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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Problem statement: Molecular genetics selection on individual genes is a promising method to genetically improve economically important traits in chickens. The Insulin like Growth Factor-I (IGF1) gene may play important roles in growth of multiple tissues, including muscle cells, cartilage and bone. Approach: In the present study polymorphism of the promoter and 5' untranslated region of IGF-1 gene of Mazandaran native fowls was investigated. In order to evaluate the IGF-1 gene polymorphism we have used a Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) method. Blood samples were collected from randomly chosen 100 Mazandaran native fowls. Genomic DNA was extracted using modified salting-out method and used amplified polymerase chain reaction technique. The promoter and 5' untranslated region of the fowl IGF-1 gene was amplified to produce a 621 bp fragment. The PCR products were electrophoresed on 2.5% agarose gel and stained by etidium bromide. Results: Then, they were digested of amplicon with PstI and revealed two alleles A and B. Data were analyzed using Pop Gene 32 package. In this population, AA, AB, BB genotype have been identified with the 25.88, 50.23, 23.89% frequencies. A and B alleles frequencies were 0.51, 0.49, respectively. The Chi-square (χ2) test was significant and the population was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05). Conclusion: The PCR technique amplified a DNA fragment of IGF-1 with 621 bp. The results of the RFLP analysis showed two fragment 257 and 354bp after restriction with enzyme with PstI that identify changes in 5' untranslated region. In according to action modes and importance of IGF-1, its polymorphisms can be related to economical traits such as body weight, muscle cells and bone.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2011.80.83 2011/08/14 - 13:57

Problem statement: The experiment was carried out to determine whether the dietary Dried Fermented Ginger (DFG) has no affecting damage on broiler growth performance and can also be applicable in tropical and subtropical area using basal diets without antibiotics. Approach: Three hundred and fifty 7-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were divided into one basal diet group (control) and 6 experimental groups. The basal diets were adequately formulated, but not added with antibiotics. Among the 6 DFG groups, 3 groups were fed each basal diet supplemented with DFG at 0.25 (0.25 S), 0.5 (0.5 S) and 1% (1 S) levels from 7-42 days of age (starter groups). The remaining 3 DFG groups were fed the starter basal diet until 21 days of age. At 22 days of age, they were switched to finisher diet supplemented with DFG at 0.25 (0.25 F), 0.5 (0.5 F) and 1% (1 F), from 22-42 days of age (finisher groups). Results: Feed intake, body weight gain and feed efficiency were not significantly different among the groups (p>0.05). However, when the body weight gain of the control was expressed as an index of 100, the body weight gain index of the DFG groups was better than the control except the 0.25 S groups. Compared to the body weight gain index of the starter groups, they showed the better index. The values of feed efficiency were also better in all the experimental groups than in the control. Conclusion: The present results suggest that DFG can apply to tropical and subtropical area as a natural supplementation without antibiotics and it is better to supplement to basal diet during finisher stage (from 22 days old).

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2011.65.68 2011/08/14 - 13:57

Problem statement: The transition period is the most stressful time in the production cycle
of a dairy cow because of depressed feed intake, endocrine and metabolic changes at parturition. The
aim was to determine the effect of rumen acid load on postpartum performance and metabolic
parameters in transition Holstein cows. Approach: The Acidogenicity Values (AV) of the diets were
determined using an In-vitro essay. Thirty late pregnant multiparous Holstein cows with the average
yielding of 9800 Kg/year were housed. Three weeks before the expected date of calving, cows were
randomly assigned to receive either: (a) High AV (AV11.9) diet (n = 16) (b) Low AV (AV10.7) diet
(n=14). Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vein once a week at a consistent time after
morning feeding from d 10 till d 42 postpartum and were analysed for Beta Hydroxybutyrate (BHB),
Non-Esterified Fatty Acids (NEFAs), glucose and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN). Milk samples were
collected from each milking once per week and composited for subsequent analysis of milk
composition. Results: Overall subsequent milk yield of animals in high AV was higher compared to
the other group (41.9 and 37.8 kg). Although milk fat percentage of the low AV group was higher than
the other group (3.7 and 3.5%), however there was no significant effect of the diets on milk protein.
Plasma NEFA and BHBA was reduced significantly in animals receiving the high AV diet. Although
the concentration of glucose was markedly higher in high AV animals, however the BUN
concentration was lower compare to the low AV group. Conclusion: The results of the present study
demonstrated that high grain prepartum diets have dramatic impact on postpartum performance and
blood metabolic parameters.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2011.59.64 2011/05/28 - 21:50

Problem statement: One of the real problems that cause the economic prejudice in animal
farms yearly is parasitic diseases. To overcome these problems the use of antiparasitic drugs is
necessary. Ivermectin is a broad spectrum antiparasitic agent and different routes of its administration
such as injection, oral and pour-on were used. The aims of the current study were evaluation of the
efficacy of ivermectin pour-on administration against natural Heterakis gallinarum infection in native
poultry and also determination the prevalence rate of this parasite in Tabriz area. Approach:In the
present study, 120 native poultry were investigated by Egg Per Gram of feces (EPG) feces test. Willis
method was applied for feces test and Mack-master slide method was used for counting nematode
eggs. After confirming the infection with worms, Ivermectin (0.5 mg kg−1) pour-on was administrated
to infected birds. Fecal examination was repeated in 1, 7, 21 and 28 days post treatment. Results:
Results showed that total prevalence of Heterakis gallinarum infection was 21.66% in native poultry of
Tabriz area. Efficacy rate of ivermectin pour-on was 59.14, 87.87, 97.65 and 99.57% in 1, 7, 21 and 28
days respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, the effect of this drug against Heterakis gallinarum
resulted in reduction in egg count exceeded 98% (p<0.05), so this drug can be used in antiparasitic
program in poultry. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate the drug effect on other nematodes
and parasitic infections.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2011.55.58 2011/05/28 - 21:50

Problem statement: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of microbial phytase
supplementation and citric acid on thyroid activity, relative weight of lymphoid organs and pH values
of some GI-tract segments in broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal based diets. Approach: The data
was analyzed using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with factorial arrangement of 3×3,
three levels of citric acids (0, 3 and 6%) and three levels of phytase (0, 500 and 1000 IU kg−1). There
were three replicates (with ten chicks in each replicate) for each treatment. A total of 270 Ross 308
broiler chicks were used. Results: Addition of citric acid to diets caused significant decrease in pH
values of crop, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum and ileum (p<0.05) and caused significant increase
(p<0.01) in plasma triiodothyronine (T3) concentration, T3:T4 ratio and relative weight of bursa and
thymus, but had no significant effect on thyroxin (T4) concentrations. Microbial phytase significantly
increased relative weight of thymus (p<0.01), but had no significant effects on thyroid gland activity,
relative weight of bursa and values of pH in different parts of the GI-tract. Conclusion: Broiler chicks
fed on acidifiers diets had better immune response resistance that lead to immunological advances.
Also, decreasing pH in GI-tract by CA caused a beneficial effect in the inhibition of intestinal bacteria
competition.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2011.1.6 2011/05/02 - 04:32

Arctic Ground Squirrels (AGS) are classic hibernators known for their tolerance to hypoxia.
AGS have been studied as a model of hypoxia with potential as a medical research model. Problem
statement: Their unique resistance to the stressors of low oxygen led us to hypothesize that AGS
might also be adaptable to hyperoxia. Approach: This study examined the physiological pattern
associated with hyperoxia in response to brain tissue oxygen partial pressure (PtO2), brain temperature
(Tbrain), global oxygen consumption (VO2) and respiratory frequency (fR) using non-sedated and nonanesthetized
Arctic Ground Squirrels (AGS) and rats. Results: We found that 1) 100% inspired
oxygen (FiO2) increased the baseline values of brain PtO2 significantly in both summer euthermic AGS
(24.4 ± 3.6-87.3 ± 3.6 mmHg, n=6) and in rats (18.2 ± 5.2-73.3 ± 5.2 mmHg, n = 3); PtO2 was
significantly higher in AGS than in rats during hyperoxic exposure; 2) hyperoxic exposure had no
effect on brain temperature in either AGS or rats, with the brain temperatures maintaining constancy
before, during and after 100% O2 exposure; 3) systemic metabolic rates increased significantly during
hyperoxic exposure in both euthermic AGS and rats; moreover, VO2 were significantly lower in AGS
than in rats during hyperoxic exposure; 4) the respiratory rates for rats were maintained before, during
and after 100% O2 exposure, while the respiratory responding patterns to hyperoxic exposure changed
after exposure in AGS. AGS fR was significantly lower after hyperoxic exposure than before the
exposure. Conclusion: These results suggest that hyperoxic ventilation induced PtO2 and VO2 differences
between AGS and rats and led to altered respiratory patterns between these species. AGS and the rat
serves as an excellent comparative model for hypoxic and hyperoxic stress studies of the brain.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2011.7.17 2011/05/02 - 04:32

Problem statement: To show the effect of recombinant Erythropoietin (rhEPO) on the
ovarian viability and histology in the twisted ischemic ovaries in rats, followed by detorsion.
Approach: An experimental study was conducted in primate clinic of the School of Medicine, Tabriz
University of Medical Sciences from Dec. 2008 to Apr. 2009. Forty, 4 month old Wistar rats are cased
in the present study divided into 4 groups. Ovarian ischemia was performed by torsion which was kept
stable by using a vascular microclip for 4 h. In group 1, the ovary were surgically removed, fixed and
analyzed histochemically. In group 2, the same procedure was repeated after 3 h reperfusion. In the
next two groups, the same was performed rhEPO was administrated 400 u kg−1 1 h after torsion of the
ovaries. Results: Thirty-two out of 40 rats were followed. There was a significant difference between
groups in the levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA), Total Antioxidants (TA), Superoxidase (SOD), Nitric
Oxide (NO) glutathione ( p<0.001). Addition of rhEPO maintained the normal histologic appearance in
interventional groups compared with controls. Conclusion: Administration of rhEPO was effective
in reducing the ischemic effect and free radicals damages of ovarian torsion in rats.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2011.18.24 2011/05/02 - 04:32

Problem statement: The potential feeding values of grain legumes, such as peas (Pisum
sativum), are limited because of the presence of anti-nutritional factors. In particular, protease
inhibitors are of interest, but these can be readily destroyed by thermal treatments. In the present study,
the influence of extrusion on the chemical composition and nutritive value of peas was evaluated.
Approach: Two extrudates were produced by extruding the peas at two moisture levels (19 and 22%)
and one temperature (140°C). Four treatment diets consisting of a corn-soy basal diet and three test
diets containing raw and the two extruded pea meals were formulated and assayed in digestibility and
balance trials using broiler chickens. The test diets were formulated by substituting the raw and
extruded pea meals for 25% (w/w) of the basal diet. Ileal nutrient digestibility was calculated using
titanium oxide as an indigestible indicator and the apparent metabolisable energy was determined
using the classical total excreta collection method. Results: Extrusion had no effect (P>0.05) on the
contents of crude protein and starch. Soluble non-starch polysaccharide contents were increased
(P<0.05) and the contents of total and insoluble non-starch polysaccharide were lowered (P<0.05) by
extrusion. As expected, trypsin inhibitor activity of peas was reduced (P<0.05) following extrusion
Extrusion increased (P < 0.05) the apparent ileal starch digestibility, but had no effect (P > 0.05) on the
apparent ileal protein digestibility and the apparent metabolisable energy of peas. Conclusion: Under
the extrusion conditions employed in the present study, extrusion was not beneficial to improving the
nutritive value of peas for broilers.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2011.25.30 2011/05/02 - 04:32

Problem statement: The seeds of Nigella sativa Linn. (Ranunculaceae) known as black
seed or black cumin, are used in herbal medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of
a number of diseases and conditions that include asthma, diarrhea and dyslipidaemia. Approach: In
this study the effect of intramammary injection of Nigella Sativa Extract (NSE) in paraffin on quarter
milk, quality and Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and the shedding pattern of Staphylococcus aureus were
investigated. Thirty Holstein cows, naturally infected with S. aureus subclinical mastitis, were
subjected to treatment with the NSE at a dose of 10 mL in paraffin (200 mg mL−1) per day for 3 days,
or with 10 mL paraffin as control. The injection areas were checked for adverse reactions. The daily
milk production was measured before and after treatment. Intramammary injection of NSE caused a
remarkable healing. Quarter milk samples were collected for bacteriological analysis and Somatic Cell
Counts (SCC). The bacterial count moderately decreased in the treatment group. After the end of the
treatment, the numbers of S. aureus-infected quarters and milk SCC tended to decrease in the NSEtreated
cows. These clarifications were significantly higher one week post-treatment than pretreatment.
Similar changes were not observed in the control group. Results: The results of the present
study showed that the NSE has potential as a therapeutic agent for S. aureus infection causing
subclinical mastitis of dairy cows and may contribute to the cow's recovery from mastitis. Conclusion:
In conclusion, the results indicate that Nigella sativa might act as an antibacterial in vivo in dairy cows.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2011.31.34 2011/05/02 - 04:32

Problem statement: Due to price hikes in feed, several strategies should be sought to reduce
feeding costs. At the same time, there has been a considerable increase in environmental pollution from
food waste. If food waste could be transferred into poultry diets, this would solve a great problem, helping
poultry producers to reduce feeding costs, while reducing environmental problems arising from the disposal
of food waste. The present study was performed to evaluate the possibility that Eco-feed (feed produced
from recycled food waste) can be used as a feed ingredient source for layer hens. Approach: To promote
the quality of conventional Eco-feed, it was sunk into Japanese Mugwort Silage Juice (JMSJ) including
microorganism compounds and combined with a compound of microorganisms derived from JMSJ,
resulting in Eco-feed Containing Mugwort microorganism compounds (ECM). Thirty-two 56-wk-old
White Leghorn hens were divided into 4 groups of 8 birds each. They were fed 0 (control), 10, 20 or 30%
dietary ECM for 12 weeks. Results: Compared with the control, although the chickens in all the
experimental groups consumed less feed (p<0.001), production performance in the 10 and 20% ECM
groups did not decrease. None of the experimental groups were affected in terms of egg weight, shell
strength, shell weight, shell thickness, albumen height, albumen weight, yolk weight, yolk color or Haugh
unit. Conclusion: These results indicate that ECM can be a useful feed ingredient in commercial diets for
laying hens at levels up to 20%.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2011.35.39 2011/05/02 - 04:32

Problem statement: Using most of antibiotic growth promoters as feed additives has been
banned by the European Union due to cross-resistance against pathogens and residues in tissues; and
scientists search for alternatives to antibiotics, two days. In this view, medicinal plants and essential oils
extracted are becoming more important due to their antimicrobial and stimulating effects on animal
digestive systems. Approach: This study was conducted to evaluate the use of Pumpkin oil in broiler
nutrition as a natural growth promoting substance and its effect on abdominal and blood fat. A total of 144
one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were used in a completely randomized design with 3 treatments and
3 replicates. The experiment was conducted from 29-49 d of age. The main ingredients of diets included
corn, soybean meal and wheat. The pumpkin oil levels added to the diets were 0.00 (control), 5.00 and
10.00 g kg−1 DM. Results: Pumpkin oil supplementation up to 5.00 g kg−1 DM diet had not significant
effect on broilers performance, but supplementation in higher level (10.00 g kg−1 DM) significantly
decreased broilers performance. Pumpkin oil supplementation decreased bird’s mortality. Adding pumpkin
oil had not any significant effect on abdominal fat pad and carcass composition, however cholesterol and
triglyceride concentrations in plasma decreased at 49 days of age (P<0.05). Conclusion: Results of this
study indicated that supplementation of diets with 5.00 g kg−1 DM pumpkin oil in corn-soybean meal-wheat
based diet can be profitable because it reduced broiler chicken’s mortality and it did not have any adverse
effect on bird’s performance.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2011.40.44 2011/05/02 - 04:32

Problem statement: A goal during weight loss is to reduce body fat while maintaining
body protein. We hypothesized that an increased dietary lysine: calorie might be beneficial during
periods of caloric restriction. Approach: Two experiments were conducted to determine if changing
the ratio of lysine: calories (lysine g/kg: Mcal ME/kg) while maintaining an ideal profile of amino
acids will change nitrogen metabolism and weight loss in obese mature dogs. Results: The results of
these experiments imply that if all essential amino acids are in adequate supply in the food, foods with
an optimal balance of nutrients can reduce muscle degradation during periods of caloric restriction.
Conclusion: Our optimum food for decreasing protein degradation was the food containing 3.0 lysine:
calorie. However, the present experiments were relatively short and these results may not be sustained
over longer periods of restriction.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2011.45.54 2011/05/02 - 04:32

Problem statement: The aim of this study was to investigated the effects of adding citric acid and microbial phytase supplementation (Natuphos®) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed corn soybean meal base diets. Approach: The experiment included nine treatments with 10 birds in each replicate using a 3×3 factorial design for two main factors of citric acid (0, 3 and 6%) and three phytase enzyme (0, 500 and 1000 IU kg−1). The diets were formulated based upon corn-soybean meal 7 to 21 and 22 to 42 day periods. Results: Using different levels of citric acid in diets had no effect on internal organs (except relative heart weight), whereas, diets containing 6% citric acid decreased feed intake, body weight gain and carcass yield (p<0.05) and improved feed conversion ratio and organs relative weight. Also, microbial phytase caused increase in feed intake, weight gain and relative neck weight (p<0.05). Conclusion: Depression of performance was differently affected by citric acid levels. Also, there was an additive effect between microbial phytase and citric acid.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.282.288 2011/02/05 - 19:51

Problem statement: Development of efficient culture system to support embryonic development would be valuable when quality of produced embryos was important. However, the rate of bovine embryo production in vitro was still lower than expected. Present study, including of three experiments, was carried out to investigate the effect of insulin on nuclear maturation and subsequent development of immature bovine oocytes and in vitro fertilized embryos. Approach: Grade one cumulus-oocyte-complexes harvested from slaughterhouse ovaries were selected and randomly allocated in each treatment groups. In experiment 1, in vitro maturation medium (Hepes-buffered medium 199 + fetal calf serum + gonadotrophins + antibiotics) supplemented with 0 (control), 1, 10, 20 and 100 µg mL-1 of insulin. In experiment 2, to eliminate the effect of serum and hormones, Hepesbuffered medium 199 was supplemented with 1 mg mL-1 polyvinyl alcohols (PVA) and same levels of insulin. In experiment 3, the effect of insulin on bovine in vitro embryo development was assessed. Presumptive zygotes were randomly cultured in synthetic oviductal fluid added with 0 (control), 1, 10, 20 and 100 ìg mL-1 of insulin. Results: In experiment 1, nuclear maturation and embryo development rates were significantly higher in 1 and 10 µg mL-1 compared with other groups (P<0.05). In experiment 2, both maturation and cleavage rate significantly increased in 1 and 10 ìg mL-1 insulin. The only treatment resulted in higher hatchability was 10 ìg mL-1 insulin (17.1±2.34%) compared with control (11.34±3.94). In experiment 3, cleavage and morula rates were significantly greater in 1 and 10 µg mL-1 insulin compared with other groups; although the highest rates resulted by using 10 µg mL-1. Conclusion: Obtained results show that inclusion of 10 µg mL-1 insulin in maturation and culture medium exerted beneficial effects on nuclear maturation of bovine oocytes and in vitro embryo development till morula stage.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.258.265 2011/01/27 - 17:56

Abstract: Problem statement: It is regarded that vitamin A protects cells from damage by radicals which are believed to contribute to certain chronic diseases and regulates immune function of animals by protection of mucosal epithelium acting as the first defense barrier. All these properties of vitamin A may be attributable to its antioxidant activity. This study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of vitamin A on growth performance, antioxidant status and blood constituents of lactating ewes. Approach: Thirty-two multiparous lactating ewes of Grey goat (BW = 35.1 ± <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" />1.1 kg) were divided into four groups of eight with four different supplementing levels of vitamin A (0, 2000, 3000 and 5000 IU kg-1 DM). Ewes were fed in individual lot at ad libitum intake and had free access to water. Average daily feed intake and average milk yield of ewes were measured weekly. Blood was obtained every 14 days to evaluate activities of antioxidant enzymes, blood constituents and vitamin A levels in serum. Results: In general, feed intake, milk yield and feed efficiency were not affected by vitamin A supplementation. However, supplementation of vitamin A increased (p<0.05) activities of glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant capacity, but reduced (p<0.05) concentrations of malondialdehyde in serum of ewes. Red cells number increased linearly (p<0.01) and quadraticly (p<0.01) with incremental amount of vitamin A. Number of lymphocyte, concentration of hemoglobin and haematocrit were increased (p<0.05) by supplementing vitamin A. Serum retinol concentration was higher (p<0.05) for ewes supplemented with vitamin A at 5000 IU kg-1 than for control ewes, but retinol concentration in milk was not difference (p>0.05) among treatments. Conclusion/Recommendations: Addition of vitamin A improved antioxidant status of lactating Grey goat thereby enhanced their immune function. The optimum level of vitamin A supplementation for this purpose was between 2000 and 3000 IU kg-1 DM.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.274.281 2011/01/22 - 03:09

Abstract: Problem statement: Guar meal is a by-product consisting of hull and germ and is mostly used as a protein source in poultry and ruminant rations. The aim was to determine the effect of heat or heat-xylose processing on nitrogen fractions, in situ ruminal degradation parameters and in situ/in vitro ruminal and post-ruminal disappearance of guar meal. Approach: Samples were intact Guar Meal (GM), heat processed GM (GMhp, GM was heated at 100°C for 45 minute using industrial heater) and heat-xylose processed GM (GMhx, xylose was included in GM to give a final concentration of 10 g kg-1 DM, then was heat processed at 100°C for 45 minute using industrial heater). Ruminal degradation parameters of DM and Crude Protein (CP) were determined by in situ technique using four ruminally fistulated sheep. Post-ruminal disappearance of ruminal-undegradable CP was determined on residue from 16 h ruminal incubation of guar meal samples by three-step in situ/in vitro enzymatic procedure. Results: Non-protein nitrogen of the GMhx and GM samples ranged from 218-319 (g kg-1 N). Acid detergents insoluble nitrogen concentration of both GM and GMhp was significantly lower than that of GMhx (10.3, 11.29 and 18.53 g kg-1 nitrogen, respectively). In situ fractional degradation rate constant (c) of DM and CP was significantly decreased as a result of heat-xylose processing. Effective crude protein degradability of GMhp and GMhx was higher than that of GM. Post-ruminal disappearance of ruminal-undegradable CP of GM hx (0.965) was significantly higher compared with GM and GMhp (0.918 and 0.906, respectively). Conclusion: Results of the present study demonstrated that heat and heat-xylose processing might effectively protect the DM and CP of guar meal from ruminal degradation.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.266.273 2011/01/22 - 03:09

The foetal skull bone as a biological graft was investigated. This study was conducted on Fifteen adult mixed - breed normal dogs 12 to 24 months with weighing 21.4=3.6 Kg .Dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups of 5 animals each. The foetal skull bone of 45 days old was collected from one pregnant bitch via cesarean method. The right femoral head cartilage was removed completely in all dogs of 3 groups.. Group I acted as control one, whereas in II group, resurfacing was done by using foetal skull bone which was fixed by using 0.8 mm cerclage wire in criss-cross fashion, but in III group, it was done similar to II group and the hip joint additionally was fixed by using 2 mm steinmenn pin.The clinical observations was made accordingly for 60 days in all groups. The gross changes of femoral head in group I & II were quite smooth and slippy, but in III group were uneven and rough due to secondary changes and ankylosis, but on micropscopic interpertation there was a remarkable compatibility of the graft with femoral head.The reconstruction of articular cartilage was faster in group II and even group III animals than group I animals. There was single row of chondrocyte in scatter area of samples in group . The complete and uniform hyaline cartilage in group II and fibro - cartilage and mixture of connective tissues in group III animals were observed. The results indicated that the foetal skull bone due to its pleuripotent calvarium easily can orient itself into the chondrocytes and cartilagenous tissues in articular surface of the hip joint, if there is suitable enviroment before complete ossification,so that normal joint motion could expect.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2006.1.4 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Extrusion processing of vegetable ingredients such as soyabean (Glycine max) characteristically depends on associating process conditions that influence the product qualities. The process parameters were optimized for extrusion of steam-conditioned material in order to obtain the maximum nutritive value by inactivating the anti-nutritional factors such as urease, trypsin inhibitors and lipase. The processing conditions such as moisture content, temperature and time were precisely controlled to avoid over heating or under heating which otherwise would result in a product of lower nutritional quality. The urease activity and Trypsin inhibitors were measured in steam conditioned extruded soyabean material and test results indicated that urease activity units and trypsin inhibitory units were reduced from 2.0 and 50 to 0.3 and 5 respectively in extruded soyabean during the extrusion process. These results were used for comparative evaluation of 'inactivation levels of anti-nutritional factors' for optimizing the processing conditions of the steam conditioner and extruder for producing soyabean products for pet food applications. Stability studies were done on pet food samples and free fatty acid content and peroxide values were used as the criteria to evaluate the lipase activity in extruded soyabean samples. Extrusion of steam-conditioned soyabean material inactivated the antinutritional factors making extruded soyabean an ideal ingredient for pet food and its stability.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.1.5 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) is a potential genetic resource in Bangladesh having dairy potentialities, high resistance to disease and survive harse environmental condition while require low input supply. This resource is now disappearing due to indiscriminate crossing with other local and exotic cattle. To conserve this resource, find out the genetic diversity of RCC is prime concern. Approach: To determine the genetic variation of Red Chittagong Cattle and to find out the genetic present status for their future improvement and conservation program. The experiment was conducted in the Molecular Genetics Laboratory under Animal Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 100 RCC blood samples and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Randomly 16 primers were tested among them three primers were matched and found polymorphic. Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis was carried out using DNA samples of RCC. Only unambiguous, reproducible and scorable polymorphic fragments were taken into consideration for analysis. Data were analyzed by using a computer program POPGENE (Version 1.31). Results: The highest and the lowest level of gene frequency value (0.9590 and 0.0440) were observed in allele 0 and 1 with BMC1222-2 locus and only one monomorphic locus (OPB07-1) was found. The Nei’s gene diversity and Shannon’s information indicated that the highest and the lowest diversity were found in Anwara (0.2925) and Chandonish (0.2147) respectively. The pair-wise mean genetic distance value ranged (below diagonal) from 0.0092-0.0279. The minimum distance was found between Satkania and Chandonish. On the other hand maximum distance was found between RCC BLRI and Potia. The dendrogram segregated the five population of RCC into two clusters: RCC BLRI and Anwara is one cluster whereas Satkania, Chandonish and Potia made another cluster. Conclusion: The genetic diversity of RCC is relatively higher for a prescribed breed and therefore, have an opportunities to improve them using selective breeding like ONBS.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2009.1.5 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Beta-defensins (BDs) are classical epithelial antimicrobial peptides of immediate importance in innate host defense. Since recent studies have suggested that certain BDs are also expressed in non-traditional tissues, including whole heart homogenate and because effector molecules of innate immunity and inflammation can influence the development of certain cardiovascular disease processes, we hypothesized that BDs are produced by cardiomyocytes as a local measure of cardioprotection against danger signals. Here we report that at least one rat beta-defensin, rBD1, is expressed constitutively in cardiomyocytes specifically isolated using position-ablation-laser-microdissection (P.A.L.M. Microlaser Technologies). RT-PCR analysis showed expression of a single 318 bp transcript in adult rat heart (laser-excised cardiomyocytes) and H9c2 cells (neonatal rat heart myoblasts). Moreover, the full length cDNA of rBD1 was established and translated into a putative peptide with 69 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence of the adult rat cardiac BD-1 peptide displayed 99% identity with the previously reported renal rBD1 and 88, 53, 53 and 50% identity with mouse, human, gorilla and rhesus monkey BD1 respectively. Furthermore, structural analysis of the cardiac rBD1 showed the classical six-cysteine conserved motif of the BD family with an alpha-helix and three beta-sheets. Additionally, rBD1 displayed a significantly greater number of amphoteric residues than any of the human analogs, indicating a strong pH functional dependence in the rat. We suggest that rBD1, which was initially believed to be a specific epithelium-derived peptide, may be also involved in local cardiac innate immune defense mechanisms.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.1.6 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Free Met as one of the most limiting AA in dairy cows would be mostly degraded in the rumen. This study was to determine the effect of different levels of Rumen-Protected Met (RPMet) on dairy performance and serum amino acid metabolism. Approach: Thirty-six Holstein cows in similar condition were randomly assigned to six experimental treatments with six replicates each. Levels of RPMet in six treatments were 0(control), 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 g day-1 per cow, respectively. Results: Treatment had no effect on percentage of milk protein, lactose and SNF. However, milk yield of cows fed 42 g day-1 RPMet was significantly higher than that of the control group and milk fat percentage was significantly increased with 56 g day-1 RPMet supplementation. There was the trend to decrease the concentration of serum amino acids except Met and Arg with the supplementation of RPMet. Serum EAA contents of the group supplementation of 42 g day-1 RPMet
were lowest although there were no significant differences among all treatments. Serum BCAA
concentrations of cows fed 28 g RPMet were significantly lower than that of the control group.
Supplementation of 42 g RPMet could significantly decrease the concentration of NEAA and TAA
compared to the control group. Conclusion/Recommendations: Supplementation of rumen-protected
methionine improved dairy performance and promoted amino acid utilization in lactating cows in the
present experiment. The optimal level of RPMet in the diet was 42 g per cow day-1.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.1.7 2011/01/11 - 03:28

The neutrophils from uninfected armadillos have adequate phagocytic and bacteriocidal activity, but diminished chemotactic activity. However, endocytic activity from armadillo neutrophils infected with bacteria, parasites or viruses is unknown. This report shows that neutrophils from armadillos infected with microfilariae displayed deficiencies in their bacteriocidal mechanisms and TNF-like production, but not in their endocytic capacity.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2006.5.7 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are archetypal pattern recognition receptors of immediate importance for an efficacious innate immune response. TLRs exhibit marked differential tissue activity and their levels within a discrete cell type can be highly dynamic. Of 13 known mammalian paralogues, three TLRs have been identified in the dog. Although cardiac TLR expression has been reported in other species, this study is the first to present evidence that these innate immune receptors are expressed in the canine heart. Heart tissue samples from all four chambers were collected from healthy dogs immediately after euthanasia and stored at -80ºC until analysis. Total RNA was extracted with TRI Regent. Specific primers were designed for amplification of canine TLR2 and TLR4 based on previously reported sequences for these genes. Reverse transcription was performed with M-MLV reverse transcriptase. PCR amplification was performed and PCR products analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Bands were excised from the gel and the DNA isolated and cloned using the TA Cloning® Kit. The correct sequence for each product was verified by nucleotide sequencing. TLR4 expression was detected in the left ventricle and right atrium; TLR2 was detectable at low levels in the right atrium only. Identity of the RT-PCR products was confirmed by sequencing. Our findings show that at least two TLR paralogues- namely TLR2 and TLR4 - are expressed in the canine heart. Additional studies are warranted to determine these immune receptors' potential implication in the development of naturally occurring heart disease in the dog.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.6.10 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world's major health problems. To evaluate in vivo indices of cellular sensitization, antigen-induced Reactive Nitrogen Intermediates (RNI) responses by blood mononuclear cells from Mycobacterium bovis BCG-infected goats supplemented with 1, 25 dyhidroxyvitamin D3 [1, 25-(OH)2D3]. Approach: An experimental, longitudinal and comparative study was planned. Twelve animals of goat cattle 20-to 24-month-old sannen selected themselves. Five samplings were made, previous to the inoculation (zero d), 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after applying the treatments. The mononuclear cells by the Ficoll-hypaque method were obtained. The RNI, nitrites and nitrates (NO2- and NO3-­) were quantified by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: The treatment with the 1, 25(OH)2D3 stimulated the NO3- synthesis indicating, that by itself it is a good modulador of the micobacterial replication and in the treatment with M. bovis-BCG vaccine increased as a result to the treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3. The exhibition to M. bovis-BCG vaccine with the treatment with 1, 25(OH)2D3 was able to increase answer NO3-­ in exposed animals. Conclusion: The 1, 25(OH)2D3 stimulated in vivo the production of RNI in goats exposed to M. bovis BCG vaccine.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2009.6.13 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Food by-products in Iran are produced in high levels. In this study, in situ and in vitro gas production techniques were used to describe nutritive value of apple pomace, tomato pomace and noodle waste. For this purpose two ruminal fistulated sheep were used. Nylon bags which were approximately (6&times;12 cm) containing 5 g samples (2 mm screen) were incubated in duplicate in the rumen of fistulated sheep for 0,2,4,6,8,12,16,24,36 and 48 h. The gas production was recorded after 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36 and 48 h of incubation and the equation of P = A (1-e-ct) was used to describe the kinetics of gas production. The data was analyzed using completely randomized design. DM and CP disappearance were significantly different among feedstuffs (p<0.05). After 48 h of incubation DM disappearance in noodle waste was highest and in tomato pomace was lowest. Regarding to the results, at the most incubation times tomato pomace had lower CP disappearance among feedstuffs (p<0.05). Potential gas production (A) and rates of gas production (c) differed among feedstuffs. Apple pomace showed higher potential gas production (A) (305.1 mL g1 DM) and tomato pomace had higher rate of gas production (c) (0.09 h1) than the other feedstuffs. According to gas production volume, the value for the ME, OMD and SCFA ranged from in 8.87 noodle waste to 9.76 in apple pomace, 56.1 in tomato pomace to 64.3 in apple pomace and 0.919 in noodle waste to 1.168 in apple pomace, respectively. Partitioning factor in noodle waste was highest and in tomato pomace was lowest. In the present study, feeds composition significantly affected the degradation parameters.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.7.12 2011/01/11 - 03:28

The objective of the present study was test the anti-inflammatory efficacy of diclofenac dietilamine, applied epicutaneously at a dose rate of 0.44 mg kg-1, in a model of acute arthritis in horses. Four clinical end-points, as well as two biochemical markers, were used as surrogate markers of the required clinical response (analgesia, anti-inflammatory). Low diclofenac concentrations were measured in blood (Cmax 0.04±0.03 ug mL-1) and synovial fluid (Cmax 0.08 ±0.08 ug mL-1) from the first to the last sampling time. The statistical comparison of the clinical end-points and biochemical markers between placebo and dicilofenac treated group indicated a lack of pharmacological effect of this compound after epicutaneous administration.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2006.8.12 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Because of dramatic declines in stocks of brown trout in southern part of Caspian basin, the population's structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in several rivers were studied to provide data for conservation programs. Approach: The structure of the populations in the six rivers of the southern part of Caspian basin including: Keliyare, Khojirood, Lar, Shirinrood, Rig cheshme and Pajimiyane, were studied. Results: Five age classes, ranged from 0+-4+ years, were determined. The most frequent age classes belong to 1+ and 2+. The length ranged from 78-305 mm and weight ranged from 3.6-390 g. Also, the condition factor ranged from 0.58-1.47. The highest and lowest length, weight and condition factor were observed in Lar and Rig cheshme, respectively. In 5 out of 6 rivers, females were dominant over males. The highest and lowest female: Male ratios were observed in Pajimiane (6.75:1) and Khojirood (0.8:1), respectively. Significant relationships were found between total length of brown trout with depth (r = 0.6, p<0.0001) and width (r = 0.68, p<0.0001) of habitats in these studied areas. Conclusion: According to our knowledge, this is the first report of brown trout from Kelyare and Khojirood rivers. Since size of populations in studied areas are small and majority of these rivers located in low protected locations, it is essential to apply serious measures to protect these vulnerable habitats.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.8.12 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Growing barrows were used to determine the effects of an en teric disease challenge on nutrient balance, growth, acute phase proteins, and IGF-I. Pigs were challenged on d 0 with Salmonella typhimurium (S; N=21), or unchallenged and fed ad libitum (A; n=6), or unchallenged and pair-fed the same amount of feed as a challenged pig (P; n=8). Blood was collected on d -3, 1, 5, 9, and 15. A disease challenge  time interaction was observed for serum haptoglobin (P < 0.05), with greater haptoglobin for S vs A on d 1 and 5 (P < 0.05) and for S vs P on d 5 (P < 0.05). Plasma IGF-I increased from d -3 to 17 (linear, P < 0.05) and was increased for S vs A on d 9 (P < 0.06) and d 15 (P < 0.03), and for S vs P (P < 0.02) on d 9. A disease challenge  time interaction was observed (P < 0.05) for average daily gain as it decreased for S (.62 kg) vs A (1.38 kg; P < 0.01) and P (.95 kg; P < 0.07) from d 0 to 3. A disease challenge× time interaction was observed for retained nitrogen (N; P < 0.05), indicating reduced lean growth from d 0 to 3 for S (19.6 g/d; P < 0.01) and P (23.2 g/d; P < 0.07) vs A (30.1 g/d). Although short-term differences were evident, d 0 to 17 growth performance and N balance were not affected by an acute S. typhimurium challenge (P > 0.20). Results indicate that 66% of the short-term reductions in average daily gain from an acute S. typhimurium disease challenge are due to reductions in feed intake. The remaining differences are due to the acute phase immune response.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.11.22 2011/01/11 - 03:28

The study was performed on 10 New Zealand white rabbits 6 months old and weighing 3.0 to 4. 5 kg so as to evaluate the effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation (TES) on the right radial fracture healing. A piece of 0. 5 cm full thickness of right midshaft of radial bone was removed in all rabbits under general anesthesia. They were divided into two groups (control and experimental) of 5 rabbits each. No treatment was given to control group, whereas experimental rabbits were subjected to TES. Radiographs were taken from all rabbits before surgery and on 15, 30 and 45 days. The callus sample was collected from the exact defected part on 45 days that was fixed and was stained with H&E method for histomorphological interpretation. Clinically there was faster skin wound healing in experimental rabbits as compared to the control group. Radiographical interpretation revealed periosteal reaction on 15 days and callus formation was much more on 30 and 45 days/ in experimental one as compared to control group. In experimental group there was the least cartilaginous and fibrotic tissues with thick bony trabeculae formation. It was concluded that TES has got positive effect on skin wound healing besides accelerating callus formation at the site of radial defect with early restoration of full limb function.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2006.13.16 2011/01/11 - 03:28

One experiment was conducted to evaluate the physiological response and postmolt performance of laying hens subjected to non-feed removal molting programs. One hundred and eighty 78-week-old Hy-line W36 laying hens were distributed among 45 groups of four birds and located in cages so that mean body weight of each cage was very similar. Three adjacent cages were considered as a replicate and 3 such replicates were assigned to each treatment. There were five treatments (molting procedures): Treatment 1 was continuous feed removal (CFR) and considered as the control. Hens on treatment 2 (T2) fed ground corn as sole feed ingredient and dietary vitamin and macro and microelement levels were maintained as Hy-line W36 guideline specifications. Treatment 3 was similar to T2 except that salt was removed from diet. Treatment 4 was similar to T2 except that corn was replaced with wheat. Treatment 5 was similar to treatment 4 except that salt was removed from diet. Birds on T2 to T5 were fed at the rate of 50 g day-1. The results indicated that hens subjected to CFR went out of production by Day 5 while those on corn or wheat diets with or without salt ceased egg production from Day 7 to Day 13. Nevertheless, postmolt egg production did not significantly differed among the treatments. Body weight loss in feed-deprived hens during molt was significantly (p<0.05) greater than non-feed removal treatments when measured on Day 7 and Day 12. Starvation during continuous feed removal resulted in increased heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio (p<0.05), hematocrit and plasma T4 whereas decreased plasma T3 level (p<0.05).

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.13.17 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Ascites is a common rapid-growth-related problem in broiler chickens grown at high altitude where the partial pressure of oxygen is low and is marginally adequate to support the growth performance and ascites-related variables. A mismatch between the growth of oxygen supplying organs and the oxygen demanding organs causes ascites in broiler chickens. In the present study, broilers were subjected to two types of feed restriction with or without probiotics and changes in the growth rate of body organs were attributed to the incidence of ascites. Approach: Four hundred male day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned in a completely randomized design to five treatments: (1) a control group fed ad libitum throughout the experiment (2) a group subjected to meal feeding during 5-11 days of age with feeding times from 08-12 h and 13-17 h, (3) a group similar to treatment 2 except to received probiotics, (4) a skip-a-day feeding with 24 h fasting on days 9 and 11 and (5) a group similar to treatment 4 except to received probiotics. Probiotics was only used during the feed restriction at 1 g L-1 in the drinking water. Broilers reared on litter flooring from 1-49 days of age. Results: Both feed restriction programs used under conditions of the experiment resulted in poorer performance relative to the full-fed control but retarded growth caught up at the end of experiment. Carcass and breast yield were significantly (p‎<0.05) reduced right after feed restriction but not later on. Heart and liver percentages showed a reverse growth pattern after termination of feed restriction. Feed restriction had no consistent effect on abdominal fat deposition. Broilers subjected to the feed restriction had significantly (p<0.05) lower proportion of right ventricle to total ventricles. Probiotics had no beneficial impact on the compensatory growth though they tended to reduce the mortality from ascites. Conclusion: Early feed restriction did not influence the proportional growth of body organs and had no significant impact on ascites incidence. Probiotics had a positive effect in prevention of ascites.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.13.19 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of the prostatic fluid from the first and third fractions of the ejaculates on the freezability of poodle dog sperm. Approach: The ejaculates from 2 trained poodle dogs were collected. Effect of prostatic fluid from the first and third fractions of ejaculates on cryosurvival of dog sperm was examined. SDS-PAGE analyses were performed to verify whether there were any modifications in the protein patterns of the first and third fractions. Results: When second fractions of Dog A sperm were combined with the prostatic fluid from the first and third fractions of the ejaculates, sperm motility index was decreased compared to second fractions were collected alone. The post-thaw motility of Dog A sperm was significantly reduced when prostatic fluid from the first and third fractions of the ejaculates was added. The motility of frozen-thawed Dog B sperm did not appear to be altered when it was diluted with either of the prostatic fluids. The major bands present in both prostatic fluids corresponded to proteins with molecular masses of 30 and 75 kDa. The amount of proteins in the prostatic fluid from the third fraction was twice-three times as much protein present compared to the first fraction. Conclusion: Collection of the sperm-rich fraction along with either the prostatic fluid from the 1st and 3rd fractions of the ejaculates during sperm processing has varying detrimental effects on the motility characteristics of frozen-thawed sperm.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2009.14.20 2011/01/11 - 03:28

This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification pattern in both the breeds. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA – Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis was carried out using DNA samples of 14 black bengal goat and Jamuna pari goat breeds. Only unambiguous, reproducible and scorable polymorphic fragments were taken into consideration for analysis. Data were analyzed by using a computer programe POPGENE (Version 1.31). Highest level of Nei's[1] gene diversity value (0.4898) was observed in BMS 1494 locus and the mean genetic diversity was obtained 0.3724 among the 14 goat breeds. The highest number of polymorphism obserbed in primer BM1818.The pair-wise genetic distance value ranged from 0.2500 to 1.000. Dendrogram based on Nei's[1] genetic distance using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA) indicated segregation of the 14 goat breeds. Within Jamuna pari goat genetic similarity is low as well as black Bengal goat.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2006.17.22 2011/01/11 - 03:28

The correlations between mineral contents in musculus longissimus dorsi and meat quality for five breeds of pigs were studied in this experiment. Two imported breeds (Duroc and Yorkshires) and three local breeds (Huainan pig, Nanyang black pig, Queshan black pig) from Henan province of China were chosen in this trial. Ten 90 kg finishing pigs were selected randomly to slaughter from each breed. Mineral contents of K, Na, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in musculus longissimus dorsi were detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and their correlations with meat quality were also analyzed. The results showed : (1) Mn and protein contents had no significant difference among all the breeds (p>0.05), (2) K content in Duroc was higher than that in the other four breeds significantly (p<0.01), (3) Mineral contents of Na, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in local breeds were higher than that in the imported breeds significantly (p<0.01), (4) Marble stripes and meat colour in local breeds were superior to the imported ones, (5) Intramuscular fat content of local breeds was higher than that of the imported ones (p<0.01), (6) There was a significant positive correlation between Zn and the other mineral contents in the muscle (p<0.01 or p<0.05), (7) Both Cu and Fe contents had a significant positive correlation with meat color (p<0.05), but negative correlation with drip loss (p<0.05), (8) There was a positive correlation between Zn and intramuscular fat content (p<0.01), but negative correlation between Zn and drip loss (p<0.01). In conclusion, Minerals in muscle had significant correlations with meat quality elements, but no significant correlations with meat protein and fat contents.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.18.22 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: The aim of this study was to verify the effects of methionine and threonine supplementations higher than the NRC recommendation on growth performance, liver function enzymes, blood parameters and immune tissues of broiler chickens challenged with infectious bursal disease. Approach: A total of 450 day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to nine groups. Chickens were fed by three graded levels of DL-methionine [NRC (M1), 2 times NRC (M2) and 3 times NRC (M3)] and three graded levels of L-threonine [NRC (T1), 2 times NRC (T2) and 3 times NRC (T3)] from day 1-42 of age. On day 28, all birds were challenged with a commercial live-IBDV vaccine. Results: Body Weight Gain (BWG) and Feed Intake (FI) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were significantly influenced by the dietary treatments in starter phase and either methionine or threonine at the highest levels significantly decreased BWG, FI and FCR in broiler chickens. A similar trend by methionine and threonine at the highest levels was noted on BWG and FI in grower phase. The highest level of threonine significantly increased spleen weight on day 28 (pre-challenge) and 14 days post challenge. At 14 days after challenge, dietary supplementation of methionine at NRC recommended level (M1) significantly increased the serum concentrations of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH). In the T3 group, the serum concentrations of AST and LDH were significantly decreased, whereas the serum uric acid concentration was significantly increased. Conclusion/Recommendations:
In conclusion, our data suggest that the methionine and threonine requirement of male broiler chicks is higher for growth performance than was suggested by the last NRC committee and liver function enzymes results showed that methionine and threonine supplementation three times higher than NRC requirements in broiler chickens has not toxic potential.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2010.20.26 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problems statement: The level of uterine Secretory-IgA (S-IgA) and numbers of plasma cells was measured to observe the differences between two stages of estrous cycle (follicular and luteal phase) in the healthy cycling non pregnant ewes. Approach: Twelve ewes were used in this study and they were divided into two groups of 6 animals each according to the stages of estrous cycle. All ewes were subjected to estrous synchronization and allowed to undergo one natural estrous cycle after the removal of the sponge. All animals were then slaughtered at the end of the experiment. The uterine mucus was collected by flushing with a mixture of protease inhibitor cocktail in distilled water. For both stages, the level of uterine S-IgA was quantified by using ELISA and Methyl Green Pyronine staining was used to observe the plasma cell in the tissues of the uterine horn and oviduct of ewe's genital tract. Results: The results were analyzed by independent sample t-test and presented as meanSEM. This study showed the relationship of the estrous cycle stages to uterine S-IgA concentration (µg mL-1) and populations of plasma cell in the healthy non-pregnant cycling ewes. The concentration (µg mL-1) of S-IgA (0.20±0.01) in the follicular phase was highly significant (p<0.01) as compared with the luteal phase (0.17±0.002). In addition, the populations of the plasma cells were significantly higher (p<0.01) in the uterine horn (4.97±0.32) and oviduct (3.820.33) during follicular phase compared to the luteal phase (3.87 ±0.30) and (1.90±0.21), respectively. Conclusion: The main reason for the immunosuppression during the luteal phase did not fully justified, especially with the presence of potential acquired infection during coitus in the follicular phase and at the same time immune system should decrease accordingly to prevent newly attached fetus rejection by the mother immune system.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2009.21.25 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Four pet chew treats from four different manufacturers were tested for digestibility using in vitro tests in artificial gastric (stomach) and intestinal juices. In vitro tests were selected to determine the digestibility of dog chews for humane reasons and were conducted under conditions that were designed to simulate the digestive system of dogs. The purpose of the tests was to rapidly and inexpensively determines the rate of degradation of a dog chew in the canine digestive tract to assess product safety for dogs. Dog chew pet treats that are swallowed whole, or in part, should degrade rapidly in the canine digestive system to prevent potentially dangerous blockage. Tests were conducted on one cm and one-half cm cubes of dog chew products. Results of the tests clearly indicated that one product outperformed all others in short-term (under 4 hrs) digestive tests. The Bone-A-Mint Wheat Free formula degraded more rapidly than all other products in tests simulating canine gastric and intestinal juices. Tests conducted in this study will form the basis of an in vitro procedure that can be used as an industry standard to asses the safety of pet chew treats.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2006.23.26 2011/01/11 - 03:28

No reports could be cited in the recent literature concerning the effects of surgical castration on blood and peritoneal fluid constituents in lambs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of surgical castration on cellular and some biochemical parameters of blood and peritoneal fluid in Awassi lambs. Eight, clinically healthy, 5-month-old, Awassi lambs were surgically castrated. Peritoneal fluid and blood samples were collected prior to castration (day 0) and on days 1, 3 and 7 post castration. Total nucleated cell count (TNCC) was determined using an electric cell counter. Total protein (TP), albumin, fibrinogen, creatinine urea, glucose, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentrations were analyzed using commercially available kits. Following castration, the number of peripheral fluid white blood cells (WBC) and the percentage of neutrophils significantly increased (p<0.05) while the percentage of lymphocytes significantly decreased (p<0.05). The blood fibrinogen, urea, creatinine, glucose, ALP, AST and LDH concentrations significantly increased (p<0.05). However, TP concentrations did not change. In the peritoneal fluid analysis, the total WBC count and the percentage of neutrophils significantly increased (p<0.05) while the percentage of monocytes significantly decreased (p<0.05) following the operation. There was no significant change (p>0.05) in the percentage of lymphocytes in the peritoneal fluid. The concentration of peritoneal fluid TP, urea, creatinine, glucose, ALP and AST significantly increased (p<0.05) while LDH concentration did not change. Results of this study show that changes in the blood and peritoneal fluid cellular and biochemical components are likely to follow elective surgical castration in lambs. These changes must be taken in consideration when peritoneal fluid samples from lambs are evaluated for the diagnosis of abdominal diseases.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.23.27 2011/01/11 - 03:28

The objective was to evaluate the effects of intravaginal FGA sponges inserted for 4 or 12 days with or without eCG on reproductive performance of ewes out-of-season. Forty-eight anestrous ewes were assigned in equal numbers to four treatments in a 2x2 factorial design. Ewes were administered with FGA sponges on May 17 for 12 days (12-day-FGA-eCG and 12-day-FGA groups, n= 12 each) and on May 25 for 4 days (4-day-FGA-eCG and 4-day-FGA groups, n= 12 each). All treatments were timed to end together on May 29 (day 0, 0 h) at which time sponges were withdrawn and eCG or saline was injected. Five fertile rams which had been isolated from ewes were joined at 0 h for breeding and estrus detection. Blood samples were collected to compare progesterone (P4) concentrations and for pregnancy diagnosis. Overall estrus expression occurred in 40/48 ewes which differed only between 12-day-FGA-eCG and 4-day-FGA (p<0.05) groups. Intervals from 0 h to onset of estrus were shorter (p<0.05) in 12-day-FGA-eCG than those in 12-day-FGA and 4-day-FGA groups with no differences between 12-day-FGA-eCG and 4-day-FGA-eCG or between 12-day-FGA and 4-day-FGA groups. Progesterone levels were basal from day -12 through day 4 (p>0.1) and increased gradually thereafter until day 15. Progesterone remained elevated through day 19 in 11/12, 8/12, 9/12 and 6/12 ewes, respectively, which were diagnosed pregnant on day 30 by ultrasonography. Of the 34 ewes that became pregnant, 31 lambed 150 days following day 0. Pregnancy loss occurred only in 3 ewes from the two groups that did not have eCG treatment No differences in pregnancy and lambing rates and the number of lambs born were found between 12-day-FGA-eCG and 4-day-FGA eCG. The overall pregnancy and lambing rates obtained from mating at first service were 70.8 and 64.6%, respectively. In conclusion, the 4-day-FGA and eCG regimen could adequately replace the 12-day-FGA out-of-season. Application of such a 4-day-FGA protocol must be accompanied by eCG treatment upon sponge removal.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2007.23.28 2011/01/11 - 03:28

Problem statement: Malaysia imports horses from temperate countries to develop equine sports in the country. Several of these horses developed partial and complete anhidrosis. Approach: Normal, partial anhidrotic and anhidrotic horses were exercised to determine their sweating and physiological responses to exercise. The heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature and blood samples were obtained before the horses were lunged at 10 km h-­1 for 1 h and at again at 15, 30, 45, 60 min and 24 h after exercise. The blood adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations were determined. Sweat samples were obtained at 60 min after exercise and analyzed for Na+, K+, Cl-, urea and total protein concentrations. Results: The normal horses sweated profusely all over the body after 5 min into exercise, but the partial anhidrotic horses showed sweating in the neck, brisket, shoulder, rump, perineum and axilla only after 20-30 min of exercise. The sweat Na+, K+, Cl-, urea and total protein concentrations were lower in the partial anhidrotic horses than in normal horses while the Na+:K+ was higher. The heart and respiratory rates and rectal temperature of anhidrotic horses reached maximum values of 133.6±0.8 beats min-­1 and 186.8±0.5 breaths min-1 and 41.1±0.0°C respectively and took much longer to return to resting levels than other horses. The resting adrenaline concentrations in the anhidrotic horses were higher than in partial anhidrotic and normal horses, with the mean post-exercise adrenaline: Noradrenaline consistently above 1.15. Conclusion: The most important factor in equine anhidrosis was failure of sweat glands to respond to adrenaline. The anhidrotic horse regulated body electrolytes means other than sweating. Anhidrotic horses exhibited exercise intolerance, particularly in the hot and humid climate. There is a need to formulate a special regime for exercising anhidrotic horses in the tropical environment.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2009.26.31 2011/01/11 - 03:28