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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences

The objective was to determine whether maternal nutritional status and milk production during early gestation influenced or were correlated with parameters of the calf at birth and at 1 month of age. From parturition until 90 days pregnant, blood samples were collected every 14 days in dairy cows and plasma was assayed for concentrations of glucose and β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHBA). Calves (n = 39) born from these cows were measured for blood pressure and size characteristics as well as carotid artery hemodynamics measured via Doppler ultrasonography Pulsatility Index (PI) and Resistance Index (RI). Several values were then calculated to assess the cardiovascular health of the calf. The GLM and CORR procedures of SAS were used to analyze data and significance was determined when p≤0.05 and tendencies were discussed when p>0.05 and ≤0.10. In calves at birth, mean milk production of dams during early gestation was positively correlated with heart girth. Length of gestation was positively correlated with heart girth of calves at birth and at 1 month of age. Mean concentration of glucose in dams was positively correlated with wither height in calves at 1 month of age. Length of gestation was negatively correlated with RI in calves at 1 month of age. Milk production in the dam was positively correlated with hip and wither height and PI but negatively correlated with mean arterial pressure in 1 month old calves. At birth, twins weighed less than singletons and females had an increased heart rate compared to males. At 1 month of age, size parameters and mean blood flow differed between singletons and twins. Males had lesser blood velocity but greater area of the carotid artery compared to females. These data lead to speculation that early gestational environment may impact growth and hemodynamic parameters in calves.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.146.154 2014/09/16 - 21:25

Ruminants are important reservoirs for zoonotic pathogenic E. coli. The objective of this study was to characterize pathogenic E. coli isolates from cattle and sheep linked to human illness with respect to their pathotypes, serotypes and genotypes. E. coli O157:H7 isolated from cattle, sheep and human patients were compared for their genomic similarity by Pulsed-Field Gel-Electrophoresis (PFGE). PCR detection of virulence factors associated with different E. coli pathotypes (VTEC, ETEC, EPEC, EAEC and EIEC) revealed that VTEC was the most prevalent pathotype (22/45; 48.9%), followed by EAEC (3/45; 6.7%), EPEC (1/45; 2.2%), a EPEC (3/45; 6.7%), ETEC (1/45; 2.2%) and EIEC (1/45; 2.2%). E. coli O157:H7 represented the most prevalent VTEC serotypes (11/22; 50%). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis typing revealed exact matches between E. coli O157:H7 isolates from the human patients, sheep and cattle in the same municipality. VTEC play an important cause of diarrhea in human, sheep and cattle. The molecular relatedness between PFGE profiles of E. coli O157:H7 isolates from human, sheep and cattle supported the hypothesis that ruminants especially cattle and sheep act as reservoirs of E. coli O157:H7 for human infection.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.155.161 2014/09/16 - 21:25

Ruminants are important reservoirs for zoonotic pathogenic E. coli. The objective of this study was to characterize pathogenic E. coli isolates from cattle and sheep linked to human illness with respect to their pathotypes, serotypes and genotypes. E. coli O157:H7 isolated from cattle, sheep and human patients were compared for their genomic similarity by Pulsed-Field Gel-Electrophoresis (PFGE). PCR detection of virulence factors associated with different E. coli pathotypes (VTEC, ETEC, EPEC, EAEC and EIEC) revealed that VTEC was the most prevalent pathotype (22/45; 48.9%), followed by EAEC (3/45; 6.7%), EPEC (1/45; 2.2%), a EPEC (3/45; 6.7%), ETEC (1/45; 2.2%) and EIEC (1/45; 2.2%). E. coli O157:H7 represented the most prevalent VTEC serotypes (11/22; 50%). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis typing revealed exact matches between E. coli O157:H7 isolates from the human patients, sheep and cattle in the same municipality. VTEC play an important cause of diarrhea in human, sheep and cattle. The molecular relatedness between PFGE profiles of E. coli O157:H7 isolates from human, sheep and cattle supported the hypothesis that ruminants especially cattle and sheep act as reservoirs of E. coli O157:H7 for human infection.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.153.159 2014/09/02 - 16:49

The experiment was conducted to assess the effect of dietary Mixed Minerals (MM) on intestinal epithelial cell morphology, villus height and area and growth performance in piglets. Thirty two-month-old hybrid piglets (15 kg BW) (Large White × Landrace × Duroc), consisting of 15 castrated males and 15 females, were allocated into three experimental groups with five replicates of one castrated male and one female per replicate. The basal diet was supplemented with MM at 0 (control), 0.05 and 0.1% for 30 days. Compared with dome-shaped epithelial cells on the intestinal villus apical surface, further protuberated dome-shaped cells were observed in the 0.05% MM group and cell clusters comprised of dome-shaped cells appeared in the 0.1% MM group. However, the villus height and villus area as well as growth performance were not affected, except that the feed intake and average daily feed intake of the 0.1% MM group increased compared with those of the 0.05% MM group (p<0.05); as well, body weight gain of the 0.1% MM group was 4% greater than the control. These results suggest that MM can stimulate functions of epithelial cells with increasing levels of MM, but that they have no power to improve body weight gain resulting from increased villus activity and that MM have no function to affect growth performance but might affect other biochemical functions, such as immunity processes in the body.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.137.143 2014/06/28 - 21:02

The diagnosis of animal trypanosomiasis in field samples is currently based on clinical suspicion and less frequently on traditional parasitological methods characterized by their very low sensitivity, especially in the sub-acute and chronic phase of the infection. Molecular tools such as Polymerase Chain Reaction have been shown to reach the highest sensitivity percentages, but without good resolution for all of the South American circulating species (T. vivax, T. evansi and T. theileri) or with specificity for only one of these species. In this study, a new PCR-RFLP for species-specific diagnosis of Trypanosomiasis is presented. This method displayed good resolution, sensitivity and specificity for differentiation of the three aforementioned species identified from naturally infected Colombian bovines and water buffaloes. In addition, epidemiological and clinical data were also collected and analyzed from the sampled animals and significant associations were identified.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.128.136 2014/06/06 - 14:19

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), caused by bovine herpesvirus-1, contributes significantly to economic losses in the dairy and beef cattle industry. Lysine has been shown reduce virulence of herpesviruses in felids and humans. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of supplemental lysine on serum IBR antibody titer and rectal temperature in response to a modified-live Intranasal (IN) or Intramuscular (IM) respiratory-virus vaccination. Sixty-four neonatal Holstein bull calves (7±2 d of age; BW = 37±4.2 kg) were used in a completely randomized design. Calves were fed milk replacer supplemented with either 17 g/d L-lysine monohydrochloride (LYS; 28 calves) or an equivalent amount of casein (CAS; 28 calves) for 42 d. Calves were then vaccinated with either an IN IBR-Parainfluenza virus-3 (PI3) or an IM (IBR-PI3-bovine viral diarrhea type I and II, bovine respiratory syncytial virus) modified-live vaccine on d 36. A control group (8 calves) received no supplement or vaccination. All calves were housed in individual calf pens (1.2×2.1 m). Daily feed intakes were monitored and BW measured weekly. Calves were bled on d 0, 35, 36, 37 and 42. Temperature data loggers were attached to rectal probes and temperatures were recorded every 5 min from d 28 to d 42. No significant differences were determined for average performance, rectal temperature, or IBR antibody titers with either IN or IM vaccinations between LYS and CAS treated calves (p>0.10). However, serum urea nitrogen and the ratio of serum lysine: Arginine increased (p<0.05) for LYS compared to CAS calves. These results suggest that supplementing lysine impacts nitrogen metabolism but does not alter the response to IBR vaccination or animal performance in neonatal Holstein calves.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.122.127 2014/06/03 - 01:14

The primary objective of this study was to establish data on mastitis in Awassi Sheep in Al-Balqa Province of Jordan. Milk samples were collected from 260 lactating ewes that selected randomly from eight flocks. California Mastitis Test (CMT) gave result with 220 milk samples; 122 samples (55.5%) showed positive CMT. Infection with some bacterial species was associated with positive CMT. About 26% of the ewes revealed clinical signs of mastitis. The highest percentage of bacterial count, which range from 3×102 to <3.0 103 cfu mL-1 was founded in the milk samples. The most predominant bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium spp. and Coagulase negative Staphylococci. Sensitivity tests were applied to different isolated strains., Gentamycim, Ampicillin and Tetracycline were the most effective antimicrobial agents against the bacterial isolates.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.116.121 2014/05/04 - 08:02

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of replacing corn and Soybean Meal (SBM) with Brewers Rice (BR) and Dried Distillers Brewers Yeast (DDBY), respectively, on ADG, G:F, Apparent Total Tract Digestibility (ATTD), fecal DM output and fecal loss of N and P of growing-finishing pigs. Sixty four Yorkshire x Duroc x Hampshire crosses (BW = 73±5.7 kg) were randomly assigned to corn/SBM (CSM), BR/SBM (RSM), corn/DDBY (CBY) or BR/DDBY (RBY) diets. Compared with pigs finished on corn based diets, pigs fed BR based diets gained faster (0.868 vs. 0.730 kg.pig-1; p<0.01) and had better gain to feed ratio (0.30 vs. 0.25; p<0.01). Pigs finished on RBY diet had the least fecal DM output (0.245, 0.352, 0.575, 0.639 kg.pig-1; p<0.001) and greatest ATTD (91.5, 87.8, 80.0, 77.9%; p<0.001) followed by RSM, CBY and CSM pigs, respectively. Pigs finished on RBY diet lost the least (p<0.001) amount of N (0.010, 0.013, 0.019, 0.021 kg.pig-1) and P (0.010, 0.014, 0.016, 0.019 kg.pig-1) in the feces followed by pigs finished on RSM, CBY and CSM, respectively. In conclusion, BR and DDBY can replace all corn and SBM in swine diets with no negative effects on performance of growing-finishing pigs.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.110.115 2014/04/24 - 16:10

Mycotoxins reduce animal productivity and animal health. The influence of Fusarium mycotoxins in corn co-products on pig performance is an important issue in swine feed industry. This study was conducted to determine the effects of naturally produced Fusarium mycotoxins in Corn Gluten Meal (CGM) on growth performance of nursery pigs. A total 96 weaning pigs comprising 48 gilts and 48 barrows with an initial body weight of 5.08 kg (SD = 1.28) were grouped into 3 blocks in each sex by initial body weight and randomly allotted to 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design. There were 6 replicate pens per treatment and 4 pigs were housed in each pen. The 4 experimental diets mainly based on corn, CGM, dried whey and soybean meal were formulated to contain 4 concentrations of mycotoxins derived from the contaminated CGM. Diet 1 contained 32 µg kg-1 Deoxynivalenol (DON) and 6 µg kg-1 Zearalenone (ZON) and diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 532, 1,033 and 1,534 µg kg-1 DON and 203, 399 and 596 µg kg-1 ZON, respectively. During the first 14 d of experiment, Average Daily Gain (ADG) was reduced linearly and quadratically (p<0.05) as concentration of dietary mycotoxin increased. Average Daily Feed Intake (ADFI) had a tendency for quadratic decrease (p = 0.059) with increasing dietary mycotoxin concentrations. Both ADG and ADFI from d 14 to 28 linearly decreased with increasing concentration of mycotoxins (p<0.05). During the overall experimental period, both ADG and ADFI linearly depressed with increasing concentration of mycotoxins (p<0.05). In conclusion, the current study showed that dietary Fusarium mycotoxins derived from contaminated CGM by Fusarium fungi resulted in decreased growth performance of nursery pigs. Swine nutritionists may increase nutrient concentrations of diets to partially overcome the negeative effects of Fusarium mycotoxins in corn co-products on feed intake of pigs.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.105.109 2014/04/19 - 11:53

Parasites of the genus Sarcocystis have the ability to infect wide range of animals, birds and reptiles. Water buffaloes are intermediate hosts for four Sarcocystis species; S. fusiformis, S. buffalonis, S. levinei and S. dubeyi. There was no previous molecular identification of Sarcocystis spp. parasitizing water buffaloes from Egypt. The current study was established to screen infection rates and apply genetic identification of the macroscopic Sarcocystis spp. infecting Egyptian water buffalos in El-Gharbia province, Egypt. Sarcocysts of both S. fusiformis and S. buffalonis were grossly examined through meat inspection in slaughterhouse, followed by histological identification of the detected sarcocysts. Finally, molecular identification using PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA gene was conducted. Comparison of the obtained sequences of the local tested isolates of both S. fusiformis and S. buffalonis with those previously reported for different Sarcocystis species those were recorded in Genbank, revealed that all the tested specimens represented both S. fusiformis and S. buffalonis. Moreover, sequence alignments of the partial 18S rRNA gene ascertained the presence of genetic variations revealing the heterogenic nature of the gene among different strains of the same Sarcocystis species in relation to the geographic distribution.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.95.104 2014/04/16 - 19:07

Dogs and cats play an important role in modern society, enhancing the psychological and physiological well-being of many people. However, there are well-documented health risks associated with human animal interactions. More specifically, enteric pathogens of zoonotic risk which are transmitted by feces of dogs and cats can be grouped as follows: (a) Parasites such as Toxocara canis, T. cati, Ancylostoma sp, Uncinaria sp, Strongyloides stercoralis, Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis and Dipylidium caninum (b) Protozoa including Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. (c) Bacteria of the genera Clostridium, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Escherichia, Yersinia and Helicobacter and (d) Viruses mainly Rotaviruses and Coronaviruses. Among them, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Rotaviruses, Toxoplasma gondii, Echinococcus have been reported to be of considerable importance for many countries including Greece. Even though official records of the cases in humans and livestock in Greece continuously decline, cystic echinococcosis is considered to be a serious problem for public health and livestock economy. Regarding other parasites, the overall prevalence of parasitism was 26% in owned shepherd and hunting dogs examined in Serres. Furthermore, seroepidemiological studies revealed the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in a considerable percentage of hospitalized children. Rotaviruses were confirmed as a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in children. Finally, bacterial zoonotic enteropathogens were identified in a notable number of pediatric cases. Most of these zoonoses are associated with the exposure of immunodeficient people or children to pets and/or conditions of poor hygiene. Studies on the presence of all these pathogens in animals are required to identify the extent of problem, to define control strategies and evaluate their effectiveness.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.84.94 2014/04/16 - 19:07

Bovine colostrum contains immune factors, like leukocytes and cytokines that are absorbed by the intestinal mucosa of the neonate, however, not much is known about the function of some of these components in the active immune response of calves. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of colostrum intake and development of the innate immune response of calves from birth to two months of age, by evaluating the proportion of neutrophils CH138+ and monocytes CD14+, using flow citometry and measurement of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, using comercial ELISA kits. According to the obtained results we can determine that colostrum intake had influenced the IFN-gamma concentration and the monocytes CD14+ and neutrophils CH138+ proportions in the circulation of calves and that these components seem to play a key role in the development of immune response of these animals, providing protection against pathogens, enhancing the phagocytic activity and antigen presentation by monocytes.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.77.83 2014/04/16 - 19:07

Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS) is a fatal systemic disease of bovines typified by an acute, highly fatal septicaemic disease with high morbidity and mortality. In this study, sixty five adult ICR mice were used for the study. In the first phase, 5 mice each were inoculated with 109 cfu of P. multocida type B:2 through the intraperitoneal route. After development of classical signs of HS, the mice were euthanised and dropped into a tank of river waterfor 24, 48 and 72 h. Contaminated water from the tank were collected at the three different times (24, 48 and 72 h) and was used for intraperitoneal, oral and aerosol inoculation of 15 mice each with a dose of 1 mL-1 109 cfu (intraperitoneal and aerosol) and 0.4 mL-1 109cfu (oral). The control group (n = 5) was given phosphate buffered saline. All mice in the three groups and control were culled after 72 h post inoculation and the vital organs (liver, spleen, lung, kidney, heart, brain) were collected in 10% buffered formalin, procesed, sectioned and stained with H&E. Degeneration and necrosis, hemorrhage and infiltration of inflammatory cells were the most observed lesions in all the organs, while thrombosis and oedema were least observed. The lesion severity was moderate to severe using contaminated water at 72 h post contamination and mild to moderate when inoculated with water 24 and 48 h post contamination. Mice inoculated through the oral and intraperitoneal routes recorded more severe lesion compared with those inoculated through the aerosol route. However, using contaminated water at 24 h, mice inoculated through the aerosol route had the highest distribution of inflammatory cells in the lungs, which declined following inoculation with contaminated water at 48 and 72 h, respectively.This study has shown that contamination of water bodiesby carcasses of HS infected animals is a likely source of infection to heathy animals in the wild and that development of lesions severity is time dependant and significantly higher using contaminated water at 72 h than water contaminated for 24 and 48 h. This further indicates the danger of leaving decomposing carcasses in water bodies for prolonged periods.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.71.76 2014/03/28 - 22:26

This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence and bacteriological assessment of subclinical mastitis and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates from dairy cows in different farms around Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 120 milk samples from 3 different farms were randomly collected and tested for subclinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test (CMT), as well as for bacterial culture for isolation, identification and antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent bacteria was Staphylococcus sp. (55%), followed by Bacillus sp., (21%) and Corynebacterium sp., (7%), Yersinia sp. and Neisseria sp. both showed 5% prevalence, other species with prevalence below 5% are Acinetobacter sp., Actinobacillus sp., Vibrio sp., Pseudomonas sp., E.coli, Klebsiella sp. and Chromobacter sp. Selected Staphylococcus sp. showed a mean antimicrobial resistance of 73.3% to Ampicillin, 26.7% to Penicillin, Methicillin and Compound Sulphonamide each, 20% to Oxacillin, Amoxycillin and Cefuroxime, 13.3% to Polymyxin B, Erythromycin, Ceftriaxone and Azithromycin and 6.7% to Streptomycin, Clindamycin, Lincomycin and Tetracycline each. This study indicates the need for urgent and effective control measures to tackle the increase in prevalence of subclinical mastitis and their antimicrobial resistance in the study area.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.65.70 2014/03/12 - 19:55

This study was aimed to search genetic variants, to investigate phylogenetic relationships between pig breeds and to provide basic genetic information of Korean Native Pigs (KNP) using the variations of the Swine Leukocyte Antigen-6 (SLA-6) gene. Cloning of the Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA)-6 gene in the MHC non-classical region was performed with spleen tissues of Korean Native Pigs (KNP). Sequencing analysis identified 10 genetic variants positioned at nucleotides 108 (T>C), 251 (G>A), 324 (C>A), 460 (T>C), 556 (T>C), 559 (A>G), 598 (G>A), 665 (T>C), 920 (G>A) and 1,115 (G>A). The identified sequences were submitted into GenBank with accession numbers (DQ992502-10 and DQ976363) according to the specified locations of each SNP. Clustering analysis revealed that KNP was formed to a major group, showing close genetic relationships with SLA-6*0105, SLA-6*01w01 and SLA-6*w02sa01 alleles except DQ992503. KNP showed the low nucleotide diversity with significant differences of the ratio of ti/tv (transition/transversion) compared with other breeds. The identified variants of the SLA-6 gene are useful information to differentiate phylogenetic relationships between KNP and other pig breeds. The unique results of the SLA-6 SNPs of KNP will serve as reference study for further analyses of gene fixations in evolution studies."

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.56.64 2014/02/22 - 21:15

Tenosynovitis is one of the pathological manifestations of avian reovirus infection and are of economic importance, special in one of the most important stages of the poultry industry, i.e., broiler breeders. In late May 2012, an outbreak of unilateral lameness occurred in a broiler breeder flock (15,000 birds divided by two houses) of a multi-age farm, with a total of four broiler breeder flocks (65,000 birds in total). Birds aged from 20 to 30 weeks presented joint lesions. Morbidity ranged between 5 and 10%. Routine postmortem examination of 30 birds revealed a range of visible joint lesions, typically unilateral in distribution. After postmortem examination, samples of tendons, heart and liver were collected for histopathology, bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Microscopic examination of the tendons revealed changes consistent with a reovirus infection and, to the authors’ knowledge, these are the first reported cases of viral arthritis in broiler breeders in Portugal.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.53.55 2014/02/03 - 15:36

Itraconazole is a widely used antifungal drug. In situations such as managing patients with gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis, third of which cases world-wide occur in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia, prolonged treatment with this drug is required. Thus, this is study was designed to investigate the hepatotoxicity of long term administration of itraconazolein in Wistar rats. Two groups of rats were treated with itraconazole at doses of 5 and 10 mg kg-1, for 30 and 60 days, respectively. At the end of each period sera of rats were tested for liver enzymes (including ALT, ALP and γGTT, albumin and protein). Animals were sacrificed and livers were processed for histological examination. Compared to controls, all rats treated for 30 and 60 days showed significant elevation in the levels of liver enzymes. Histologically there was severe liver injury. Although itraconazole is a safe antifungal drug, prolonged treatment with this drug may lead to severe hepatitis and liver cell injury. Patients who require treatment with this drug for long periods (12 to 18 months) should have their liver functions periodically monitored.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.46.52 2014/01/30 - 19:07

To understand how the capacity for fat metabolism (uptake, synthesis, modification) changes in rumen epithelia immediately before and after onset of lactation in dairy cows, rumen fluid Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA) concentrations and mRNA expression profiles of rumen epithelia was determined in twelve Holstein dairy cows at three weeks prior to calving (wk -3, n = 12), one week post calving (week +1, n = 12) and six weeks (week +6, n = 12) after calving. The diet was modified from a dry cow formulation to a lactating cow formulation immediately following parturition and raised the non-fiber carbohydrate level from 34 to 43%. All data was analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS, with cows blocked by anticipated calving date and week of sampling as the repeated measure. Propionate, butyrate, isovalerate and valerate levels rose significantly following the diet change (p≤0.001), although acetate and isobutyrate levels were unchanged (p>0.05). Mean rumen pH also changed during the transition period (6.38 Vs 5.81 and 5.85±0.08; -3 Vs +1 and +6; p<0.001) as did mean BW (716.00 Vs 635.82 kg and 615.45 kg ±16.20; -3 Vs +1 and +6; p≤0.002). Microarray analysis of total RNA from rumen epithelial biopsies revealed 1476 differentially expressed genes at a false discovery rate of 10%. These results were filtered for genes that were directly related to both the immune system and fat metabolism/homeostasis. Consequently, the expression of the resulting 28 genes was analyzed by quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) to compare their expression at period -3 versus +6 periods. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that 13 genes were upregulated (p≤0.01), 2 were downregulated (p≤0.01) and 13 were unchanged during the transition period. Pathway and context analysis yielded a unique interactome pathway map which revealed a set of genomic interactions that indicate a link between selected genes from the immune system and those involved in the preparation for lactation.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.36.45 2014/01/13 - 20:40

An important indicator to recommend a protein source for piglet nutrition is the absence of intestinal damage. The effects of sesame or soybean meal based diets on Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) morphophysiology, diarrhea incidence and severity in piglets were studied during the first two weeks post-weaning. Thirty-six piglets weaned at 21 days of age were fed one of three diets: A control casein diet (C), a Sesame Meal diet (SM), or a Soybean Meal Diet (SBM). Diarrhea incidence and fecal score were determined once daily over a 14-day period. After 14 days, 3 piglets in each experimental group were fasted 12 h, fed for 1 hour and then slaughtered at 3, 6, 9 and 12 h after feeding, at which times relative GIT weights (g•kg-1), intestinal morphology, digesta pH, trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were evaluated. Stomach and small intestine weight were higher (p<0.05) in piglets fed SBM and SM than in piglets fed C. The gastric pH was higher in piglets fed C and SM and lower in piglets fed SBM (p<0.05). The pH of the different segments of the GIT was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary protein source. The specific activity of chymotrypsin was higher (p<0.05) in animals fed C than in those fed SM and SBM and did not vary with after feeding time (p>0.05). Trypsin activity was higher (p<0.05) in piglets fed SBM than those fed C and SM. The dietary protein source had no impact (p<0.05) on villus height or duodenal and ileal crypt depth. Jejunal villi in piglets fed SBM were shorter (p<0.05) than in piglets fed C and SM. Dietary treatment had no effect on diarrhea incidence and severity. These findings show that sesame meal can replace soybean meal as a protein source in starter diets for weaned piglets.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.28.35 2014/01/12 - 13:44

Outcome research of rehabilitation of wild birds of prey and owls are scarcely reported. The aim of this study is to investigate specie-specific outcomes of the rehabilitation practice in wild raptor attended in a wildlife center. A total of 6221 hospitalized wild raptors (3241 Strigiformes; 2980 Falconiformes) admitted at a Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre (WRC) of Catalonia from 1995 to 2007 were analysed. The outcomes indicators were based on ratios of Euthanasia (Er), Mortality (Mr), Release (Rr) and Captivity (Cr). Stratified analyses by main causes of admission were performed for the different raptor species. Species from the Falconiformes order presented higher rates of euthanasia (33.9%) compared to the Strigiformes (18.6%). Species like B. buteo (45.7%) and M. migrans (47.6%) in the Falconiformes and B. bubo (33.6%) in the Strigiformes, presented the highest Er. Despite no differences between orders could be observed in the row mortality rates, data analysed by the causes of admission showed that the Mr of owls was significant higher than the Falconiformes for the trauma (13.2%; χ2 = 49.97; p<0.001), non trauma (12.7%; χ2 = 17.41; p<0.001) and orphaned young categories (4.9%; χ2 = 5.4; p = 0.02). The release rate was similar between orders. Based on species, G. fulvus (69.2%), C. aeruginosus (56.3%) and A. gentillis (43.1%) in the Falconiformes and O. scops (48.5%) in the Strigiformes showed the highest Rr. In the orphaned young category owls had better Rr than the diurnal raptors, being S. aluco the specie with the best rates of release (84%), whereas B. bubo had the worst values (50%). Specie-specific differences were found in the rehabilitation outcomes according to the different causes of admission. The stratified analysis of outcomes can be useful in order to to identify specie-specific risk factors.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.19.27 2014/01/04 - 15:06

RAPD is a PCR based technique which involves the use of single arbitrary short primers (8-12 nucleotides), resulting in the amplification of many discrete DNA. The segments of DNA that are amplified are random. The technique was developed independently by two different laboratories and called as RAPD and AP-PCR (Arbitrary Primed PCR). This procedure detects nucleotide sequence polymorphisms in a DNA amplification based assay using only a single primer of arbitrary nucleotide sequence. The RAPD technology has provided a quick and efficient screen for DNA-sequence polymorphisms at a very large no of loci. The present communication gives emphasis on basic knowledge about RAPD, procedure, its advantages disadvantages, limitations and applications of RAPD.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.6.13 2014/01/02 - 22:30

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an ointment of honey bee and Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the management of large dermal wound in a male rabbit wounded accidently. The wound was covered entirely by honey and then the fine powder of buckwheat grains was added. The treatment was applied once a day until complete epithelization has taken place. The results showed a complete resorption of inflammatory exsudate of wound at 4th day. The percentage of wound contraction has shown a rate of 5.55% at the 4th, it has risen to 32.22 and 71.48% at days 7 and 11 respectively to register 99.53% at the 26th days. The epithelization period was 27 days with a mean healing rate of 200 mm2 day-1. The study concludes that the ointment of honey and buckwheat stimulate the healing process in dermal wounds particularly in term of wound contraction. Other studies are underway to understand the possible implication of some amino acids as lysine, proline and glycine presented in buckwheat in the collagen synthesis process.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.14.18 2014/01/02 - 22:30

This article examines the legal position of human and animal safety in zoos. The risk of injury or even death is high in zoos. Such risk can occur either to the people in charge of zoos, visitors or even to the animals themselves. As such, there are regulations enacted to safeguard people and animals from such risk. Tort is the primary law that governs liability of owner or management of a premise such as a zoo. Negligence and occupier’s liability is the main branch of tort law which is the most relevant to accidents in zoos. Preventive law such as the Occupational Safety and Health Act and the Factories and Machinery Act are also used in ensuring safety at the work place (zoos). For the welfare and safety of animals captivated in zoos, the Wildlife Conservation legislation is enacted to ensure that animals or wildlife are treated well. Such is the scope of the article. The hypothesis of the study is that an effective law will ensure safety to human employed in and people visiting zoos and animals captivated in the zoos. The management of zoo differs from the management of other organizations. The methodology adopted is legal narrative and analysis with reference to legal instrument such as statutes passed by Parliament (legislative body). This article uses Malaysian law as a point of reference. The study finds that Malaysian law governing safety management in zoos is still inadequate.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2014.1.5 2013/12/27 - 12:17

The aim of this report was to describe a clinical case of concurrent infection with Mycoplasma Gallisepticum (MG) and Mycoplasma Synoviae (MS) in layers, complicated with Escherichia coli and Pasteurella multocida, as well as to evaluate the efficacy of tylosin tartrate treatment (Pharmasin® 100% WSG, Huvepharma) on Mycoplasma under field conditions. A flock of 18,500 ISA Brown pullets, 21 weeks of age and MS positive, showed an increase in weekly mortality, with no influence on egg production. At 24 weeks of age, post mortem was carried out and blood samples were collected, as well as samples for microbiological cultures from the lesions. In necropsy, several findings of pericarditis, airsacculitis of posterior thoracic sacs, prolapse and egg yolk peritonitis were found. Sporadic neurological signs were also apparent and post mortem examination revealed yellow caseous exudate accumulations in cranial bones. Although egg production was not influenced, Eggshell Apex Abnormalities (EAA) were increased with a significant number of both broken and misshapen eggs together with discoloration. Elisa serological examinations for Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) were within vaccination program limits, but MS, MG and Avian Rhinotracheitis (ART) results showed a significant seroconversion. Microbiology also revealed the presence of Escherichia coli and Pasteurella multocida. On week 25, a drug treatment with tylosin tartrate was applied at a dose of 105 mg kg-1 body weight in drinking water for five consecutive days. Three days after treatment, misshapen, broken and discolored eggs were decreased. The mortality was also significantly decreased within a week since the beginning of tylosin administration and at 30 weeks of age was within acceptable levels. Post mortem evaluation confirmed the absence of previously gross lesions in primary organs. In summary, tylosin treatment in complicated Mycoplasma spp. infections under field conditions improved egg shell quality and decreased mortality, thus the economic losses linked to decreased egg production and labor costs were reduced.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2013.246.252 2013/12/21 - 13:38

The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of butyrate on the Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) membrane transport proteins and proton membrane transport proteins in the rumen epithelium. Sixteen mid-lactation cows were fed a 44% Non-Fibrous Carbohydrate (NFC) diet and divided into a control treatment and a butyrate treatment. For 7 days, the cows on the control treatment received a carrier treatment and the cows on the butyrate treatment received a ruminal butyrate dose at the rate of 2.5% of Dry Matter Intake (DMI). Rumen pH was measured on days 6 and 7 and rumen biopsies were taken on days 1 and 7. Rumen pH measurements confirmed the occurrence of ruminal acidosis in both treatment groups, defined as a rumen pH of 5.6 for at least 3 h per day. Between the control and butyrate treatment, there was no difference in rumen pH profile. Immunofluorescence analysis performed on longitudinal ruminal papillae cross-sections showed that for the duration of the study, protein abundance in the stratum basale increased for Monocarboxylate Cotransporter Isoform 1 (MCT1), sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and sodium/Bicarbonate Cotransporter Isoform 1 (NBC1). There was a time*treatment interaction for MCT1 and NBC1, with the butyrate treatment group showing a higher abundance of MCT1 and a lower abundance of NBC1 at day 7. Luminal butyrate appears to increase SCFA uptake capacity by increasing the abundance of MCT1 transport proteins on the basolateral membrane and decreasing basolateral bicarbonate uptake capacity through decreased NBC1 protein expression. These effects decrease bicarbonate uptake capacity through NBC1 and help to offset the increased MCT1, since MCT also creates alkalotic pressure by expelling protons from the cytosol.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2013.220.229 2013/11/27 - 15:54

Energy availability in epithelial cells is a crucial link for maintaining epithelial barrier integrity; energy depletion is linked to impaired barrier function in several epithelia. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of exogenous butyrate on mRNA abundance of genes indirectly involved in rumen epithelial barrier integrity. Sixteen mid-lactation Holstein cows fed a total mixed ration received a concentrate mix to induce Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA). For 7 days, while being fed the concentrate mix, cows were assigned either a control treatment or a butyrate treatment, in which cows were fed butyrate at 2.5% daily dry matter intake in the form of a calcium salt. On days 6 and 7, rumen pH was measured continuously and on day 7, rumen biopsies took place. Rumen pH fell below 5.6 for more than 3 hours per day in both treatments, con-firming the occurrence of SARA. Microarray and pathway analysis, confirmed by real time PCR, showed that exogenous butyrate significantly increased the mRNA abundance of hexokinase 2 (fold change: 2.07), pyruvate kinase (1.19), cytochrome B-complex 3 (1.18) and ATP Synthase, F0 subunit (1.66), which en-code important glycolytic enzymes. Meanwhile, butyrate decreased mRNA abundance of Pyruvate Dehy-drogenase Kinase 2(-2.38), ATP citrate lyase (-2.00) and mitochondrial CoA transporter (-2.27), which en-code enzymes involved in lipogenesis. These data suggest exogenous butyrate induces a shift towards energy mobilization in the rumen epithelium, which may aid barrier function in the rumen epithelium during SARA.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2013.239.245 2013/11/27 - 15:54

Castration is one of the most common procedure. It is a potential source of mild to moderate pain which is enough to induce inflammatory process, necessitate the incorporation of analgesics. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of epidural bupivacaine alone or in association with fentanyl, ketamine or dexmedetomidine on analgesia for the first 24 h post surgical castration. Forty male mongrel dogs were randomly allocated into 4 groups received bupivacaine 0.25% (1.5 mg kg-1) alone or in combination with fentanyl citrate (2 µg kg-1) or ketamine hydrochloride (2 mg kg-1) or dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (1.13 µg kg-1) into the lumbosacral space. Dogs were scored for sedation using numeric descriptive scale. Analgesia was assessed subjectively through Modified University of Melbourne Pain Scale score and objectively by following up the circulating level of interleukins 6 and 10. The bupivacaine-dexmedetomidine group showed the greatest sedation score, the lowest pain score without neuroendocrine modulation in contrast with bupivacaine or bupivacaine-fentanyl groups. From these result, it is concluded that bupivacaine-dexmedtomidine group provide long term analgesia last for the first 24 h post operative without additional analgesics.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2013.230.238 2013/11/27 - 15:54

Castration is one of the most common procedure. It is a potential source of mild to moderate pain which is enough to induce inflammatory process, necessitate the incorporation of analgesics. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of epidural bupivacaine alone or in association with fentanyl, ketamine or dexmedetomidine on analgesia for the first 24 h post surgical castration. Forty male mongrel dogs were randomly allocated into 4 groups received bupivacaine 0.25% (1.5 mg kg-1) alone or in combination with fentanyl citrate (2 µg kg-1) or ketamine hydrochloride (2 mg kg-1) or dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (1.13 µg kg-1) into the lumbosacral space. Dogs were scored for sedation using numeric descriptive scale. Analgesia was assessed subjectively through Modified University of Melbourne Pain Scale score and objectively by following up the circulating level of interleukins 6 and 10. The bupivacaine-dexmedetomidine group showed the greatest sedation score, the lowest pain score without neuroendocrine modulation in contrast with bupivacaine or bupivacaine-fentanyl groups. From these result, it is concluded that bupivacaine-dexmedtomidine group provide long term analgesia last for the first 24 h post operative without additional analgesics.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2013.220.228 2013/11/09 - 08:31

Bovine respiratory disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in weaned calves. In Argentina, two weaning practices have been implemented. In the early weaning, the calf is removed from the cow at 60-70 days of age while in ultra-early weaning the calf is weaned at 30-45 days of age. The purposes of both systems is to improve cow body condition, calf performance, conception rates and forage availability for the cow. In this study we evaluated the antibody response against BVDV and BoHV1 in early and ultra-early weaned calves that had received a conventional vaccination schedule (first dose at weaning and a booster 21 days post-weaning). Passively acquired immunity may provide protection against disease caused by these viruses. The presence of antibodies against BRSV, a virus that was not present in the vaccines used, was also evaluated as an indirect indicator of viral circulation in the herd. At the time of vaccination, calves presented a wide range of maternally-derived antibody titers. Vaccination against BoHV-1 did not evoke seroconvertion and antibody titers continued to decay throughout the experience. After vaccination, seroconversion to BVDV could be detected in calves with low antibody titers, while higher antibody titers exerted an inhibitory effect of the active humoral response.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2013.210.219 2013/10/29 - 15:08

Manual hematology techniques traditionally applied in farm animal medicine are time consuming and labor-intensive, especially when large numbers of samples have to be processed. As a result, several automated hematology instruments have been developed for use in these species. An automated hematology analyzer (Abbott Cell-Dyne 3500 system) was used in performing a complete blood cell count and differential counts of white blood cells in sheep blood samples. The system was compared with basic manual hematologic techniques. A linear regression was used to assess correlation between the two methods. Correlation coefficients (R2) were good for the hematocrit, the total white blood cell count, the neutrophils, the lymphocytes and the platelet count, while a poor correlation existed in monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. The automated and the manual technique were also compared in terms of sensitivity using the Sensitivity Ratio (SR). The automated analyzer was slightly more sensitive than the manual technique for all parameters tested except for monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were the difference was greater and the automated analyzer was 1.5, 2.5 and 2 times more reliable, respectively. The method bias was also calculated. It seems that the overall performance of the automated analyzer justifies its utilization in sheep blood analysis, although as for any analyzer used in any species, a stained blood film evaluation remains an indispensable technique to confirm the results being reported by the automated analyzer and provide additional information for the ovine haemogram.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2013.203.209 2013/10/23 - 12:31

An experiment was conducted to determine whether brewers rice can replace all corn in diets for swine and reduce fecal excretion of Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) without compromising performance and carcass quality of growing-finishing pigs. Sixteen Yorkshire x Duroc x Hampshire crosses (BW = 77±2.5 kg) were randomly assigned to either corn/soybean meal (CSM; control) or brewers rice/soybean meal (RSM) diet. Both diets were formulated to contain 14% CP. The RSM pigs had a greater reduction (p<0.001) in daily fecal loss of N (0.007 Vs. 0.011 kg pig-1) and P (0.007 Vs. 0.008 kg pig-1), lower (p<0.001) fecal output (0.171 Vs. 0.322 kg pig-1), than CSM pigs. Compared with CSM pigs, RSM pigs gained faster (0.712 Vs. 0.581 kg pig-1 per day; p<0.01) and better gain to feed ratio (0.30 Vs. 0.25; p<0.01). Furthermore, RSM pigs had greater (p<0.001) Apparent Total Tract Digestibility (ATTD; 91.5 Vs. 84.1%). Diet did not (p>0.10) affect carcass yield and Loin Eye Area (LEA), however, RSM pigs tended (p<0.10) to lay more back fat than CSM pigs. In conclusion, brewers rice can replace all corn in diets for growing-finishing pigs, reduce fecal excretion of N and P, increase pig performance with no effect on carcass quality. Consequently, feeding brewers rice instead of corn may help reduce environmental pollution attributed to excessive fecal excretion of N and P in growing-finishing pigs.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2013.197.202 2013/10/04 - 07:49

The objective of this study was to describe two clinical cases of toxicosis by accidental administration of salinomycin in feed in broiler breeders and turkeys. In the first clinical case, a 32000 broiler breeders flock, 30 weeks of age, suffered a severe mortality during the first week, a sharp decrease in egg production and a dramatic reduction in food consumption together with an increase of eating time. The pathological condition manifested itself mainly with leg paralysis and reluctance to move. In necropsy, signs of bile hyper-secretion, absence of feed in the digestive tract, liver degeneration, egg peritonitis, enlarged kidneys and spleen atrophy were found. Serological examinations for IBV, IBD, NDV, Mg, Ms, Ort, TRT, AE and CAA were negative. The broiler breeders flock was finally euthanized due to an irreversible condition, slow recovery and poor production indicators. In the second clinical case, a flock of 27000 turkeys fatteners, aged from 20 to 35 days, showed an increased daily mortality up to 10 and a 88% total death loss in 2 weeks period. The turkeys showed great growth retardation, reluctance to move and eat, ataxia and absence of gross lesions, except atrophy of the spleen and pica. Serological examinations for NDV and AI were negative. After removal and change of feed, the remaining flock recovered normally. These two clinical cases were initially associated with incorrect diet and, after obtaining detailed clinical history, laboratory tests and food analysis, the by error administration of salinomycin in feed was confirmed. The final concentrations of salinomycin in feed analysis reached 64.6-124 mg kg-1 for the broiler breeders and 298-944 mg kg-1 for turkeys. While salinomycin toxicosis has been reported worldwide in the literature in a number of animal species, including turkey breeders and fatteners with similar symptoms, in broiler breeders has never been reported on the field.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2013.190.196 2013/09/27 - 19:36

Small ruminants, like goats, would make excellent animal models for not only infectious diseases in large ruminants but also analogous diseases in humans, such as human tuberculosis, Crohn’s disease, melioidosis and brucellosis. The main disadvantage for the small ruminant model is the lack of sufficient baseline data on normal, healthy goat kids. Furthermore, most reagents (antibodies and the like) were not developed for goats or sheep. It is important to demonstrate that available resources, especially from the bovine system, cross-react with the caprine and/or ovine system. Finally, potential breed differences have to be evaluated before goat or sheep studies are compared. In this study, leukocyte cell populations were defined in twenty-six dairy goat kids via flow cytometry. We report no significant differences between three breeds of dairy goat kids and demonstrate the effective use of various antibodies for caprine immune cell markers. No breed-specific differences were detected for any leukocyte cell population or for markers specific for various antigen-presenting cells or T cell populations. Interestingly, however, statistical significant differences were found for leukocyte cell populations for the two different time points two weeks apart presented in this study.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2013.177.189 2013/09/26 - 10:08

While the swine industry has made incredible strides to improve ventilation, air quality in confinement buildings remains an issue. The goal of this study is to characterize correlation between large airway metrics and growth performance in piglets reared indoors and outdoors on pasture. Three experimental trials were conducted: Trial 1 included three breed types that were strictly raised indoors, Tamworth X Berkshire, Berkshire X Berkshire and Hereford X Berkshire (n = 4-5 each). Trials 2 and 3 consisted of animals reared in both environments; trial 2 had 28 pigs (n = 14, indoor and n = 14, outdoor) and trial 3 had 48 pigs (n = 24, indoor and n = 24, outdoor). For trial 3, body weights were recorded weekly for seven weeks to adjust tracheal measure for body size. Total tracheal and lumen diameters were determined for all animals on trial. Histological evaluations were performed to evaluate potential differences among indoor and outdoor pig populations. One-way and two-way Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) were performed and LS means with the PDIFF option was used to separate means as applicable. Animals reared indoor shad significantly larger tracheal diameters and lumens compared to those reared outdoors (p-value<0.05). Outdoor animals had a larger variation of body weights than indoor animals; however, no correlation between tracheal measurements and body weights was present. Histological evaluation of airway sections revealed a 1.4 fold increase in the total population of goblet cells in tracheas of indoor pigs (p-value<0.0152) versus outdoor pig tracheas. Taken together, subtle differences may exist in airways of pigs reared indoors versus outdoors; however, airway distinctions do not appear to effect growth performance of piglets.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2013.165.176 2013/09/24 - 16:48

Hemorrhagic septicemia is an acute, deadly disease of cattle and buffaloes associated with colossal economic loss in the livestock industry in the Asian regions particularly Malaysia. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate on the Polymerase chain reaction detection of Pasteurella multocida type B: 2 in mice inoculated through different routes with river water contaminated with infected mice carcasses. Sixty five mice were used for the study; five mice were placed in each tank containing river water for 24, 48 and 72 h. The groups comprise of five mice each made up of the control, intraperitoneal, oral and the aerosol routes. A dose of 1 mL 109 CFU of Pasteurella multocida type B: 2 obtained from the infected river water were inoculated into each group intraperitoneally and the aerosol route while, 0.4 mL of 109 CFU of Pasteurella multocida type B: 2 was inoculated orally into the group. The control group was inoculated with 1 mL buffer saline pH 7. The PCR results in the present study revealed the presence of P. multocida type B: 2 from the following organs brain, kidney, heart, spleen, lung and liver in the mice inoculated through intraperitoneal, oral and aerosol route. In the river water kept for 24 h P. multocida type B: 2 were detected in the organs through the intraperitoneal, oral and the aerosol routes. The river water kept for 48 and 72 h were positive for the isolation of P. multocida inoculated via the intraperitoneal and oral route, except the aerosol route where no significant P. multocida was detected in the organs using PCR. In conclusion, this model could be used to enhance the understanding of the progression of the disease and control of the natural disease through the various routes of the disease transmission. This study also postulated that the outbreak of HS among buffaloes and cattle could be due to the consumption of river water contaminated with infected HS carcasses.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2013.146.151 2013/09/17 - 22:10

Haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle and buffaloes is an economically important livestock disease in Asia including Malaysia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical and hematological alterations in mice model inoculated with outer membrane protein, lipopolysaccharides and whole cells of Pasteurella multocida type B: 2. Two hundred healthy male mice of eight to ten weeks old were used in this study. The mice were divided into four equal groups of 50 mice each. Mice of group 1 were inoculated intra-peritoneal with 1.0 mL sterile Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) pH7, group 2 were inoculated with 1.0 mL of 109 colony forming unit (cfu) of P. multocida B: 2. Mice of groups 3 and 4 were inoculated intra-peritoneal with 1.0 mL of LPS and 1.0 mL of OMP, respectively. Blood samples were collected from the moribund animals and the biochemical and hematological parameters were assessed using ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test. In the hematology, significant decreases were observed in the treatment groups compared to the control group. Increases were only observed in band neutrophils, eosinophils and plasma proteins in the treatment groups compared to the control group. In the serum biochemistry, significant increases were observed in the treatment groups compared to the control group. Decreases were only observed in AP and albumin: globulin ratio. In electrolytes, significant increases were observed in chloride and calcium in the treatment groups compared to the control. In conclusion, all the immunogen group of mice showed changes in complete blood count and biochemistry profiles with some differences between the groups.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2013.152.158 2013/09/17 - 22:10

Animals are predisposed to infections through varieties of ways which activate the innate immune systems at the initial phase of acute infections. Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS) is a devastating septicemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by a particular serotypes of Pasteurella multocida and serotype B: 2 is the most important cause of the disease in Asia. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate on acute phase protein responses in mice infected with river water contaminated by Pasteurella multocida type B: 2. Five infected mice were placed in each tank containing river water for 24, 48 and 72 h. The groups comprise of five mice each made up of the control, intraperitoneal, oral and the aerosol routes. There were increased concentrations of Haptoglobin (Hp) in the mice inoculated with infected river water kept for 24 h intraperitoneally (p<0.0454) relative to the control, oral and the aerosol routes. There was significant increased concentration of Serum Amyloid A (SAA) in the mice that were inoculated with infected river water kept for 72 h intraperitoneally (p<0.0020) compared to control, orally and the aerosol routes. The intraperitoneal route though most effective in response but practically not feasible for vaccine administration in larger animals and the oral routes was inadequate in eliciting acute phase response in the present study of mice model. Therefore, the aerosol routes could perhaps be a readily available route for effective vaccine administration and heightened immunity in animals considering the progressive responses of APPs through this route.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2013.159.164 2013/09/17 - 22:10

Livestock production covers up to 40% of the gross value of agricultural production globally. Gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants are one of the major causes of productivity loss. This study was carried out to determine the correlation between the prevalence, seasonal incidence and geographical distribution of abomasal worm infection of native sheep in Baneh Town of Iran, suitable for animal husbandry. From February 2011 to February 2012 the contents of abomasums of 400 sheep were washed separately in a 100 mesh sieve. The worms present in each abomasum were collected separately, counted and preserved in 70% alcohol containing 5% glycerin for identification to the species. The overall percentage of infection was 25.36% and Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Marshallagia marshalli, Ostertagia occidentalis, Ostertagia trifurcata and Parabronema skrjabini were 6 species identified in studied areas. The overall prevalence rate and intensity of worm’s burden as representative of Iran, were low, although Teladorsagia circumcincta was the most prevalent and frequent worm species found. Using Chi-Square and ANOVA, no significant relationship was found between prevalence, season, age and sex.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2013.142.145 2013/09/10 - 05:42

Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) are Gram-negative, aerobic, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis that usually leads to abortion in sheep and goats. Three groups of equal number of 24 healthy female mice were used as animal models. They were orally inoculated with 0.4 mL of phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS-Control group), 0.4 mL of 109 cfu of B. melitensis and 0.4 mL of Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from 109cfu of B. melitensis (both as treatment groups). Clinical signs exhibited by the mice were observed for 10 days, after which the survived mice were euthanized by cervical dislocation. Following that, post mortem was conducted and histopathological study of the reproductive organs was carried out. B. melitensis group showed mild clinical signs compared to LPS group which showed normal behaviours except for mild ruffled fur, 14 and 34 h post-inoculation, respectively. The control group (PBS) showed normal behaviours. Histopathology results revealed that both B. melitensis and LPS groups showed mild to moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells in the reproductive organs, along with normal to mild findings of necrosis. Mild to moderate haemorrhage were found in the mice of B. melitensis group, while LPS group showed normal to mild haemorrhage and moderate to severe congestion of the ovary. The study proved that mice infected orally with B. melitensis developed mild clinical signs whereas mice orally inoculated by its LPS showed normal behavior except for the mild ruffled fur. Moreover, both groups of mice inoculated with B. melitensis immunogens developed pathological changes in the reproductive organs. The LPS of B. melitensis could be a potential candidate for the development of vaccines.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajavsp.2013.104.111 2013/08/31 - 15:26