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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences

Limited studies were carried out to identify self- and cross-compatibility relationships among Jordanian almond landraces. Therefore, this study aimed at studying the level of self-incompatibility and the effect of cross and open pollination on fruit set and shell, nut and kernel related traits in almond. To achieve this objective, field experiments were carried out during 2012 and 2013 cropping season on five Jordanian almond landraces and one wild bitter almond (A. communis) available in the farmer's fields at Ajloun district, Jordan. Fruit set was recorded in the field after open-pollination, self-pollination by bagging the branches with flower buds and cross pollination after emasculation of the floral buds. All almond genotypes showed complete self-incompatibility. Genotypes showed variable percentages in fruit set with similar trend in the two growing seasons. Following cross pollination treatment, genotypes exhibited fruit set ranging from 40.3% in Hajari to 94.0% in Fark and from 34.1% in Mukhmaly to 93.3% in Fark in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Results showed that cross pollination of Hami Hallo (79.7-81.7 and 77.8-89.2% in 2012 and 2013 respectively) and Fark (83.0-94.0 and 86.1-93.3% in 2012 and 2013 respectively) with other landraces led to high level of fruit set indicating high cross-incompatibility. Slight differences were recorded in fruit set in reciprocal crosses. Pollen source did not affect shell, nut and kernel traits. As a conclusion, results obtained from this study showed that, all of the genotypes were self in-compatible and all genotypes showed high level of cross-compatibility with variable degree among genotypes.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.466.473 2014/08/31 - 00:06

The regulator of anti-stress action Epin-Extra (24-epibrassinolide) was tested in laboratory and field (protected ground) conditions. The aim of this research was to study the influence of growth regulators on the growth, development and productivity of improved initial promising varieties of potato: Native (cultivated varieties Udacha) and foreign (cultivated varieties Red Scarlett) selections obtained by the method of apical meristem in the Volga-Vyatka region. The obtained results suggest a promising use of the product for improving the growth and development of plants in vitro. Adding Epin-Extra into an artificial culture medium at the final stage of micropropagation in vitro increases the height of plants by 29.6-47.7%, the number of internodes in plants by 26.4-25.7% depending on the cultivated variety, increases the root growth for cultivar Udacha 2.1 times and reduces the one for the cultivar Red Scarlett 1.9 times. The use of the Epin-Extra product-in recommended concentration for growing mini-tubers by seedling method in protected soil (greenhouse) in the budding phase-increases the biometric indicators such as plant height (35.7-21.8%), number of stems in the bush (30.9-19.0%) and mass of roots (19.1-8.5%), depending on the variety. As a result, the treatment with Epin-Extra increases productivity by 25.6-15.9%, the multiplication factor by 25.3-18.4%, as well as helps to reduce the prevalence (by 69.5-44.1%) and development (by 50.0-44.3%) of the late blight on the tops of potato plants, depending on the cultivar.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.445.449 2014/08/30 - 04:04

Biochar as a new soil amendment has a potential in controlling the fate of trace elements in the soil system. However, the production of biochar from different feedstocks and pyrolysis conditions resulted in variable biochar properties which have an influence on trace elements availability. The experimental works are focused on physical and chemical properties of biochars produced from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Rice Husk (RH) as heavy metals adsorbents. The morphology of EFB biochar comprise rigid structure with uniform pores size. The surface area of biochars ranged between 23.22-46.32 m2 g-1, dominated with mesopores. The chemical characterization of biochars revealed high carbon content in EFB biochar compared to RH biochar (54.08 and 7.78%). Both biochars are alkaline in nature (>pH 9) and contain substantial amounts of N, P, K, Ca and Mg. Fourier transform infra-red spectra showed the heterogenic functional groups on EFB biochar surface and domination of silica content in RH biochar. The batch experiment was employed to determine the adsorption capacity of these biochars for As and Cd. The adsorption data were fitted well in Langmuir isotherm with high correlation coefficient (R2>0.9) for As and Cd. The qmax of EFB biochar for As and Cd was higher than RH biochar. The qmax of EFB biochar was 0.4240 and 15.1515 mg g-1 for As and Cd, respectively. In contrast, the qmax of RH biochar for As and Cd was only 0.3522 and 3.1908 mg g-1. The results show that EFB biochar and RH biochar have potentials as good sorbent for As and Cd. Therefore, it can be suggested that the application of these biochars may possibly reduce the trace elements availability in the contaminated soil.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.450.456 2014/08/15 - 11:39

Recently, various innovative products from unripe banana flour have been reported as it is high in resistant starch and other important compounds. The harvesting period of the unripe banana fruit is one of the key factors affecting the quality of the unripe banana flour in terms of resistant starch and bioactive compound content. The study aimed to investigate the effect of the harvesting stages of unripe banana fruit on Resistant Starch (RS) content, carotenoid content, antioxidant activity and the application of unripe banana flour to prepare high RS rice noodle. Four different harvesting stages of banana fruits of Musa sapientum Linn including 75, 90, 105 and 120 days after bloom, were processed for banana flours. The results indicated that the maturation stages affected RS, some bioactive contents, antioxidant activities. The highest RS content (48.88%) of banana flour was obtained from the 105 day banana fruits. The total phenolic and carotenoid contents were high in the banana flours harvested between 75 and 105 days. The unripe banana flour could be substituted for rice flour as high as 80% and contained RS content as high as 18.64% whereas the commercial rice noodle had 4.21% of RS content. Therefore, the preparation of unripe banana flour from banana fruit harvested at 105 days and applying it in the preparation of functional food is promising.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.457.465 2014/08/12 - 09:04

Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of drought condition on growth, yield and grain quality of two varieties in upland rice: Nangdam and Lebnok. The experiment was performed at the King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chumphon Campus, Thailand during July to November, 2010. The study was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications. This results showed that Nangdam and Labnok varieties were got 12.40-97.10 mm of average monthly rainfall in the vegetative, reproductive and grain formation to ripening stages. Nangdam and Lebnok had days to booting of 72 and 68 Days After Germination (DAG), respectively, days to 50% flowering of 93 and 90 DAG, respectively, which were higher than the normal average of 2 to 6 days. The two tested varieties had low grain yields of 29.12 and 26.20 kg/ha, respectively, when they were grown at the low level rainfall. All varieties had higher number of empty grain of 48 and 33 grain per panicle, respectively, number of low perfect grains of 53 and 57 grain per panicle, respectively, number of imperfect grains of 35 and 30 grain per panicle, respectively, chalky grains of 17.50 and 15.20%, respectively and breaking grains of 0.75 and 2.50%, respectively. However, there were no significant different among those traits between the two varieties. The two varieties of upland rice had smaller grain which was lower than the standard.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.439.444 2014/07/26 - 16:39

Leptin is a hormone that regulates energy balance. Since its discovery two decades ago, several efforts have been made to fully understand its role in metabolic regulation of feeding behavior, reproduction, glucose homeostasis, immune function, bone formation, lipid metabolism, among others. Its use as a therapeutic option in obese patients is still limited due to the syndrome known as Leptin resistance. In this study, we determined that the treatment of a soluble form of human Leptin (W100E) reduced food intake, body weight and triglycerides levels, but increased HDL-cholesterol levels on obese mice subjected to high-fat/high-fructose diet. In contrast, treatment with soluble human Leptin increased food intake but did not increase body weight and total-cholesterol in mice with normal diet. When stopping the treatment with human W100E-Leptin, it was detected a significant increase in body weight in all groups of mice apart from the control, indicating a rebound effect. The results contribute to the understanding of how to increase Leptin sensitivity and in consequence to overcome Leptin resistance syndrome. This might be relevant in offering more evidence of the potential use of the Leptin in the treatment against obesity and overweight conditions.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.430.438 2014/07/11 - 07:18

Dynamics of material composition, migration and accumulation of salts is determined by chemical equilibrium in soil solution. Soil solution contains associated electrically neutral ion pairs СаСО30; CaSO40, MgCO30, MgSO40, charged ion pairs CaHCO3+, MgHCO3+, NaCO3-, NaSO4-, CaOH+, MgOH+. Calculation method is proposed for quantitative assessment of real ion forms in the soil solution of chestnut solonetz soil complex. Were proposed equations to calculate free and associated forms of ions. To solve the equations were used an iteration, a linear interpolation of equilibrium constants, a Method of Ionic Pairs including a law of initial concentration preservation, a law of the operating masses of equilibrium system, the concentration constants of ion pair dissociation on the law of operating masses. Was determined the quantity of ion free form and a coefficient of ion association as ratio of ions free form to analytical content γe = Cass/Can. The association of ions varies in individual soils and soil layer. Increasing soil solution salinity amplifies the ions association. In form of ionic pairs in soil solution are: 11.8-53.8% of Ca2+; 9.4-57.3% of Mg2+; 0.7-11.9% of Na+; 2.2-22.3% of HCO3-, 11.8-62.7% of SO42-. The ion CO32- is high associated, the share of ions in associated form is up to 92.7%. The degree of soil solution saturation was obtained for three level of approximation accounting on analytical concentration, calculated association coefficient, calculated coefficient of association. Relating to thermodynamic solubility product S0, the mathematical product of analytical ionic pairs indicated super saturation of soil solutions up to K1 = 100, taking into account calculated coefficient of association ion activity super saturation of soil solutions is absent, K3≈1. Only for solonetz chestnut meadow K3≈2-5. The soil solution saturation degree in soil profile and laterally in landscape varies. The quantitative assessment of real ion forms in the soil solution allows explain evolution of landscape of salted soils, structure of soil cover. Calculations fulfilled show that a possibility of soil degradation scenario taking into account the laws of association of ions in soil solution is much more probable and dangerous than it was assessed before. New understanding of water-salt transfer, geochemical barriers and ecological functions of soil will help to improve rainfed and irrigational agriculture.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.420.429 2014/06/24 - 16:52

Tourism has an important role modifying rural communities in their environmental, economic, social and cultural structures, processes and dynamics. In this context rural tourism plays a primary role because it is not the rural product that reaches the consumer in the purchase point, but it is the consumer (tourist) that has to move towards tourist destination to enjoy the product. So, the aim of this study is to analyse how the opportunities created by the rural tourism can represent a vector to promote the growth of farms and territory. Specifically, through a telephone survey conducted among the Sicilian entrepreneurs which join to the national network Campagna Amica, it has been analysed how the direct sales in the farm can contribute competitiveness to business and therefore to the permanence of man in the territory. The empirical analysis has shown that direct sales, associated with the conventional sales, can represent a growing opportunity for farms and whole rural community, leading to an improvement of business economic performances, an increase of investments and a creation of new job opportunities. This hightligted that agriculture can play a positive role on many components of the territorial system in which it operates

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.407.419 2014/06/21 - 13:14

There are several potential Nitrogen (N) loss mechanisms in a dry seeded and delayed flood system rice (Oryza Satvia L.) production system including urea volatilization and denitrification. The scope and magnitude of these potential losses are largely weather dependent. Two additives (stabilizers), Agrotain and Nutrisphere-N, have been offered to rice producers for controlling these potential losses. This study compared these two products in their ability to maintain rice grain yields, where cultural management maximizes these loss mechanisms. Response of rice to urea-N stabilizers varied in 2007 and 2008 depending on soil and environmental conditions. In 2007, dry soil surface at time of urea-N application and lack of rainfall resulted in a low loss due to N volatilization. However, urea-N volatilization or denitrification were higher in 2008 and using Agrotain stabilizer resulted in higher yields of rice at 78 kg N ha-1. Across years, Agrotain and Nutrisphere-N were similar in terms of slightly improving rice grain yields compared to untreated urea at the rate of 78 kg N ha-1. Therefore, urea stabilizers may offer a good solution in years with high potential for urea-N losses.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.401.406 2014/06/21 - 13:14

Italy’s wine-growing production structure is highly pulverized. So, for many wine-growing farms lowering the production cost represents the only way of gaining a competitive advantage. Production at average unit costs lower than competitors allows to improve profitability. Among farming operations, winter pruning and tying of productive vine-branches require a high human labor. For this reason the paper presents the results of research conducted on a sample of Sicilian wine-producing farms in order to study the cost-effectiveness to make the pruning and the subsequent ligation of productive branches with tools that facilitate the work. The economic analysis, after the determination of minimum optimum size, shows that the investment is suitable for both large or small farms. This denotes how the process innovation could represent a way to achieve a cost leadership and improve profit margin.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.394.400 2014/06/18 - 22:13

A water culture experiment was carried out in the Department of Fertilization Technology at National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt, to investigate the effect of Ascorbic Acid (AsA) foliar application and salinity stress (100 ppm and 100 mmoL NaCl) on growth, nutrients concentration and some biochemical parameters of two kidney bean (Phaseulus Vulgaris L.) cultivars. Salinity caused significant reduction in growth parameters (leaves and root dry weights) and some of biochemical parameters (nutrients concentration, photosynthesis pigment, Carbonic Anhydrase Activity (CAA), antioxidant enzyme activity Peroxidase (POD) and lipid peroxidation). The reduction effect on Paulista cultivar was higher than Nebraska cultivar at 100 mM NaCl salinity stress. Meanwhile, POD activity was increased under salt stress conditions. Lipid Peroxidation (LP) under 100 mmoL NaCl salinity was significantly increased. The two cultivars showed an increase in MDA content with NaCl salinity stress, but the increase in sensitive cultivars Paulista was higher than that in salt-tolerant Nebraska cultivar. Application of (AsA) not only mitigated the inhibitory effect of salt stress in both kidney bean cultivars, but also in some cases induced a stimulatory effect greater than that estimated in the control plants on growth parameters which were accompanied by marked increases in nutrients concentration and photosynthetic system (pigments and carbonic anhydrase activity). Ascorbic Acid (AsA) has been shown to be an essential antioxidant; agent may act as a scavenger of ROS for mitigating the injury on bio-membranes under salt stress. Therefore, this study suggested that (AsA) application may induce an adaptive response in kidney bean through stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes activities, photosynthesis processes and lower lipid peroxidation, in Nebraska relative to Paulista may contribute to salt tolerance mechanism in Nebraska.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.384.393 2014/05/16 - 22:10

Crop recovery of applied Phosphorus (P) fertilizer can be low, especially during season of low soil temperature, which decreases plant root growth and nutrient uptake. The H2PO4- or HPO4-2 anions readily react with soil cations such as Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe) and Aluminum (Al) to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Specialty Fertilizer Products (SFP), Leawood, KS, USA has developed and patented a product registered as AVAIL® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of applied P in available form for plant uptake. To evaluate effectiveness of AVAIL product for cotton production, experiments were conducted in two locations in West Tennessee, Grand Junction (GJ) in Hardeman County and Ames Plantation (AP) located in Fayette County. Treatments consisted of applying Mono-Ammonium Phosphate (MAP, 11-52-0) alone or coated with AVAIL at rates of 34 or 68 kg ha-1 P2O5. A no P check was also included. An additional treatment consisting of AVAIL treated P in combination with Nutrisphere-N®, a Nitrogen (N) stabilizer product offered by SFP, was also included. At GJ site, when averaged over P rates and years, AVAIL treated MAP improved tissue P concentration and increased cotton lint yield by 157 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. At AP site, when averaged over years and P rates, application of AVAIL treated MAP increased cotton lint yield by 85 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. In both experiments, 34 kg ha-1 AVAIL treated MAP produced higher tissue P concentrations and greater yields than 68 kg ha-1 without AVAIL. Influencing reactions in the micro-environment around the fertilizer granule has proven to have a significant benefit on the yield and P uptake of cotton. More research is needed to determine P content in the soil and further improve fertility recommendations.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.379.383 2014/05/10 - 12:34

Crop recovery of applied Phosphorus (P) fertilizer can be low, especially during season of low soil temperature, which decreases plant root growth and nutrient uptake. The H2PO4- or HPO4-2 anions readily react with soil cations such as Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe) and Aluminum (Al) to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Specialty Fertilizer Products (SFP), Leawood, KS, USA has developed and patented a product registered as AVAIL® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of applied P in available form for plant uptake. To evaluate effectiveness of AVAIL product for cotton production, experiments were conducted in two locations in West Tennessee, Grand Junction (GJ) in Hardeman County and Ames Plantation (AP) located in Fayette County. Treatments consisted of applying Mono-Ammonium Phosphate (MAP, 11-52-0) alone or coated with AVAIL at rates of 34 or 68 kg ha-1 P2O5. A no P check was also included. An additional treatment consisting of AVAIL treated P in combination with Nutrisphere-N®, a Nitrogen (N) stabilizer product offered by SFP, was also included. At GJ site, when averaged over P rates and years, AVAIL treated MAP improved tissue P concentration and increased cotton lint yield by 157 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. At AP site, when averaged over years and P rates, application of AVAIL treated MAP increased cotton lint yield by 85 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. In both experiments, 34 kg ha-1 AVAIL treated MAP produced higher tissue P concentrations and greater yields than 68 kg ha-1 without AVAIL. Influencing reactions in the micro-environment around the fertilizer granule has proven to have a significant benefit on the yield and P uptake of cotton. More research is needed to determine P content in the soil and further improve fertility recommendations.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.379.383 2014/05/10 - 12:34

The white-rot basidiomycete Lentinula edodes is the second most edible mushroom cultivated on the world. This fungus decomposes cell-wall associated macromolecules, is a natural degrader of lignin polymers. The differences in enzyme activities between strains of L. edodes provided useful information about the participation of enzymes in different development stages of the fungus. The effect of lignin on the fungal biomass production and activity behavior of ligninolytic enzymes when L. edodes is cultivated in a medium containing lignin with and without glucose as a carbohydrate source was tested. When glucose was present in the culture, lignin increase the mycelial biomass by 70% at 22 days compared to the control culture. The lignin media without glucose affected mycelial growth up to 20% less that the control without lignin and glucose. The activity of laccase, lignin peroxidase, aryl alcohol oxidase, manganese dependent peroxidase and catalase was modified depending on whether the medium had lignin and glucose, or lignin alone. A carbohydrate source is important to fungal growth, but the dissolution of lignin monomers might switch the signal that controls growth rate and enzymatic activity.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.369.378 2014/04/28 - 19:21

The effects of chelating agents on Chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) absorption were studied by planting pineapple, Ananascomosus (L.) Merr.in contaminated soil. All plant samples were grown in a nursery for 30 days and then separated into seven sets: Set (1) had nothing added (Blank); (2) had Pb added as Pb(II) Nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) at 500 mg kg-1 soil; (3) added Pb(II) nitrate and EDTA, a chelating agent; (4) contained both Pb(II) nitrate and EDDS, a second chelating agent; (5) only added Cr as potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), at 400 mg kg-1 soil; (6) was treated with Cr (potassium dichromate) plus EDTA; and (7) contained both Cr (potassium dichromate) and EDDS. The chelating agent concentrations were 2 millimoles per kilogram soil. Soil and plant contamination levels were measured by analyzing the Cr, Cr(VI) and total Pb after growing for 30, 60, 90 and 120 days. The analysis divided the plant samples into two parts: Aboveground and underground. Plant growth was also analyzed by dry weight, root length and expression of toxicity through withered leaves and yellow leaf symptoms. The results of this study indicate that after 60 days, the EDTA agent had the highest Pb absorption efficiency, with the plant sample absorbing 288.14 mg Pb per kg soil in the aboveground part and 796.66 mg kg-1 soil in the underground part. The EDTA agent had high Cr absorption efficiency, with the plant sample absorbing Cr at 545.72 mg kg-1 soil in the aboveground part and 2267.99 mg kg-1 soil in the underground part after 90 days. The EDTA and EDDS agents did not affect pineapple growth and expression of toxicity symptoms were statistically significant (p≤0.05) compared with the control sets.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.361.368 2014/04/19 - 05:33

Biofertilizer is a relatively safer, environmentally friendly and cost-effective approach as an alternative to reduce chemical fertilizer usage. The selection of bacterial strains with multiple beneficial characteristics are important to maximize the effectiveness on the host plant. Due to aforementioned interest, several Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterial (PGPR) and rhizobial strains were isolated from rice and legume roots, respectively, at four locations in Malaysia namely Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang, Selangor; Besut, Terengganu; Tunjung, Kelantan and Sik, Kedah. Bacterial isolations were undertaken to select the best isolates which exhibit multiple beneficial effects to the rice plant and a total of 205 bacterial strains were isolated and categorized as follows; 94 rhizospheric and 107 endophytic bacteria from rice roots, one rhizobial strain from soybean and three from Mimosa pudica. These isolates were screened for their abilities to fix N2 and solubilize phosphate; 52 were positive for both tests. The selected isolates were then tested for IAA production and other biochemical tests such as potassium solubilization, hydrolyzing enzymes (cellulase and pectinase) and iron siderophore productions. Four isolates, namely UPMB19 (rhizospheric PGPR from Tunjung, Kelantan), UPMB20 (endophytic PGPR from Besut, Terengganu), UPMR30 (rhizobia from soybean) and UPMR31 (rhizobia from Mimosa) were selected for subsequent plant inoculation tests with UPMB10, a PGPR isolated from oil palm root, as the reference strain. Based on 16S rDNA gene sequencing, these bacterial strains were identified under several genera: Lysinibacillus, Alcaligenes, Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium and Bacillus, respectively. Results of plant inoculation test indicated that UPMB19 significantly enhanced the seedling height at the early growth stage (7 days after transplanting, DAT) which could be attributed to the higher N2 fixation rate of this strain as compared to the other strains, except UPMB20. UPMB10 and UPMR31 also showed significant effects with increased seedling height and Total Dry Weight (TDW) at the later stage (14 DAT) possibly due to the higher bacterial population and IAA produced as observed in the residual nutrient solution without addition of fertilizer-N. This study has successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of locally isolated PGPR and rhizobial strains with multiple beneficial characteristics on early growth and vigor of rice seedlings under controlled condition. The result proved to be a vital information in the development of a liquid biofertilizer for rice; thus further studies will be done to evaluate the effectiveness of these isolates under glasshouse and field conditions on growth, tillering and yield of rice.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.342.360 2014/04/19 - 05:33

Salt stress conditions have been found to destroy the vital physiological process in plant where slower cell division and cell enlargement or both and limit mineral nutrient uptake with clearly nutritional imbalance. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station, Mu’tah University, Jordan to evaluate growth responses and mineral composition of two strawberry cultivars to salt stress by different NaCl levels. Six NaCl levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mM) and two strawberry cultivars, Camarosa and Albino, were used. Nutrient elements were added at the 0.5-strength Hoagland nutrient concentration. Distilled water supplemented with half strength Hoagland solution was used as control. Number of leaves and runners of both strawberry cultivars were significantly reduced by increasing NaCl level. Growth parameters (shoot, root and total dry weights and root: Shoot ratios) were significantly reduced with each increase in salinity level. Camarosa had higher value for all these parameters compared with Albino. Leaf chlorophyll content of both strawberry cultivars was significantly decreased when 25 mM NaCl or higher was applied. Regardless of NaCl level, Camarosa cultivar had significantly higher chlorophyll content compared with Albino. Elevated salinity level significantly increased leaf proline content of both cultivars. Albino leaves accumulated higher proline compared with Camarosa at salinized and non-salinized treatments. Both strawberry cultivars had significantly higher leaf and root Na and Cl contents under salinized conditions compared with non-salinized conditions. Each increase in NaCl level resulted in an increase in leaf and root Na and Cl contents of both cultivars. On contrast, leaf K content was decreased with salinity, root content of this mineral was significantly increased with salinity. It could be recommended to avoid growing ‘Camarosa’ and ‘Albino’ strawberry using irrigation water of 25 mM NaCl or more.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.334.341 2014/04/14 - 13:15

This study was conducted to investigate the changes in nutrient level P as well as in the structural and functional groups upon the decomposition of Hemic and Sapric peat material due to application of lime and fertilizers. The peat materials were left to decompose for 8 weeks under laboratory incubation and samples were taken for the determination of extractable P at 1 week interval. At 8 weeks, samples were sent for FTIR and SEM analysis. Although both types of peat material exhibit similar patterns in the mineralization of phosphorus, however, the amount of extractable phosphorus between Hemic and Sapric during the decomposition process differed. Addition of fertilizer (T3) resulted in a significantly large increase in extractable P compared to T1 and T2 but the effect was temporal as the extractable P declined throughout the incubation period. Sapric material displayed more absorption bands from the FTIR spectral analysis compared to Hemic although there were few similarities between the bands produced. Application of fertilizer in T3 caused the peaks that were similar with other treatments became weaker and different functional groups were shown at lower frequencies. Images from SEM showed that addition of lime and fertilizers caused the collapsing and degradation of the plant cell structures in the organic materials of the peat justifying the process of decomposition had occurred. Hemic and Sapric peat material showed some similarities as well as differences in extractable P, plant cell structures and spectral bands upon the application of lime and fertilizers.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.321.333 2014/04/02 - 15:43

Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) kinetic in three temperatures was investigated for extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from Jatropha dioica, Flourensia cernua, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Turnera diffusa which are plants of semiarid regions of Mexico. The two-site kinetic model and saturation simple equation were used to describe the experimental data. The fit of the data demonstrated that saturation simple equation was better and could explain the data with a slight loss of goodness of fit. The results showed that MAE optimum conditions were extraction temperature of 60°C and extraction time in the range from 1 to 6 min. The MAE was more efficient than the conventional Heat Reflux Extraction (HRE). Maximal antioxidant potential was observed in E. camaldulensis extracts. Interestingly differences in phenolic composition and antioxidant activity were observed in the extracts obtained by MAE and HRE for all plants used. Quercetin and catechin were found to be the predominant phenolic compounds. The MAE procedure resulted in suitable alternative to obtain bioactive phenolic compounds from semiarid plants due to this technology is higher efficient than conventional methods increasing yield in shorter times.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.299.310 2014/03/23 - 13:34

The contents of total phenolics compounds and their phenolic constituents were quantified in organic and aqueous of four varieties (Zebdia, Sukkari, taimor and Hindi) of mango (Mangifera indica L.), seeds pulp and kernel, one varieties of pomegranate (Punica ranatum L., peel) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., Giza 6, shell) by-products. The antioxidant activities of all by products extracts were assessed by five antioxidant methods as well as by rancimate test. The total Phenolic content of aqueous and organic extracts of among all mango varieties, pomegranate and peanut shell showed the content values ranging from 71.06 to 124.18 mg/100g, 95.07 to 124.18 mg/100g and 41.64 to 71.06, respectively. Nineteen phenolic compounds were identified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) among all mango varieties, of which vanillic acid, benzoic acid and mangiferin were occurred in high amounts. The major phenolic compounds were detected in pomegranate and peanut shell were chlorogenic and gallic and caffeic (24.42%), respectively. All fruits by products were exhibited remarkable antioxidant activity, with various degrees in all tested methods. However, among all by-products extracts, organic extract had higher antioxidant than that aqueous extracts toward all antioxidant tested. Mango kernel peel and pomegranates showed high radical scavenging activity, which could be compared with the synthetic antioxidants Butylated Hydroxyanisol (BHA). However, all by-products extracts exhibited high inhibit effect against the lipid peroxidation of sunflower oil (at 100°C) as assessed by rancimat methods. However, this antioxidant activity was found to be strong significant correlation with phenolic contents (p<0.05) in by-product extracts. It can be thus concluded that varied varieties of mango, pomegranate and peanut by-products, although it constitutes the part of the fruits, it is valuable parts due to its antioxidant activities, it can be used safely in the edible oil industry and cosmetics to delay its oxidation. It can be applied in other food industries as a natural antioxidant instead of synthetic antioxidants. Further study should be carried out to identify the predominant phenolics responsible for the antioxidant activity of by product extracts.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.311.320 2014/03/23 - 13:34

The insecticidal activity of essential plants oils against an important insect pest of fruit trees, the hairy rose beetle, was evaluated in topical and feeding applications in the laboratory. Essential oils that caused more than 50% mortality were further tested against the hairy rose beetle and the honey bee using different concentrations and their relative toxicities were evaluated. Results showed that eucalyptol and fir oils outperformed other tested oils and caused 72 and 64% mortality, respectively. These mortalities were not different from the application of the commercial insecticide, Deltamethrin. Moreover, eucalyptol and fir oils were more toxic to the hairy rose beetle than the dominant pollinator during fruit trees flowering, the honey bee. However, eucalyptol was relatively safer to the honey bees than fir oil. These findings indicate that eucalyptol might be applied during fruit trees bloom to control the hairy rose beetle even in the presence of honey bees if used for the crop pollination.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.284.288 2014/03/19 - 01:32

Biological wastes contain several reusable substances of high value such as soluble sugars and fiber. Direct disposal of such wastes to soil or landfill causes serious environmental problems. Thus, the development of potential value-added processes for these wastes is highly attractive. These biological wastes can be used as support-substrates in Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) to produce industrially relevant metabolites with great economical advantage. In addition, it is an environment friendly method of waste management. In this study were analyzed six different Mexican agro industrial residues to evaluate their suitability as support-substrate in SSF, between physicochemical properties that have included Water Absorption Index (WAI), Critical Moisture Point (CHP) and Packing Density (PD). The selection of an appropriate solid substrate plays an important role in the development of an efficient SSF process. The results provided important knowledge about the characteristics of these materials revealing their potential for use in fermentation processes.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.289.293 2014/03/19 - 01:32

Phosphorus (P) generally occurs in soils as the anions H2PO4- or HPO4-2 depending on soil pH. These anions readily react with soil cations such as calcium, magnesium, iron and aluminum to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Crop recovery of applied phosphate fertilizer can be quite low during the season of application. In addition, the large amounts of crop residue present in no-tillage production systems can lower soil temperature thus reducing root growth and nutrient uptake of plants even on soils not low in available Phosphorus (P). Specialty Fertilizer Products, Leawood, KS has developed and patented a product registered as AVAIL® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of the applied P in available form for plant uptake. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of AVAIL treated P-fertilizer on growth, P-uptake and yield of irrigated corn (Zea mays L.) grown in a no-tillage production system. A 3-year experiment was conducted from 2001-2003 at the North Central Kansas Experiment Field, located near Scandia, KS, on a Crete silt loam soil (fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Pachic Arquistoll). Treatments consisted of three rates of P with or without AVAIL. A no P check plot was also included. When averaged over the years and P rates, the use of AVAIL increased yield of corn by 1.1 Mg ha-1. AVAIL also increased corn dry weight at the six-leaf stage, whole plant P uptake at the six-leaf stage and P concentration at mid-silk. The use of AVAIL proved beneficial in overcoming many of the problems associated with P nutrition in corn. AVAIL consistently increased P uptake and yield in this experiment.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.294.298 2014/03/19 - 01:32

In this study, we investigated the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants in the Arabian peninsula, including Rhamnus globosa, Ocimum basilicum, Tecoma stans and Coleus forskohlii. Our results showed high inhibitory growth in yeast after treatment with R. globosa and O. basilicum. C. tropicalis was shown to be a sensitive strain with an inhibition of 29, 28, 35, 25 and 27 mm after treatment with R. globosa, R. globosa* “leaf with thorns,” O. basilicum, Tecoma stans and Coleus forskohlii, respectively. Thus, our results confirmed the fungicidal effect of O. basilicum and R. globosa with a 20 and 30% reduction in CFU compared with the starting inoculums in the time-kill.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.277.283 2014/03/12 - 13:27

Identifying the best inbred combinations for the development of commercial hybrid of sunflower remains the main challenge to sunflower breeders. In the present research the level of heterosis of F1 hybrids, genetic diversity of parental lines based on SSR markers, as well as its connection with specific combining ability of sunflower were studied. Ten sunflower elite inbred lines (3 restorer lines and 7 cytoplasmic male sterility lines) and their hybrids were examined for plant height, seed yield, thousand seed mass, oil content and husk content. Field tests were carried out in 5-6 seasons. The level of heterosis was calculated using measurement of midparent heterosis. Genetic distance between pairs of tested sunflower inbred lines ranged from 0.45 to 0.74. Significant positive correlation was found between genetic distances among lines, measured using SSR markers and midparent heterosis for seed yield of hybrids (r = 0.79 p<0.05). The correlation between genetic distances and the level of midparent heterosis for other studied agronomic traits was not reliable. The dependence of seed yield of hybrids on genetic distances among parental lines may be used for planning of effective crossbreeding of sunflower. Further research is needed to determine the best inbred combinations for the development of commercial hybrid of sunflower.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.270.276 2014/03/07 - 16:36

CMV is one of the major destructive viruses worldwide and commercial CMV resistant cucumber is very rare. Therefore we aimed to establish the ovule derived resistant lines used for the breeding program. Haploid plants of sixty-eight cucumber lines were successfully obtained by culturing the un pollinated ovaries harvested one day before an thesis on a modified MS medium supplemented with BAP and IAA at the ratio of 2:1 which was optimal to induce embryogenesis in most of the tested lines. For whole plant regeneration, another modified MS medium was used supplemented with a combination of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) (2:1) or BAP and IAA/6-(gamma, gamma-dimethylallylamino) purine (2ip) and IAA (5:1) and 5 ppm AgNO3. Ploidy levels of the regenerants were determined by cytological analysis. Thirteen out of 42 clones derived from 14 accessions showed a chromosome number of n = 7 and chloroplast number of 6/pair of guard cell, 24 lines were auto-dihaploid with n = 14 and a chloroplast number of 11-12/pair of guard cell. Twenty-eight Double Haploid (DH) lines were mechanically inoculated with CMV and the level of resistance was evaluated by using DAS-ELISA. Ten highly Resistant lines (R) included 70S2, 91e, 91.1, 93S4-1, 93S42-, 95S1-2, 95S2 DHS1, 117S2-1-3, 136.1 and 194S1 did not show any virus symptom and gave negative ELISA results. Twelve moderately resistant clones were identified including two clones from line 11, three clones from line 93, four clones from line 91 and one clone each from line 117S2 and 123, whereas clone 11.4 was moderately susceptible. Five DH clones; 117S2-1-1, 117S2-2, 117S2-4, 117S2-7 and 117S2-8were classified as highly susceptible.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.261.269 2014/02/28 - 15:30

CMV is one of the major destructive viruses worldwide and commercial CMV resistant cucumber is very rare. Therefore we aimed to establish the ovule derived resistant lines used for the breeding program. Haploid plants of sixty-eight cucumber lines were successfully obtained by culturing the un pollinated ovaries harvested one day before an thesis on a modified MS medium supplemented with BAP and IAA at the ratio of 2:1 which was optimal to induce embryogenesis in most of the tested lines. For whole plant regeneration, another modified MS medium was used supplemented with a combination of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) (2:1) or BAP and IAA/6-(gamma, gamma-dimethylallylamino) purine (2ip) and IAA (5:1) and 5 ppm AgNO3. Ploidy levels of the regenerants were determined by cytological analysis. Thirteen out of 42 clones derived from 14 accessions showed a chromosome number of n = 7 and chloroplast number of 6/pair of guard cell, 24 lines were auto-dihaploid with n = 14 and a chloroplast number of 11-12/pair of guard cell. Twenty-eight Double Haploid (DH) lines were mechanically inoculated with CMV and the level of resistance was evaluated by using DAS-ELISA. Ten highly Resistant lines (R) included 70S2, 91e, 91.1, 93S4-1, 93S42-, 95S1-2, 95S2 DHS1, 117S2-1-3, 136.1 and 194S1 did not show any virus symptom and gave negative ELISA results. Twelve moderately resistant clones were identified including two clones from line 11, three clones from line 93, four clones from line 91 and one clone each from line 117S2 and 123, whereas clone 11.4 was moderately susceptible. Five DH clones; 117S2-1-1, 117S2-2, 117S2-4, 117S2-7 and 117S2-8were classified as highly susceptible.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.261.269 2014/02/28 - 15:30

Okra Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench), is an economically important vegetable crop grown in tropical and sub-tropical as well as Mediterranean countries. The genome size of the Abelmoschus genus species is still rare. Ploidy determinations have traditionally been done by counting chromosomes of stained root tips, but this method is laborious and often difficult with species which have small chromosomes and high ploidy levels and can lead to misclassified. Flow cytometry has been widely used in various aspects of plant research, such as the determination of the DNA nuclear content. Nuclear DNA size of fifteen okra genotype was measured using flow cytometry. The data showed variation between Turkish genotype and Jordanian genotype. Genome size of okra ranged from 3.98 pg 2C-1 in Jordanian landrace to 17.67pg 2C-1 in Turkish landrace. The 2C genome size in Mbp ranged from 3897-17321 among Abelmoschus esculentus genotypes. Further studies is recommended to accurate chromosome count to be linked with the genome size.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.245.250 2014/02/13 - 16:33

Phosphorus (P) is the most important element after nitrogen but P sorption properties are poorly documented in many soils. In this study, P sorption capacity in relation to incubation period and temperature under various P levels were determined for two different soil series (Rustam and Miani). Phosphorus was added at 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 µg g-1 to the soils and incubated for the period of 1, 3, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days at 25 and 35±1°C temperatures. Phosphorus sorption was significantly influenced by the temperature, added P and incubation period. Clay content has major influence on P sorption. Rustum Series adsorbed more P than that of Miani Series. The P sorption was faster at high temperature (35°C). At the end of period in the Rustum Series with added 2.5 and 1000 µg g-1 P level, P sorption were found 0.7 and 943 µg g-1, respectively, at 25±1°C temperature, whereas at 35±1°C temperature the respective P sorption for same P levels were 1.8 and 987.0 µg g-1. In the Miani Series at 25±1°C temperature, P sorption was 0.7 and 941 µg g-1, while at the temperature of 35±1°C, P sorption were 1.0 and 986 µg g-1 soil. Increasing P levels, temperature and incubation, resulted in higher P sorption. Hence, high clay in combination with calcium carbonate contents enhanced P adsorption, while high organic matter and high native soil P resulted in lesser P adsorption.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.251.260 2014/02/13 - 16:33

The chemical equilibrium in the soil solution determines the dynamics of its material composition, migration and accumulation of salts. In the soil solution are formed electrically neutral ion pairs СаСО3°; CaSO4°, MgCO3°, MgSO4°, charged ion pairs CaHCO3+, MgHCO3+, NaCO3-, NaSO4-, CaOH+, MgOH+. The calculation method proposed for quantitative assessment of real ion forms in the soil solution of solonetz taking into account the ions association. Determination of real condition of the main ions in soil solution is based on ion association and its influence on physical and chemical properties of solution. Were calculated the free and associated ion form concentration according to analytical ion concentration. Were used an iteration to solve the equations of ion material balance, a linear interpolation of equilibrium constants, a Method of Ionic Pairs including a law of initial concentration preservation, a law of the operating masses of equilibrium system, the concentration constants of ion pair dissociation following the law of operating masses. Upon completion of iterative procedure, was determined the quantity of ion free form and a coefficient of ion association γe as the ratio of ions free form to its analytical content γe = Cass/Can. For calculation procedure were used the own software products. The association of ions varies in individual soils and soil layers, шncreasing the soil solution salinity amplifies the ions association. Depending on concentration and composition of soil solution the ionic pairs are: 15-45% Ca2+; 16-49% Mg2+; 0,6-8,4% Na+; 2,2-17,6% HCO3-, 16-51% SO42-, up to 88% CO32-. The proposed thermodynamic calculation method for quantitative assessment of real ion forms in the soil solution helps to explain the evolution of salted soils, maintain the soil, improve plant nutrition and irrigation.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.238.244 2014/02/13 - 16:33

Тhe Melanocortin-4 Receptor (MC4R), a G-protein coupled receptor, is implicated in mediating the effect of leptin on food intake and energy balance. A previous candidate gene study reported an association between an MC4R polymorphism (Asp298Asn) and growth and meat productive traits of pigs. The aim of this work was to determine frequencies of the MC4R/Taq I genotypes and alleles in Danish Landrace (LD), Canadian Landrace (LC) and crossbred pigs Danish Landrace × Canadian Landrace (LD × LC) in breeding Cent “Plemzavod Jubilee” (Tyumen) Russia and to estimate their associations with some growth and meat traits. The polymorphism was identified by PCR-RFLP method. The traits studied were: Number of days to 100-kg, Average Daily Gain (ADG), Backfat Thickness (BFT), average daily Feed Intake (FI) and Length of Body (LB). In the all test groups we found a higher frequency of G allele (0.71) compared with the A allele (0.29). The results of present study suggest that the MC4R gene contributes to Days to 100 kg, ADG and BF. The heterozygous genotype AG was favorable in LD breed. The significant effects of-1.43 (LD male) and -2.81(LD female) for Days to 100 kg and of+61.17 (LD male) and +26.3 (LD female) for ADG were calculated. The homozygous genotype GG was favorable in crossbred LD × LC. The significant effects of +74.2 for ADG and-1.5 for BF were calculated. Therefore, the data support a role for the MC4R Asp298Asn polymorphism in the genetic basis of economically important traits in pigs of Russia. Further research is needed to determine the effect of this gene on growth, meat and reproduction traits in pigs of different breeds and crosses.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.232.237 2014/02/11 - 11:36

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the response of bell pepper to quality of irrigation water and irrigation regimes. The main treatments included non-saline water (EC-0.5 dS m-1) and saline water (EC-3.5 dS m-1). The sub-treatments included three irrigation regimes (at 100, 80 and 60% of crop Evapotranspiration (ETc)) in combination with three crop growth stages (vegetative, flowering to fruit set and fruit development to harvest). Application of saline water significantly reduced marketable fresh fruit yield from 5.47 to 2.60 kg m-2. Irrigation at 80% ETc till the end of vegetative stage and at 100% ETc later significantly increased the yield (5.01 kg m-2). Irrigation with non-saline water at either 80 or 60% ETc till the end of vegetative stage and at 100% ETc later resulted in similar fresh fruit yield. Saline water irrigation at 80% ETc till the end of vegetative stage and at 100% ETc later, proved superior to all the other treatments. Use of saline water (3.5 dS m-1) for irrigation of greenhouse bell pepper resulted in an increase in soil electrical conductivity and caused a drop in the fresh fruit yield by 72% as compared to irrigation with non-saline water (0.5 dS m-1). Irrigation at 80% ETc in the vegetative stage and at 100% ETc in the other two stages (flowering to fruit set and fruit development to harvest) recorded significantly higher total (5.52 kg m-2) and marketable (5.01 kg m-2) fresh fruit yield than all the other irrigation treatments. Saline water irrigation improved fruit quality with higher TSS (10.80%), Vitamin C (228.66 mg-100g) and acidity (0.305%).

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.208.217 2014/02/01 - 15:01

Nutrition department is one of the most important parts in a hospital since the performance of it has great impact on patients’ satisfaction. HACCP standard is one of tools for management and monitoring of the nutrition department. The aim of this study was reviewing the condition of HACCP standard requirements in nutrition departments of selected hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. In this cross-sectional study, nutrition department of 12 hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were studied. Data was gathered using questionnaires including 156 questions covering 5 domains through observation and interview. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS v16 and Kruskal-Wallis test. In total, rate of adherence to HACCP standard requirements in the studied hospitals was found as following: Modares (53.7%) and Seyedoshohada (53.1%) Hospitals, unacceptable conditions; Azahra (56.5%), Feiz (60.7%) and Amin (57.9%) Hospitals, moderate; Noor (68.2%), Ali-Asghar (68.2%), Eisabnemaryam (68.7%), Chamran (70.1), Shahid Beheshti (70%), Imam Musa Kazem (69.3%), Farabi (68.2%) and Kashani (68.5%) Hospitals, acceptable conditions. According to Kruskal-Wallis statistical test, scores from the five studied domains were not significantly different while the scores of the 12 hospitals were significantly different (p<0.001). Using HACCP system as a food safety management system in nutrition departments of the hospitals, not only leads to safe and healthy food production, but also results in improved patients’ satisfaction, decreased complaint rates, preventing food poisoning episodes and avoiding unnecessary costs. Hospitals must work to establish HACCP standards. Educational courses for staff and enforcement of the prerequisites are recommended.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.218.225 2014/02/01 - 15:01

The Tofu Liquid Waste (TLW) as a pollution might be processed into biogas which was environmentally friendly and had potential to replace burning wood or oil. However, the waste could not directly be employed as the biogas substrate due to the high nitrogen content which was not suitable to the methanogen microorganism on the biogas digester and did not produce biogas. It was therefore necessary to adapt the carbon-nitrogen ratio in TLW with the addition of other organic materials that had a lower nitrogen content so it would be a suitable substrate for generating biogas. The research was aimed to evaluate the addition of the other organic material on the TLW to increase the biogas production. The results showed that TLW combined with sheep dung, cabbage waste, bamboo leaves and paddy straw respectively produced biogas as much as 14,183, 7,250, 2,400, 895 cm3 in 20 days. The 4 treatments gave the same quality of biogas, which was determined using the water boiling test. The pH fluctuation during the process was in the right pH for anaerobic digestion, thus it was not the limiting factor.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.226.231 2014/02/01 - 15:01

More than half of the Australian cropping land is no-tillage and weed control within continuous no-tillage agricultural cropping area is becoming more and more difficult. A major problem is that the heavy herbicide usage causes some of more prolific weeds becoming more resistant to the regular herbicides and therefore more powerful and more expensive options are being pursued. To overcome such problems with aiming at the reduction of herbicide usage, this proposed research focuses on developing a machine vision system which can detect and mapping weeds or do spot spray. The weed detection methods described in this study include three aspects which are image acquisition, a new green plant detection algorithm using hybrid spectral indices and a new inter-row weed detection method taking the advantage of the location of the crop rows. The developed method could detect the weeds both during the non-growing summer period and also within the growing season until the canopy of the crop has closed. The design of the methods focuses on overcoming the challenges of the complex no-tillage background, the faster image acquisition speed and quicker processing time for real-time spot spray. The experiment results show that the proposed method are more suitable for the weed detection in the no-tillage background than the existing methods and could be used as a powerful tool for the weed control.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.174.193 2014/01/30 - 11:31

One of the most fundamental aspects of healthcare for the elderly is planning to reduce challenges associated with their healthcare costs. The present study aimed to assess the status of the elderly health care costs in North Khorasan Province in 2013. In this descriptive-analytical study, all elderly citizens in North Khorasan Province comprised the study population. Sample size was found 400 people using cluster sampling method. Study tools for collecting data consisted of a questionnaire that was completed through interviews with the elderly or their first degree family members. Data were analyzed with SPSS-16 software using descriptive statistical tests of chi square and Kruskal-Wallis. Of the 400 participating elderly, 50.7% were female and the rest male. Mean total healthcare costs of the elderly were 3,335,200 IRR, with mean outpatient care costs of 2151900 IRR and mean in-patient service costs of 1183290 IRR. Mean costs in urban and rural areas were 2609220 IRR and 4039720 IRR, respectively. There was a significant relationship between variables of gender and the service providing center. Given the results obtained, mean costs incurred for the elderly in the province is high, particularly in the male elderly group. Outpatient costs are higher than the in-patient service costs. Furthermore, compared to the urban areas, costs are higher in rural areas.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.194.201 2014/01/30 - 11:31

Water use efficiency in agriculture can be enhanced by several strategies mainly by reducing evaporation from the soil surface. The mulching techniques were being used widely in irrigated crop production worldwide. The mulching techniques can be also implemented in summer vegetables production under rain-fed conditions. The current study aimed at evaluating the effect of polyethylene black plastic mulch on growth and yield of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus and summer squash, Cucurbita pepo L. under rain-fed conditions of Jordan. Two field experiments were conducted during summer growing season at Al-Rabbah Agricultural Research Station, Mu’tah University, Jordan. Soil cover treatments were polyethylene black plastic mulch and no mulch (bare soil). The results indicated that the mulched plots had higher soil moisture content than bare soil plots, which has positively reflected on vegetative and yield parameters. Using polyethylene plastic mulch had pronounced positive effect on yield of okra and squash as compared to bare soil. Early, middle, late and total yield of both vegetable crops were significantly increased in plots covered with plastic mulch. In addition, fruit number and weight had also an increasing trend as fruit yield. Plots covered with black plastic mulch were produced higher fresh and dry weights of both vegetable crops. It ban be concluded that using black plastic mulch as a soil cover increased okra and squash vegetative growth and yield under rain-fed conditions.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.202.207 2014/01/30 - 11:31

To control blue mold of apples caused by Penicillium expansum after harvest and during commercial cold storage, microwave exposure was investigated as a physical measure and compared with the use of calcium chloride and the systemic fungicide, carbendazime. Microwave exposure of Golden Delicious and Royal Gala apples at 2450 Mhz for 10, 30 and 45s was effective as 4% CaCl2 and carbendazime on significantly reducing the disease incidence %. Calcium chloride was more effective at 8% than 4% or at 1% and was as effective as carbendazime in reducing the mold severity and incidence. Microwave exposure for 10, 30 and 45s was as effective as 8% CaCl2 and carbendazime on controlling blue mold caused by P. expansum stored under the conditions of commercial cold storage. Different apple cultivars have different degrees of susceptibility to the blue mold. Granny Smith and Red Delicious were relatively more tolerant than Golden Delicious, Starking or Royal Gala. However, sight variations were found in their responses to different treatments. Therefore, 10-45s microwave exposure of apple fruits before cold storage alone or in a combination with other methods can be an environmental safe physical alternative to chemical fungicides for controlling P. expansum infections during cold storage.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.167.173 2014/01/23 - 22:19

The levels and composition of agricultural dusts are influenced by animal species, production strategy, housing type and ventilation efficiency. Agricultural dust within animal houses is complex and consists of feed particles, microbes and their products, dander, fecal matter, gases, metals and other organic and inorganic components. Livestock and poultry production facilities may be categorized as confinement, semi-confinement or pasture-based. Characterization of animal husbandry building dust will provide insight into understanding exposures experienced by animals, workers and farm visitors. The goal was to characterize biophysiochemical features of livestock dusts from swine, small ruminant, equine, poultry and cattle husbandry units. Settled dust samples were collected from livestock and poultry housing units at the University Farm and other livestock farms across the state. Morphological features were determined by electron microscopy and gravimetry. Biochemical evaluation consisted of pH determination and trace metal detection via mass spectrometry. Biological assessment centered on bacterial characterization via selective media, DNA analysis and endotoxin quantitation. Morphological analyses revealed higher levels of respirable and thoracic particles in poultry, swine, small ruminant and equine units compared to the dairy unit (p<0.01). Dusts were slightly acidic with the exception of the NCAT small ruminant unit (p<0.05). Dust endotoxin levels were consistent and bacterial species detected include Listeria and Escherichia coli. These findings suggest animal husbandry buildings harbor higher levels of smaller respirable and thoracic dust particles compared to inhalable particles. This information may be helpful in understanding dust exposures experienced by animals, farmers and agricultural workers.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.153.166 2014/01/17 - 07:04

Standards of Joint Commission International (JCI) emphasize on the organizational performance level in basic functional domains including patient right, patient care, medical safety and infection control. These standards are focused on two principles: Expectations of the actual organizational performance and assessment of organizational capabilities to provide high quality and safe Health Care Services (HCS). The aim of this study was to analyze the regression model of the Quality of Life (QOL) in cancer patients from Mazandaran province in 2013. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 185 cases after a chemotherapy treatment session during in the first three months that was referred to Rajaee Chemotherapy Center in 2013. The method of sampling was Purposive. General quality of life was assessed using WHO questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) and particular life quality was assessed using researcher-developed questionnaire. Data analysis was consisted of a multiple regression method and for comparison one-sample test of Kolmogrov-Smirnov was used. Statistical analysis showed that the average of general life quality, particular life quality and total average was evaluated, 1<0.96<5, 1<1.13<5 and 1<1.04<5, respectively. Due to the low quality of general and particular life, fully integration of the care program of patient care in primary health care system, easy access and facilitation in intervention to improve the quality of life is offered. Our motivation behind the research and the implications of the research was improvement of QOL cancer patients.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajabssp.2014.147.152 2014/01/10 - 07:38