ELISA was developed to assess anti-ZP titer levels in cow serum and ovarian function in cows was monitored using trans-rectal ultrasonography. Four of the six cows in ZP treatment groups developed antibody titer levels with similar linear responses over time. These cows also experienced reduced ovarian function as indicated by decreases in follicular and luteal activity. Estrous activity was observed in all cows and decreased in ZP treatment cows in comparison to Controls. Further research is needed to determine the relationship between ZP immunocontraception and ovarian function. Still, this study provides a basis for future researchers to use in developing a contraceptive vaccine for cattle.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.32.41 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: In goats production, chevon, meat quality and shelf life are very important, dietary herbs and synthetic antioxidants as dietary supplementation, may be can improve growth performance and carcass characteristics of goats. Approach: Thirty-two male (mean live weight 13.0 kg and 8 months old) were assigned to four dietary treatments, namely, basal diet (control, CN) and basal diet supplemented with Vitamin E (VE), Turmeric powder (TU) or Andrographis paniculata Powder (AP). The diets were fed as total mixed rations ad libitum for a period of 14 weeks. The goats were weighed every month, while feed intake was measured on a weekly basis. Thereafter, the goats were subjected to the Halal slaughter and the carcasses dissected. Result: The daily weight gain was not different (p>0.05) between treatments, but the feed intake was lower (p<0.05) for the AP treatment than for the TU treatment, while the gain: DM intake was lower (p<0.05) for the CN treatment than for the AP treatment. The percentage of total meat in the carcass and the longissimus muscle cut were higher (p<0.05) for the AP treatment than for the CN treatment. Conclusion: It was concluded that dietary antioxidants from natural herbs such as Andrographis paniculata have the potential to improve feed efficiency, increased lean meat and reduced body internal fat in the carcass of goats. Addition of TU increased Average Daily Gain (ADG) and feed intake.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.33.39 2011/01/11 - 03:28

The primary objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of bovine mastitis in ten herds of Holstein Friesian cow in Jordan, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. Milk samples were collected from 220 lactating cows to determine the clinical and subclinical mastitis by white side test and confirmed by cultural tests. It was found that 138 quarters (15.7%) had been diagnosed as clinical mastitis with definite gross pathological lesions and change in udder secretion, in addition to that 276 quarters (31.4%) showed subclinical mastitis. The incidence of mastitis was found to be increased in older cows. Staphylococcus aurous was considered to be the most common cause of both clinical and subclinical mastitis and followed by coli forms, streptococcus spp., corynebacterium spp., proteus spp. and pseudomonas spp. Sensitivity tests were applied to different isolated strains using tertracycline, ampicillin, neomycin, erythromycin, penicillin G and sulphamethoxazol trimethoprim.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.36.39 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Ciliate protozoa are one of the normal microorganisms that found in rumen of both domestic and wild ruminants. Several factors seem to influence the concentration and composition of the protozoal fauna in the rumen. The aim of the present study was to determine the rumen ciliates protozoa diversity in Ghizel sheep of East Azerbaijan province and evaluate effects of alfalfa replacement by multiple level of dried grape by-product (0, 15, 30 and 45% of diet) on ciliate protozoa population. Approach: In the first experiment, samples of rumen fluids were collected from 16 mature sheep. Selected sheep were belonged to 4 pure herds of Ghizel sheep in east Azerbaijan province. In the second experiment, sixteen mature Ghizel wether sheep of live weight 34 kg (±1.5) were used. Data obtained from study was subjected to ANOVA as a completely randomized design with 4 replicates by the GLM procedure and treatment means were compared by the Duncan test. Results: In experiment 1, different geographical locations affect total number of rumen ciliated protozoa (p<0.05), Entodinium spp. and Dasytricha spp. In experiment 2, the concentrations of Entodinium spp., Diplodinium spp., Holotricha spp. and Opharyoscolex species were higher when 15% dried grape by-product (DGB) was included in the diet. With increasing DGB in diets the number of Epidinium spp. and Euodiplodinium spp. reduced in treatments 2 (15% of diet replaced by DGB) and 3 (30% of diet replaced by DGB) (p<0.05). Conclusion: The different geographical locations affected total number of rumen ciliated protozoa, Entodinium spp. and Dasytrisha spp. The concentration of Diplodinium was observed to increase when sheep were fed with dried grape by-product.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2009.37.41 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease in various species of animals caused by a sporozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. The disease occurs throughout the world including Iran. This disease is a common infection of sheep, goats and it is recognized as one of major infection cause of reproductive failure. This survey was carried out to show the prevalence of this disease in cattle in Tabriz (Iran). 490 sera samples were collected from both native and industrial cattle. The Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) was used to determine the rate of infection. The results of this survey are showed that the overall seroprevalence of antibody of Toxoplasma incattle in Tabriz is 15.91%. There was significant differences in infection to Toxoplasma gondii in the age group of cattle (P<0.05). The prevalence of anti-toxoplasma antibody in cattle in the <1 years old was higher than >1 years old cattle. Also a significant differences was observed between rate of infection and sex in cattle (P<0.0 l). In total the results of this study together with the previously recorded low seroprevalence of antibody to Toxoplasma in cattle in Iran and other countries support the impression that Toxoplasmosis is not widespread cause for abortion and a latent infection in cattle.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.40.42 2011/01/11 - 03:28

We would like to thank to the Faculty of Specialized Veterinary Sciences research council. Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University, Punak Tehran for approval and financial support to finish this project. Problems statement: The purpose of this research was to determine the biological effect of cartilage graft as a bone defect filler and osteogenetic stimulation to speed up bone healing too. Approach: Sixteen adult male New Zealand white rabbits having body weight ranged from 3.0-3.5 Kg. Under general anesthesia, a segmental full thickness bone defect of 10 mm in length was created in the middle of the right radial shaft in all rabbits. They were divided into two groups of 6 rabbits each. Group I was considered as control and the fractured site was fixed using finger bone plate with 4 screws, whereas the ear cartilage of 1×1 cm graft was used to fill the gap after fracture fixation in Group II. Rabbits in two groups were subdivided into 2 subgroups of 1 and 2 months duration with 4 rabbits in each. Radiography and two dimensional and color Doppler sonography were done before and after creating defects and on 15, 30 and 60 days to evaluate local reaction as far as new blood vessels network and callus formation are concerned. Results: On the radiographs during the whole process, bone repair in Group I was not as perfect as those in Group II samples and trace of internal callus filled the gap incompletely in 60 days in Group I, whereas in Group II internal callus almost was formed on 30 days and in addition intercortical callus was seen supporting to cover and filled the gap completely in this group. Sonographic findings confirmed the protrusion of newly formed blood vascular network in 30 days in Group I and from 15 days in Group II and remarkably increased till end of observation period. Conclusion: Cartilage graft is suitable alternative bone filler and radiography and sonography are reliable techniques to trace local reaction at proper time.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.40.44 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Our objective was to determine if prolonged exposure to various durations of light (i.e., photoperiod) would affect serum IGF-I concentrations in heifers. Thus, 16 Holstein heifers, 2 to 4 mo of age, were exposed during a 5-wk pretreatment period to 12 h of cool-white fluorescent light (L) at an intensity of 1200 lux and 12 h of dark (D). At 5 wk, photoperiods were adjusted to 24 L: 0 D (24 L), 20 L: 4 d (20 L), 16 L: 8 D (16 L) or 8 L: 16 D (8 L) per 24 h (n=4 heifers per photoperiod treatment). Blood was sampled at 5 wk and monthly for 4 mo. During each sampling period, blood was collected at 16-h intervals for 48 h and serum IGF-I was determined by RIA. Photoperiod treatment, month of experiment and their interactions affected serum IGF-I concentrations. Averaged over months, concentrations of serum IGF-I was greatest in heifers on 16 L; heifers on 20 L had IGF-I concentrations similar to 8 L, 16 L and 24 L and heifers on 24 L had concentrations similar to that of heifers on 8 L. Heifers in all treatment groups exhibited an increase in serum IGF-I concentration during the 4 mo of treatment. Heifers on 16 L and 20 L exhibited the greatest difference in serum IGF-I concentrations compared with 8L heifers after 3 mo of treatment. In conclusion, 16 L increases concentrations of serum IGF-I above that seen for heifers treated with

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.42.45 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Poultry industry usually exposing birds to a variety of actions and stressors includs fasting for gastrointestinal emptying before transportation and where birds are often exposed to high environmental temperature during the summer months. These environmental stressors may have influences on bird performance and susceptibility to pathogens such as Salmonella enteritidis by altering the intestinal micrbiota and changes in the gut integrity. Approach: This research was conducted to show that acute stressors in the poultry production can induce changes in the normal intestinal microbiota and epithelium structure and execratory functions, which may cause an increase in the opportunities of attachment of Salmonella enteritidis. Results: Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of 24 h feed withdrawal with 24 h exposure to high temperature (30°C) on intestinal characteristics of broilers. Attachment of Salmonella enteritidis to ileal tissue was determined using an in vitro ileal loop assay. Changes in commensally intestinal microbial populations were determined using gel electrophoresis and alterations in ileal morphology were determined histologically. The results showed that attachment of Salmonella enteritidis to ileal tissues increased by 1.5 logs (9.05 log10 Vs 7.59 log10 Salmonella enteritidis/g of ileal tissue; p = 0.0006) in broilers fasted for 24 h also, ileal tissues from birds subjected to 30°C for 24 h had increased the attachment of Salmonella enteritidis (8.77 log10 Vs 8.50 log10 Salmonella enteritidis/g of ileum; p = 0.01) compared with birds held at 23°C. Exposure to 30°C for 24 h also altered the microbial structure in the ileum and cecum. Where subjecting birds to 30°C for 24 h reduced the crypt depth (6.0 Vs 7.8 µm, respectively; p = 0.002), but it had no effect on villus height or villus: Crypt ratio. Conclusion: The findings of the experiment explained the mechanisms by which stressors alters the normal intestinal characterization and induces susceptibility to enteric infection. Future work should focus on the use of prophylactic measures to reduce the stress conditions causing alteration of the intestinal microbiota and changes in gut integrity like considering the probiotic organisms the offer a promising solution for reducing pathogen colonization when fed orally.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2009.42.48 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Progesterone is an important reproductive hormone and measurement of its level by repeated blood samplings is beneficial to monitoring of estrus cycle. However, since toy poodles have a small body size and thin-walled blood vessels, repeated blood samplings cause stress and affect their preparation for mating or artificial insemination (AI). Therefore, a noninvasive method for monitoring progesterone concentration should be developed. Here, we show that time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TF-RIA) is a useful noninvasive method for determining the progesterone concentration in serum and fecal samples obtained from toy poodles. Present results demonstrate that progesterone concentrations in the fecal correlated with the serum collected in same time and the sequential changes in progesterone concentrations in the feces are paralleled in the serum. Therefore, this technique may be suitable for monitoring the estrus cycle in toy poodles.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.43.46 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Different methods of experimental infection of broiler chickens with Eimeria species have been described in the literature. These methods had not been compared and contrasted so as to contribute to the selection of the most appropriate model of coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Identifying such a model was important to speed up the screening of potential coccidiostatics. Approach: In five different experiments with broiler chickens, we used different methods of infection with Eimeria species. In this paper the different methods and the results have been evaluated. Results: Administration through gavage into the crop of relatively low doses of either Eimeria tenella alone, or in combination with Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima, did not influence body-weight gain and feed intake, but did induce intestinal lesions and faecal shedding of oocysts. The administration of an identically high number of sporulated oocysts in the form of a mixture of the three Eimeria species, either through a single dose by gavage or through the litter, produced similar lowering effects on body-weight gain or feed intake, similar degrees of severity of intestinal lesions and similar rates of faecal oocyst shedding. Conclusion: Depending on the variables considered of interest, the present data may indicate the most appropriate model. The model using infection with oocysts through the litter may optimally mimic the field situation in combination with controlled conditions and allowing experimental flexibility and a high number of experimental units within the research facility.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.45.51 2011/01/11 - 03:28

The effects of pH on the pore-forming Clostridium septicum alpha-toxin that causes myonecrosis was assessed at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 by measuring circular dichroism and its biological activity. Incubation of the toxin at pH 5.0 increased the hemolytic activity measured in murine red blood cells. On the other hand, incubation of the toxin at pH 9.0 drastically reduces the biological activity of the toxin by five-fold. This study presents the first evidence of the effect of pH on the functional properties of alpha-toxin directly related to the common disease caused by C. septicum in animals and humans i.e. traumatic and non traumatic gas gangrene.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.46.49 2011/01/11 - 03:28

A cross sectional study was performed to investigate the epidemiology of Neospora caninum infection in Southern Jordan. A total of 320 sheep and 300 goats from 38 and 24, sheep and goat flocks, respectively, were randomly sampled and assayed for presence of antibodies against N. caninum. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was administered to collect information on flocks' health and management. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to investigate risk factors associated with seropositivity to N. caninum. The individual true seroprevalence of N. caninum in sheep and goats was 4.3 and 5.7%, respectively. The sheep and goat flock level true seroprevalence for N. caninum was 45.8 and 48.7%, respectively. The logistic regression model revealed small herd size, having more than one dog and grazing in communal pastures as risk factors for N. caninum seropositivity in both sheep and goats. Damascus breed goats were more likely to be seropositive than goats of other breeds.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.47.52 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Gohilwari breed of goat is a multipurpose goat mainly for milk and meat purposes and best suited in its harsh climatic condition. This breed is inadequately characterized till now at DNA level. So the present study was undertaken for population genetic analysis at molecular level to exploit the breed for planning sustainable improvement, conservation and utilization, which subsequently can improve the livelihood of its stake holders. Approach: The experiment was conducted on 50 genomic DNA samples of unrelated goat using 25 microsatellite markers selected from the list suggested by International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) and FAO’s (DAD-IS). Results: All of the 25 microsatellites were well amplified. The observed number of alleles detected per locus ranged from 4-24 with an overall mean of 10.12±5.46. Overall mean observed heterozygosity of 0.505 was lower than the overall mean expected heterozygosity of 0.684. Most of the loci showed the heterozygote deficit as also depicted by Fis value. There was substantial genetic variation and polymorphism across studied loci in the Gohilwari breed of goat. And this population was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at most of the studied loci. This population was also receiving new genetic materials throuFgh introduction of immigrants. Conclusion: The strong inference that the Gohilwari breed of goat has not undergone bottleneck is also important for goat breeders and conservationists, as it suggests that any unique alleles present in this breed may not have been lost. Therefore, it can be recommended that within-breed diversity is actively maintained to enable these extensively unmanaged stocks to adapt to future demands and conditions and there is ample scope for further improvement in its productivity through appropriate breeding strategies. Though, microsatellites are neutral to selection with Ewens-Watterson test for neutrality some microsatellites were found not neutral or linked to some selective trait that must be further investigated for association to selective traits.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2009.49.57 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Cecum, the largest part of chicken’s large intestine, has an important role in liquid absorption and cellulose digestion. It acts as a defensive organ as well due to the presence of large masses of diffuse and nodular lymphatic tissue in lamina propria and sub mucosa. The cecal tonsil activity has been proved to be depended on the activity of bursa of fabricious and thymus. As the bursa of fabricious and the thymus are exposed to involution through these ages, finding the changes (if any) occur in the caecal tonsil has been our aims. Eighteen (18) healthy white leghorn chickens of 16, 20 and 24 weeks old were selected and fixed the samples of their caecal tonsils, thymuses and bursas of fabricious in 10% buffered formalin, immediately after slaughter. Routine histological laboratory methods were used and 6 µm sections were stained with hematoxylin- eosin staining method and studied under light microscope. The nodular units (ND) width and height, ND fossulae’s lumen width, distribution areas of the lymphatic nodules and crypts of lieberkuhn /mm2 in the caecal tonsils, cortices and medullas diameters of the thymuses and the cortices and medullas diameters of lymphatic nodules, heights of plicas and No of nodules/ plica in the bursas of fabricious of all ages were measured and then analyzed with one way ANOVA test. In the cecal tonsils, the most important changes regarding with involution process was significant decline of lymphatic nodules/ mm2 of mucosal wall and nodular evacuation at 6 months ones, while thymuses decrease the cortical diameter at 5 months. No significant changes in regarding with involution process were shown in the bursas of fabricious through these ages and no changes in the sub epithelial lymphoid tissues of the cecal tonsils as well. By the results of this study, we come to know that the cecal tonsil growth can be depended on thymus and bursa of fabricious activity, since involution process is first begun in thymus at 5 months of age and then it occurs in thymic dependant areas of the cecal tonsil at 6 months of age. As no involution occurred in bursa of fabricious through these ages, cecal sub- epithelial lymphatic tissue dependant on bursa of fabricious remained unchanged.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.50.54 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: The objective of this study was to evaluate the production and nutrition quality of grasslands and kermes oak shrublands in Preveza Prefecture, northwest Greece. Approach: The study involved the collection of herbage and browse samples along a grazing period, from March to October for two consecutive years. In consequence, browse samples were manually separated to leaves and twigs. The three forage components (herbage, kermes oak leaves and twigs) were analyzed for crude protein, Neutral-Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid-Detergent Fiber (ADF), lignin and In Vitro Dry Matter Digestibility (IVDMD). After the 2 years of observation, we concluded that kermes oak browse, especially the leaves, had CP content adequate to fulfill the nutrient requirements of grazing goats throughout the grazing period. Results: However, this browse is characterized by a very low IVDMD during summer, which may be the result of high lignin content and the presence of anti-nutritional factors such as phenols and tannins. The month of harvest strongly affected the production and nutritive value of forage components, firstly by giving a significant positive correlation among average monthly temperature, production, cell wall contents and secondly, a negative correlation among average monthly rainfall, IVDMD and lignin content. Conclusion: In closure, kermes oak shrublands of the lower zone constitute an important alimentary source providing adequate amounts of browse in order to maintain the nutrient requirements for grazing goats during the summer, when the herbage is not desirable for consumption from sheep and cattle.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.52.59 2011/01/11 - 03:28

This study was carried out to determine of degradability characteristics of untreated barely grain (UBG) and treated barley grain with autoclaving at 120°C, 5´ (TBG1) and 20' (TBG2), treated barley grain at 100°C, 5´ (TBG3) and 20' (TBG4), using in situ technique in Ghizel sheep’s. The sheep fed diet content 40% alfalfa: 60% concentrate containing 2.9 Mcal kg-1 DM and 14% CP. The incubation times were 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 36 and 48 h and rumen degradation of cp and DM was measured. The equation of p = a+b (1-e-ct) was used for fitting of dry matter and crude protein disappearance data. The dry matter disappearance of TBG1 and TBG2 at 24 and 48 h were lower than the other treatments (p<0.05). The crude protein disappearance of 24 and 48 h of UBG was more than the other treatment (p<0.05). Treating of barley grain of 120°C (5' and 20') can be decreased ruminal crude protein degradability of barley grain resulting high escaped crude protein into lower digestive tract.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.53.56 2011/01/11 - 03:28

The objective of this experiment was to determine whether post-mating progesterone (P4) supplement improves pregnancy and lambing rates in ewes bred during the seasonal anestrous period. In June, 39 synchronized to estrus Awassi ewes were allowed with four harnessed fertile rams immediately following CIDR-G device removal (day 0 and 0 hour). Five days following ram introduction, ewes were randomly assigned to four groups to be treated post-mating with intramuscular injections of 20 mg P4 supplement once daily from day 5 to day 9 (P4-D5-9), days 10 to 14 (P4-D10-14), days 5 to 14 (P4-D5-14) or did not receive P4 supplement (control). Blood samples were collected from all ewes for P4 analysis. Progesterone concentrations prior to CIDR-G insertion were basal and no differences in P4 concentrations were found on days –12, –10 and between days 0 and 5 among groups. Progesterone concentrations between days 5 and 15 differed (p<0.001) significantly due to treatment effect. Maximum P4 concentrations were reached on day 9 in group P4-D5-9 and between days 11 and 15 in groups P4-D10-14, P4-D5-14, and control. Pregnancy was diagnosed based on day 19 P4 levels and day 30 ultrasonic examination in 5/10, 6/10, 5/10, and 5/9 ewes in groups P4-D5-9, P4-D10-14, P4-D5-14 and control, respectively. Pregnancy loss was detected by ultrasonography on day 45 in 3/6 and 3/5 ewes in P4-D10-14, P4-D5-14 groups only. Overall pregnancy (53.8%) and lambing (41%) rates were similar among groups and were not influenced by P4 supplement. In conclusion, P4 supplement administered intramuscularly between days 5 and 14 post-mating is not effective in improving pregnancy, embryonic survival and lambing rates in Awassi ewes pretreated out-of-season. Pregnancy loss which occurred only in P4-D10-14 and P4-D5-14 groups maybe attributed to factors including the sharp decrease in P4 concentrations on day 15 and stress experienced during the period of maternal recognition of pregnancy process.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.55.61 2011/01/11 - 03:28

The objective of the present study was to report the first confirmed case of digital dermatitis in Greece, emphasizing to the clinical appearance of the disease and to discuss some potential mechanisms concerning the entrance and the contagiousness of the disease in a new herd. The outbreak occurred in a new dairy farm of 60 primiparous Holstein cows in Thessaloniki region. All the animals had been purchased as pregnant heifers five months before the onset of the disease and were clinically healthy without any abnormality on their limbs at their arrival in the herd. At the time of our visit a detailed clinical history was obtained and all cows of the herd were examined for lesions of digital dermatitis. Skin biopsies were taken from each affected cow for bacteriological examinations. The clinical examination revealed that 22 animals had lesions of digital dermatitis. The diagnosis was based on the typical clinical appearance of the disease and was confirmed by the detection of Treponema on the smears from biopsy materials. The majority of the animals were affected during the first 2-3 months of lactation and their mean lameness score was 2.68. The present study reported the first confirmed case of digital dermatitis in Greece and provided evidence that the disease can be entered in a farm by clinically healthy animals but certain initiating conditions should be met in order the to have clinical manifestation of the disease.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.57.61 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Poultry industry is intensive and consistently applies an all-in, all-out system with the aim of minimizing infection pressure and targeting specific pathogens like Salmonella which remains one of the leading causes of food-borne illness, many questions regarding the introduction and persistence in animal production still remain. Therefore disinfection during production break is a routine part of the biosecurity programs of poultry houses. The correct usage of disinfectants is an important key of a successful biosecurity program in poultry farms and in-turn the role of the scientist was to evaluate the efficacy of these disinfection programs. Approach: In this study five commercial disinfectants [Green work (green non anionic surfactant), Sanidate RTU (hydrogen peroxide compound), Hi-yeild®consan 20® (phenolic compound), Tektrol® (quaternary ammonium compound) and Kreso®D (phenolic compound)] were evaluated against Salmonella typhimurium in two different experimental conditions. In Experiment I, S. typhimurium was inoculated into fresh poultry litter (aluminum trays L: 30 cm x W: 25 cm x D: 6 cm filled with wood shavings) by inoculums size of ~107 CFU mL-1 and then mixed with 100 g of fresh poultry droppings. Sample sizes of 3 g were obtained daily for the bacterial counts. Green work achieved100% killing of S. typhimurium by day 7 (p≤0.0001); Sanidate RTU achieved100% killing by day 6 (p≤0.001); Hi-yield® Consan®, Tektrol® and Kreso® D achieved100% killing by day 5 (p≤0.001). Disinfectants were also compared to each other in their efficacy each day. At day 1, Green work was inferior to all other disinfectants at (p≤0.05). On day 2, Kreso® D was significantly superior to Tektrol®, Hi-yield® Consan®, Sanidate RTU and Green work at p≤0.01, p≤0.01, p≤0.01, p≤0.005; respectively. At day 4 Kreso® D was significantly superior to Hi-yield® Consan® at p≤0.01, Tektrol® was also significantly superior to Green work at p≤0.01. In experiment II; MIC use-dilution test was used to evaluate the five disinfectants against S. typhimurium (~107CFU mL-1) in the absence of organic matter. Results: Hourly samples were collected for the bacterial counts. Maximum efficacy (100% killing efficacy against S. typhimurium) was achieved for Green Work after 16 h (p≤0.0001), with Sanidate RTU after 8 h (p≤0.0001), with Hi-yield® Consan® and Kreso® D after 2 h at (p≤0.0001) and with Tektrol® after 4 h (p≤0.0001). In presence of organic matter Green work and Sanidate RTUachieved 100% killing efficacy against S. typhimurium after 16 h (p≤0.0001), Hi-yield® Consan® and Kreso® D after 2 h at (p≤0.0001); Tektrol® after 8 h (p≤0.0001). When disinfectants were compared to each other in relation to time; we found that there was no kind of significance between their efficacies. When compared to other tested disinfectants, Kreso® D which is a phenolic compound revealed superior activity against Salmonella typhimurium in the two experiments. Conclusion: The study showed that many disinfectants regardless to their constituents continues to give a very powerful efficacy against the most virulent bacterial strains, but the question remain can they be used in the presence of live birds. Further studies are required to explore the safety and the efficacy of these compounds when applied in poultry farms in the presence of live birds.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2009.58.64 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Literature data on the effect of dietary fat on growth performance in rabbits are inconclusive. For commercial rabbit production it is relevant to know to what extent dietary fat level and type can be manipulated. In the present study serum cholesterol was also analyzed because its relation to the amount and type of dietary fat was not known for rabbits. Approach: Young growing rabbits were fed diets containing one of four different levels (5.2-41.8 energy %) of either coconut fat or corn oil. Fat was added to the diets at the expense of an isoenergetic amount of corn starch and dextrose in a 1:1 ratio. The diets were in pelleted form and supplied ad libitum. Results: Increasing fat intakes in the form of either coconut fat or corn oil enhanced weight gain and improved feed efficiency. The effect of coconut fat was maximal at 20.9 energy % (9.9%, w/w) and the greatest effect of corn oil was seen at an inclusion level of 41.8 energy % (20.2%, w/w). As would be expected, replacement of dietary corn oil by coconut fat significantly decreased serum cholesterol concentrations. The cholesterol-lowering effect of corn oil versus coconut fat increased markedly with higher dietary inclusion levels of fat. Conclusion: The addition of fat to the diet improved growth performance. It is suggested to find out whether the present observations can be applied in the formulation of diets for fryer rabbits. The new observation for rabbits is that the hypocholesterolemic response to corn oil increased with higher intake levels.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.60.64 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Two hundred and forty male Cobb broilers were used to study the reasons of causing ascites. The results showed that cold ambient temperature could induce ascites (33.89% vs. 2.50%) and significantly increase triiodothyronine (T3), but reduce thyroxine (T4) concentrations in plasma (p<0.05). The ascitic broilers had high concentrations of aldosterone and K+, but low concentrations of T3 and T4 in the plasma (p<0.05). The lower body weight and higher relative heart, lung and liver weight of the ascitic broilers demonstrated the metabolic disarrangement. When ascites occurred, hematocrit in blood increased significantly (p<0.05). The mash feed could reduce body weight and the onset of ascites, compared with the pellet feed.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.62.65 2011/01/11 - 03:28

This study examined the effect of different levels of dietary organic and inorganic chromium (Cr) on meat quality of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition. Four hundred and twenty Ross male chickens in heat stress condition (33±3°C) were allocated to seven treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments were supplemented with 0 (control), 500, 1000 or 1500 µg kg-1 Cr in the form of Cr nicotinate and Cr chloride. Twelve chicks from each treatment were slaughtered at 42 d, to evaluate moisture, protein, lipid, pH and lipid oxidation of thigh and breast meat. Moisture, lipid and pH of meat were not affected by supplemental Cr. Breast meat protein was significantly (p<0.05) increased by the Cr supplementation especially organic Cr. Storage time increased lipid oxidation of meat (p<0.01). Lipid oxidation of breast and thigh muscle for two days of storage were affected by supplemental Cr and decreased (p<0.05). Results of the present study showed that supplementation of diet with Cr can improve the meat quality of broiler chicks in heat stress condition.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.62.67 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: In a previous study, the exposure of broiler chickens to a weak Electromagnetic Field (EMF) reduced the severity of a coccidiosis infection. The birds were infected by gavage into the crop which was not representative for the field situation. Approach: The possible anticoccidial activity of EMF was investigated in broiler chickens with a simulated, commercial coccidiosis infection. There was an uninfected and infected group not receiving further treatment. Another uninfected and infected group were subjected to EMF treatment. The infection was induced by adding to the litter a mixture of E. acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella. EMF treatment lasted for 30 min day-1; the field strength within the cages was set to 5 μTesla rms. Results: Infection with Eimeria resulted in a transient reduction of growth performance in the control chickens. Exposure to EMF counteracted the effect of infection on growth performance. EMF treatment had no effect on oocyst shedding. In the infected birds exposed to EMF, the lesion scores related to the three Eimeria species were generally lower than in the infected controls. Due to cross-contamination, the uninfected birds also showed intestinal lesions, the severity being less than in the infected chickens. In the uninfected birds, EMF treatment also had reduced the severity of the lesions. Conclusion: In this study EMF exposure protected against coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Consequently, EMF was considered as a possible alternative to anticoccidial drugs.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.65.70 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Because of dramatic declines in stocks of endangered Caspian brown trout males, Salmo trutta caspius in Caspian Sea, each male brooder is stripped indispensably more than once during the spawning season in other to artificial insemination in hatchery. The aim of the present study was to assay the changes of indicators of semen quality (sperm motility, sperm production, semen volume and chemical composition of seminal fluid) during these sequential strippings. Approach: The 11 tagged males were stripped four times every 12-14 days with beginning of spermiation period (2 December 2008) towards its end (10 January 2008). One-way Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyze differences between means of semen parameters. Also, the relationships between semen parameters were tested using the bivariate correlation coefficients of Pearson. Results: The semen volume, sperm density, osmolality and the concentrations of Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and total protein gradually decreased whereas the values of glucose and triglyceride had no significant changes during sequential strippings. Also, the values of semen pH, the percentage (5s post-activation) and duration of motility were statistically stable until third stripping but a decrease was recorded for these parameters in the fourth stripping. As well as, significant positive correlations were found for sperm density vs. K+, Cl-, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, total protein, spermatocrit; the percentage of motile spermatozoa Vs Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Cl-, Na+, total protein and also the duration of motility Vs K+, Cl-, total protein and pH. Conclusion: The semen quality of Caspian brown trout males decrease in successive strippings during spawning season. Also, the knowledge on values and correlations between the sperm motility characteristics and the composition of seminal fluid could be useful to formulation of a species-specific extender solution for cryopreservation of semen of Caspian brown trout.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2009.65.71 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Medical records of 31 adult dairy cows suffering from recurrent rumen tympany for at least 1 month duration that underwent exploratory laparotomy and rumenotomy were reviewed and information was obtained on signalment, history, physical examination findings, laboratory findings and surgical findings. Cases were categorized according to surgical findings into 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 10) included cattle with reticuloruminal, metallic foreign bodies and perireticular adhesions/inflammation, group 2 (n = 14) included cattle with reticuloruminal, non-metallic foreign bodies and no perireticular adhesions/inflammation and group 3 (n = 7) included cattle with no reticuloruminal foreign bodies and no perireticular adhesions/inflammation. Anorexia and decreased milk production were the most common clinical signs in all groups. Reluctant to move and arched back were prominent in group 1. In 45% of cases, frothy bloat was associated with the presence of large amounts of reticuloruminal, non-metallic foreign bodies. Collectively, factors that significantly had negative impact on outcome were: presence of perireticular adhesions, feeding finely-ground grain and plasma fibrinogen levels above 600mg dL-1. However, the amount of grain fed per day and type of bloat (free-gas or frothy gas) had no significant effect on the outcome. Results of this study suggest that similar to metallic foreign bodies, non-metallic foreign bodies in the reticulorumen of adult dairy cattle are equally important in causing recurrent rumen tympany.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.66.71 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: This study was conducted to describe & report for the first time outbreaks of natural C.pseudotuberculosis infection in adult camel herds (Camelus dromedarius) in Jordan. An infectious disease syndrome was reported in three camel herds (Camelus dromedarius) intensively raised at south province in Jordan. Approach: The herds included over 160 adult camels out of which about 8% were affected with multiple muscle and subcutaneous abscesses at various sites of the body. The camels were also heavily infested with ticks. Results: The infected camels did not respond favorably to several broad spectrum antibiotics. Post-mortem examination of 5 carcasses revealed emaciation and presence of external and internal multiple abscesses particularly in the lungs. The abscesses were encapsulated by fibrous tissue and contained creamy yellowish white pus. The lymph nodes were slightly congested and swollen. Conclusion: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis type I strain or biovar ovis (the known cause of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep) was isolated from pus, lymph nodes, ticks, milk, blood and liver samples. The clinical symptoms, nature and distribution of lesions of caseous lymphadenitis in camels are not as typical as in sheep. Recommendations for pseudotuberculosis control were given.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.68.72 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Vitrification is replacing conventional slow freezing to cryopreserve gametes and embryos especially for in vitro production of embryo in domestic animal species. However, the results are still not satisfactory. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of different equilibration temperatures on in vitro viability of immature bovine oocytes after vitrification. Approach: Oocytes were obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries. Only grade one oocytes were used. Oocytes were equilibrated in three different temperatures: 32, 37, or 41°C. Immature oocytes were equilibrated in VS1 (7.5 Ethylene Glycol (EG) + 7.5% DMSO) for 10-12 min and then exposed to VS2 (15% EG + 15%DMSO + 0.5M sucrose) for one min. Thereafter oocytes were loaded on hand-made Cryotop and directly plunged into liquid nitrogen. After warming, oocytes were examined for viability, maturation, cleavage and blastocyst production. Results: Oocytes that were equilibrated at 37°C had significantly higher (p<0.05) viability than 41°C, but there were no significant difference between 37 and 41 with 32°C. Maturation rate in 37°C group was significantly higher compared with other groups. The highest percentage of degenerated and germinal vesicle stage oocytes were obtained from 41°C than 32 and 37°C. Cleavage rate of 37°C group (38.77%) was greater than other groups (30.84 and 28.95% for 32 and 41°C, respectively). The highest blastocyst rate was also produced when oocytes equilibrated at 37°C (6.45%). Conclusion: In conclusion, these results indicated that immature bovine oocytes can be equilibrated successfully at 37°C while higher or lower temperature can significantly decrease their subsequent viability and development.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.71.75 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Two experiments have been conducted in order to investigate the buffering capacity of some ruminant's feedstuffs and their additivity to calculate ration buffering capacity as a tools for feed formulation. The first experiment was performed with different types (65 samples) of feedstuffs to determine the Buffering Capacity (BC) and Buffer Value Index (BVI). For investigation of cumulative effects of buffering capacity or buffer value index, 6 Total Mixed Rations (TMR) for dairy cow and other six TMR for sheep were formulated using the feedstuffs with known BC or BVI. The calculated and analyzed values were compared using paired t-test. In the second experiment rumen fluid pH was measured using 5 simple rations on 5 adult sheep and correlation was calculated between rumen fluid pH and fiber or ash content of the diets. The analyzed BC and BVI for all the TMRs appeared to be lower than the values calculated from these variables, for individual feedstuffs (p<0.05). The analyzed BVI was also two times higher than the calculated BVI for each diet (p<0.05). In spite of this, the correlation (0.88) between calculated and analyzed values was strong and positive (p = 0.021) for BC and for BVI (0.64) (p and 0.172), respectively. No significant correlation was detected between BC or BVI and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) or fiber content of diets (p>0.05). No significant (p>0.05) correlation has been found between ruminal fluid pH and dietary components.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.72.78 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: The effect of extracts from Neem (Azadirachta indica), Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) and Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) with added copper sulfate, on female Boer goats infected with gastrointestinal parasites (GIN) was evaluated. Approach: Following initial screening for infection, animals were artificially infected with a mix containing approximately 80% Haemonchus contortus and 20% Trichostrongylus spp. After 21 days, fecal samples were collected to determine the fecal egg count. Plant extracts (200 mg kg-1 body weight) in sterile distilled water were administered on day 28. Treatment I was a control without anthelmintic (distilled water); treatment II received Neem leaf extracts; treatment III received an extract prepared from Wormwood leaves, flowers and roots; treatment IV received Tobacco leaf extracts with copper sulphate. Body Weight (BW), Fecal Egg Count (FEC), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Total White Blood Cell Counts (TWBCC) and White Blood Cell Differential Counts (WBCDC) were determined in goats once a week, for a 4-week period. Results: There was no difference in FEC among the groups. The results showed that the plant extracts at the tested concentration were not effective anthelmintics; The PCV of the control group was significantly higher than all treatment groups (p≤0.05). Groups treated with Wormwood and Tobacco copper sulphate had dramatic decreases in PCV which may be an indicator of toxicity from these treatments. Significant differences in BW were observed between the control group and that of the Tobacco-copper sulphate group (p≤0.05). Low concentrations of Tobacco-copper sulphate treatment enhanced body weight. The extracts tested were not effective in reducing the levels of TWBCC. Circulating eosinophil counts, TWBCC and FEC, were negatively correlated with PCV in goats in this study. Conclusion: Aqueous extracts containing water soluble proteins from Neem, wormwood and tobacco are not effective anthelmintics in goats. Further investigation on efficacy and toxicity of copper supplementation on animal health and performance in goats for use by producers is recommended. Genetic variability among goats may influence the response to plant extracts. These studies support the observation that the efficacy of plant based anthelmintics is influenced by the method of extraction and host genetics in goats.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2009.72.79 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: The main aim was to clinical assessment of the ultrasonographic changes of transcutaneous electrical neural stimulation after inducing injury in the SDFT in horses. Approach: Using 8 adults' castrated horses having 350-550 Kgbw with 4-6 years of age. The left hind limb and right fore-limb Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon (SDFT) were splitted longitudinally at mid metatarsal and metacarpal regions in full thickness of 10 cm in length using B.P.blade 15 time strikes, then the connective tissue and skin was approximated using No 2 Nylon. Horses were divided into two groups of control and treated with 4 horses each. No treatment was given to control one, whereas treated group was subjected to transcutaneous neural electrical stimulation for 10 min daily with intensity of 80 µs and 100 Hz frequency over 14 days using TENS apparatus newtens 900c. Ultrasonograhic examination was done using Pie Medical 200 Vet Apparatus in 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 45 and 60 days measuring Cross-Sectional Area (CSA) of SDFT in operated limbs in each horse. For assessing the variation in this finding the Repeated Measure Analysis of Variance was used. Results: After comparing the healing process between two groups, it was significantly accelerated in treated with therapeutic ultrasound. Pain relief, swelling, tenderness, heat and functional recovery in treated with therapeutic ultrasound significantly improved comparing to control group. There was significant effect on reducing lameness in treated group by 28 days after splitting, whereas lameness persisted till 60 days in control group. Ultrasonography findings showed significant decrease in SDFT diameters and Cross Sectional Area (CSA) in the treated limbs comparing with control. Conclusion: Clinically speeding wound healing beside complete reduction of swelling, pain and lameness, its application significantly accelerated functional recovery affected limb.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.73.77 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: The aim of the present study was to characterize and differentiate the effects of addition of flavomycin or monensin on ruminal fermentation and degradability as well as on total digestibility in bovine. Approach: Twelve non-pregnant and non-lactating cows (736 kg of BW) were randomly assigned to three treatments: control, flavomycin (20 mg animal-1 day-1) and monensin (300 mg animal-1 day-1). The trial lasted 21 days. The last 10 days were used for external marker administration (15 g of chromic oxide animal-1 day-1). The last 5 days of the trial were used for feces collection and evaluation of corn grain, soybean meal or sugarcane ruminal degradability and the 21st day was used for ruminal fluid sampling. Results: Monensin increased 27.2%, on average, propionate molar proportion at 0, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h after feeding, compared to control and flavomycin groups. When compared to control, flavomycin reduced the degradation rate of soybean meal CP in 31.0%, decreasing the effective degradability when passage rates of 5 and 8% h-1 were used. Dry matter intake, pH, total Short Chain Fatty Acids (tSCFA) or ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration were not influenced by the addition of either antibiotics. Effective degradability of sugarcane NDF was not influenced by the use of either antibiotic; neither were the TDN nor the digestibility of DM, CP, EE, NFE, ADF, NDF, GE or starch of the diet. Conclusion/Recommendations: In the present study, it was possible to show the beneficial effects of monensin but not of flavomycin, on rumen fermentation.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.76.85 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem Statement: The efficacy of Methionine (Met) sparing effect of Betaine (BET) has been shown to be associated with dietary compositions, animal physiological stage and living conditions. This study was to determine the extent to which dietary Met could be replaced by BET in broiler chickens under the feeding conditions specific to Chinese poultry industry.Approach: A total of 900 day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were fed three corn-soybean meal-based starter rations (d 1-21) and grower rations (d 22-42) for a total of 42 days. Met levels in the diets were: Diet 1, Met content at the recommended level (Control); diet 2, Met level at 85% of the Control supplemented with BET at the level of 400 (starter) or 300 (grower) mg kg-1 DM; Diet 3, Met level at 75% of the Control supplemented with BET at the level of 600 (starter) or 500 (grower) mg khg-1 DM. The broilers were raised in a temperature controlled house with 3 pens (replicates) per dietary treatment. Results: In general, treatment had no effect on body weight, feed intake or feed efficiency. Concentrations of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the serum of broilers fed Diet 3 were higher (p<0.05) than that of broilers of other treatments. Supplementation of BET at the level of replacing 25% of total Met increased (p<0.05) breast meat yield and protein content of breast meat and liver, but decreased (p<0.05) abdominal fat yield and ether extract content of liver. Conclusions/Recommendations: Supplementation of BET to replace up to 25% of total dietary Met did not affect the growth performance but improved the carcass quality of the broilers. BET could be used to spare 25% of the total Met in broiler diet that was formulated based on the Feeding Standard of China.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.78.84 2011/01/11 - 03:28

This experiment is conducted in vitro to investigate trivalent chromium picolinate affects the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. A myoblasts cell line (C2C12) from rats was used in the experiment. These were randomly divided into the control group, the Pic group (50ppb picolinate) and the CrPic group (50ppb chromium picolinate). The differentiation of myoblasts reveals that the number of differentiated myotubes, creatine kinase (CK) activity and the aldolase (ALB) activity do not differ among the three groups (P > 0.05). The activity of hexokinase in the CrPic and Pic groups clearly exceeds that in the control group (P < 0.05), and the activity of myokinase in the Pic group exceeds that in the CrPic and control groups (P < 0.05). Besides, the transcription factor myogenin exerts no effect on any of the three groups (P > 0.05). Myoblast proliferation was the same across the three groups (P > 0.05), and the quantity of DNA in the control group exceeded that in the Pic group (P < 0.05). The experiment indicated that 200ppb chromium picolinate did not influence the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.79.83 2011/01/11 - 03:28