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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction

This review paper introduces the emerging technology of optical brain imaging, also known as functional near infrared (fNIR) spectroscopy, and discusses its potential role in enhancing theory and methodology used in MIS research. We discuss basic fNIR principles including the technique’s safe and portable nature, which allows ambulatory brain activity assessment in real world environments. We then touch on the neural correlates that fNIR measures, and the cortical oxygenation changes in the dorsal and anterior regions of the prefrontal cortex. We compare fNIR with traditional neuroimaging methods such as fMRI and PET. We also list case studies, future directions, and potential approaches relevant to MIS. fNIR may be used to inform theory and improve assessments in MIS-based studies, including informing theory, by identifying neural correlates, studying constructs that could not easily if at all be measured with traditional methods, applying objective constructs that subjects are unaware of, and designing better surveys.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol6/iss3/1 2014/10/02 - 16:00

User experience research aims to understand a user’s point of view. Because eye tracking allows us to literally see through a user’s eyes, it can serve as a valuable tool in web studies, particularly in web design and development. To understand how eye tracking can be pivotal in website studies, this paper scientifically explains how the human visual system works and how eye tracker technologies can record what we register with our eyes. It then explains how web design can benefit from the data that eye tracking studies deliver. Finally, the paper discusses trends for eye tracking in future web experience research.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol6/iss2/2 2014/07/01 - 23:37

This study examines how technology-mediated cross-domain interruptions affect people’s work and personal life on two aspects: level of conflict between work and personal life and people’s ability to fulfill their responsibilities in each of the two domains. Based on the direction of an interruption, we differentiate between two types of cross-domain interruptions: work-to-nonwork (WTN) and nonwork-to-work (NTW). Drawing on interruption research and work-life interaction literature, we conceptualize distinct effects of the two interruption types on outcome variables. Data were collected through surveys from 137 knowledge workers. Results reveal asymmetric effects of WTN and NTW interruptions on work and personal life. The frequency of WTN interruptions is found to be positively associated with work-life conflict and negatively associated with fulfillment of personal life responsibilities, whereas the frequency of NTW interruptions significantly affects fulfillment of work responsibilities but not work-life conflict. Thus, results point to asymmetrically permeable boundaries between work and personal life. Results also suggest that the effects of WTN interruptions on fulfillment of personal life responsibilities are partially mediated by WTN conflict. The study concludes with implications for research and practice.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol6/iss2/1 2014/07/01 - 23:37

Software agents with the ability to recommend actions, aid decision-making, and actually make decisions are becoming increasingly common. In many situations, users now choose whether or not to delegate tasks to these agents. While some research has examined software agents, relatively little is known about the factors that influence the intention to delegate decisions to them. An experiment was used to examine the influence of perceived accountability, extent of control, and trust in the agent on the intention to delegate a travel arrangement decision. Users were more likely to delegate to agents that gave them greater control by requiring them to approve the agent’s recommendation before the decision was completed than to agents that performed the task autonomously without intervention after it was delegated. Contrary to expectations, intention to delegate increased as perceived accountability increased. Participants may perceive delegation as a means to shift blame from themselves to the agent and thus mitigate risk resulting from potential negative decision outcomes.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol6/iss1/1 2014/03/30 - 10:41

Designing websites that are responsive to customer needs is a critical prerequisite for the success of online services. To date, much research has focused on understanding which design requirements can be successfully applied to a website’s design. However, there has been limited research examining why some requirements may have more or less importance to customers. In addition to demographic characteristics, we propose that psychographic characteristics influence usability-related requirements. To develop our research model and hypotheses, we draw from usability literature and research in consumer behavior concerned with customers’ prevailing beliefs about technology. Conceptualizing customer beliefs should not only help distinguish between positive and negative processes but also help further investigate their consequences. To explore the relationship between customer characteristics (i.e., gender and technology beliefs) and usability requirements, we use a usability procedure based on the Microsoft Usability Guidelines (MUG). MUG identifies multiple design requirements that are expected to increase the usability of sites. We present the results of our study involving 215 participants. Overall, our results suggest that negative beliefs may play a larger role in influencing usability requirements than positive beliefs. And, the results suggest that prior Web experience moderates the relationship between beliefs and requirements.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol5/iss4/1 2014/01/01 - 10:02

Researchers investigating issues in the domain of training and human-computer interaction share a common interest in ensuring that users are skilled in the use of Information Technologies (IT). When users have the necessary skills, they can utilize IT productively and also have a pleasant human-to-computer interaction. Over the past three decades, Information System (IS) researchers have made considerable efforts in identifying the most effective ways to develop users’ IT skills. However, at this point in time, there are many changes taking place in the IT environment and organizations find it challenging to keep their employees trained and updated on IT skills. Hence, it is important for the IS community to respond by taking the lead in identifying and conducting research that can help organizations effectively address these challenges. We take the first step in conducting a comprehensive review of training research published in major IS and HCI journals over the past three decades so as to synthesize IT training research, provide an integrative understanding of findings, and propose directions for future research.
Our study indicates that while IS research on training has made steady progress in advancing our understanding of alternative IT training methods and cognitive learning processes, it also has several shortcomings. Past research has: a) focused primarily on the training program without sufficient attention to activities prior to and after the program, b) used a small set of theoretical foundations, and c) focused on a few topics and on single-user systems rather than integrated enterprise systems. Critical issues such as improving user motivations prior to training, transfer of training skills to the workplace, assessment of training, and supporting user learning that occurs after training have not been given adequate attention. We identify several research opportunities by tapping into relatively unexplored theories and urge researchers to continue research to address the gaps identified in this comprehensive review as well as to develop innovative methods to help employees learn through newer channels, such as e-learning and social media.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol5/iss3/1 2013/10/01 - 10:26

This paper is concerned with interaction design for visualization-based computational tools that support the performance of complex cognitive activities, such as analytical reasoning, sense making, decision making, problem solving, learning, planning, and knowledge discovery. In this paper, a number of foundational concepts related to interaction and complex cognitive activities are syncretized into a coherent theoretical framework. This framework is general, in the sense that it is applicable to all technologies, platforms, tools, users, activities, and visual representations. Included in the framework is a catalog of 32 fundamental epistemic action patterns, with each action pattern being characterized and examined in terms of its utility in supporting different complex cognitive activities. This catalog of action patterns is comprehensive, covering a broad range of interactions that are performed by a diverse group of users for all kinds of tasks and activities. The presented framework is also generative, in that it can stimulate creativity and innovation in research and design for a number of domains and disciplines, including data and information visualization, visual analytics, digital libraries, health informatics, learning sciences and technologies, personal information management, decision support, information systems, and knowledge management.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol5/iss2/1 2013/06/30 - 09:56

Drawing on Uses and Gratifications (UG) Theory and Diffusion of Innovation Theory (DIT), this study aimed to augment an exploration of individual user needs based on UG constructs with an analysis of the material characteristics of the innovation based on DIT constructs to provide a comprehensive explanation of people‘s motivations underlying various Twitter usage levels and frequencies. Whereas previous literature on Social Network Sites (SNS) have explored individuals‘ motivations underlying initial adoption, the equally interesting and relevant question of use (dis-) continuance has so far been largely overlooked. To fill this void in the literature, this study compares active users that have continued to use Twitter and inactive users that initially adopted, yet discontinued usage of Twitter. This study provides insights into different usage levels and frequencies through an investigation of 1) users‘ perceptions of the medium, 2) users‘ expected outcomes associated with the medium‘s use, and 3) the role and effect of mobile access. An analysis of 130 surveys with Partial Least Squares (PLS) and R2 partitioning revealed that an understanding of adoption and use (dis-) continuance of Twitter requires us to account for both user-related motivations (UG) and perceived characteristics of the medium (DIT), as combining UG and DIT increased explanatory power (R2) for the overall sample. Furthermore, our findings showed that inactive users‘ initial adoption and subsequent discontinuance was solely impacted by user-related needs, (i.e. UG constructs), whereas active users‘ continued use was largely motivated by technology characteristics, (i.e. DIT constructs). Finally, our study revealed significant differences between active and inactive users in terms of the devices and platform used for accessing Twitter, with active users reporting a significantly higher use of mobile devices. Based on these findings, we discuss contributions and implications for future research and practice.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol5/iss1/5 2013/03/28 - 19:25

This study explores the implications of how user interface elements affect the types of messages that are produced as well as the likelihood that, and extent to which, those messages are spread within an online social system such as Twitter.com, a popular online service for sharing short messages. The current paper explores these issues by studying the dissemination patterns of emotional-type messages among Twitter users through automated techniques, coupled with observations from a survey of Twitter users about their willingness to produce or forward messages containing different types of emotional tone. The results show that Twitter users post more positive messages (tweets) than negative, and that positive tweets are 3 times more likely to be forwarded than negative tweets. The findings also suggest that the Twitter user interface may be partially responsible for this (i.e., the interface reduces the likelihood that negative messages will be posted or retweeted). To enable a wider range of discourse on Twitter and to reduce the need for Twitter users to self-censor their tweets, the paper concludes with a potential design solution that will give Twitter users more control over who will receive their tweets, and outlines a future study to evaluate such an interface.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol5/iss1/4 2013/03/28 - 19:25

Introducing web weather 2.0, this paper suggests that active participation by civil society may arise through sharing of environmental data through observations of weather and other measurable variables in the environment performed by individuals. Collecting data from individuals is here suggested for improving weather data currently used by weather research centers and practitioners. Extending these current sets of weather data by using web 2.0 may address some issues stated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) regarding spatial and temporal resolutions of meteorological data including knowledge on different processes between the air and other environmental systems. To test the concept of web weather 2.0, the usability of weather data collected from individuals and the expected quantities of such data need to be determined. In addition, collection methods should be developed. Aiming at the design of an artifact that can meet these needs, this paper presents some important steps of the design process of a “share weather” system, including several demonstrations and experiments performed on different user groups, i.e. school children performing weather observations as a part of their daily tasks and education, and adults interested in weather due to their daily dependence on traffic conditions. This paper provides new knowledge about user-generated observations of weather, including quality and motivation to contribute, and guidance on how future systems for collection of environmental data from individuals may be created. After testing the feasibility of the designed “share weather” artifact, we conclude that the potential role of individuals in producing valuable information beneficial to society should be considered within several branches of environmental sciences as well as policy-making.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol5/iss1/3 2013/03/28 - 19:25

We analyze the evolutionary design of an online community system designed to support a developmental learning community of women: wConnect Online. The goal of this community is to engage, connect and support women at different developmental levels with respect to education and career goals in the computer and information sciences. We chronicle the system’s development as an instance of action design research, showing how a sequence of four design phases were motivated by different design goals that led to systems with differing design rationales. After motivating the research program, we describe each design phase in detail, followed by a general synthesis and discussion of lessons learned.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol5/iss1/2 2013/03/28 - 19:25

Sustainability reports provide stakeholders with information about a company’s efforts to balance its economic, ecological and social goals. Because of their influence on a company’s image as well as on the customers’ buying and shareholders’ investment decisions, sustainability reports are an integral part of today’s corporate online communication.
Following a design science research approach, this paper describes the design, prototypical implementation and evaluation of augmented sustainability reports. In contrast to traditional PDF- or print media-based sustainability reports, augmented sustainability reports contain multimedia contextual information that is displayed depending on the user’s gaze position. In our prototype the gaze position is simulated using mouse tracking. The comparative evaluation of the prototype was conducted via a quantitative questionnaire based on the technology acceptance model (TAM). Additionally, qualitative feedback was gathered during the course of the evaluation. Traditional and augmented sustainability reports were compared on the basis of the questionnaire results which reveal room for improvement of the prototype as well as possible starting points for future research.
Overall, the evaluation results indicate that our test users had a strong preference for the augmented sustainability report compared to the PDF-based report even though both alternatives had identical content.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol4/iss4/2 2012/12/22 - 16:18

Twitter is a social news service in which information is selected and distributed by individual members of the tweet audience. While communication literature has studied traditional news media and the propagation of information, to our knowledge there have been no studies of the new social media and their impacts on the propagation of news during extreme event situations. This exploration attempts to build an understanding of how preexisting hyperlink structures on the Web and different types of information channels affect Twitter audiences’ information selection. The study analyzes the concentration of user-selected information sources in Twitter about the 2009 Israel-Gaza conflict. There are three findings. First, a statistical test of a power-law structure revealed that, while a wide range of information was selected and redistributed by Twitter users, the aggregation of these selections over-represented a small number of prominent websites. Second, binomial regression analyses showed that Twitter user selections were not constituted randomly but were affected by the number of hyperlinks received and the types of information channels. Third, temporal analyses revealed that sources via social media channels were more prominently selected especially in the later stages of the news information lifespan.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol4/iss4/1 2012/12/22 - 16:18

User experience is becoming increasingly important in gaining a competitive advantage in the marketplace. One way to improve user experience is by including images of faces. People are drawn to faces because paying attention to faces has played a significant role in human evolution. Hence, areas on a web page that typically receive less attention from users, such as the right side or below the fold, may benefit from the inclusion of images of faces. Although faces may be useful in attracting attention to particular places on a web page, they may also distract attention from key information. To test this possibility, we conducted two eye tracking studies in which images of faces were placed on areas of a web page that are shown to receive less attention. The results indicated that faces did not increase the number of people who viewed the areas where the faces were located, but that faces affected fixation patterns on these areas. Our results also showed that faces located above the fold of the web page negatively affected the performance of those who were completing tasks.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol4/iss3/2 2012/09/27 - 12:32

We suggest that diversity and changes in the visual design of web pages exhibit trend-like characteristics. We begin with a survey of the fashion and trends literature to clarify these terms and to relate them to the domain of web design. Based on freely available online archival data we assembled a website design trend library that includes 42 trends encompassing the period from the mid-1990s to the year 2010. The trends were classified into three general groups, from oldest to most recent: Faded, Past- Peak, and Current. A second study tested hypotheses that stemmed from the premise that web design trends exist. Data from 262 designers and non-designers indicate that designers are more accurate than non-designers in evaluating the up-to-dateness of web design trends, and that people tend to like trends that they perceive as up-to-date. We discuss research and practical implications of these findings for the design process of websites and for interactive systems in general, for the role of designers in this process, and for the education of IS students.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol4/iss3/1 2012/09/27 - 12:32

This paper critically reviews previous IS literature on user participation and argues that the literature is mainly empirically or normatively oriented and lacks design research on developing system prototypes in order to foster continuous user participation. It then contributes to the current research by introducing a system prototype, a communication tool that enables users to participate while using their application systems in their work contexts. The prototype provides different communication channels for supporting user-designer communications and knowledge sharing among users with respect to application usage. When integrated in the interface of an application system, the tool can help to adapt and redesign the application. The initial evaluation of the communication tool within the context of an application system indicates its usefulness and usability.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol4/iss2/7 2012/06/28 - 06:29

User participation has proved to have many benefits in software development. The traditional methods for participation rely mainly on face-to-face meetings and are therefore not easily applicable to designing online services targeted at distributed consumers. Social media have become widely used among consumers and could thus offer many opportunities for involving users in software design. We present a case study in which a group of users participated for over six months in the process of designing a new online service via social media tools. The users played an active role in the development of the system, tailoring it to their own needs. Our results show that social media provide real possibilities for user involvement in software design and also shape some elements of the participation process. In social media, user contributions are mainly small and dispersed over time, but users can be involved almost continuously in the design process, thus enabling them to have a more active role in decision-making. Software development practices need to be modified so that small user contributions fit into the process.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol4/iss2/6 2012/06/28 - 06:29

User experience is an umbrella term referring to a collection of information that covers the user’s behavior and interaction with a system. It is observed when the user is actively using a service or interacting with information, includes expectations and perceptions, and is influenced by user characteristics and application or service characteristics. User characteristics include knowledge, experience, personality and demographics. We propose a process and supporting software tool called Persona to Pattern (P2P) Mapper, which guides designers in modeling user experiences and identifying appropriate design patterns. The three-step process is: Persona Creation (a representative persona set is developed), Pattern Selection (behavioral patterns are identified resulting in an ordered list of design patterns for each persona), and Pattern Composition (patterns are used to create a conceptual design). The tool supports the first two steps of the process by providing various automation algorithms for user grouping and pattern selection combined with the benefit of rapid pattern and user information access. Persona and pattern formats are augmented with a set of discrete domain variables to facilitate automation and provide an alternative view on the information. Finally, the P2P Mapper is used in the redesign of two different Bioinformatics applications: a popular website and a visualization tool. The results of the studies demonstrate a significant improvement in the system usability of both applications.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol4/iss2/5 2012/06/28 - 06:29

This paper discusses information technology in the contemporary policing context and presents a research approach that aims to capture and describe a multifaceted account of police work. There is a need to further analyze the constitution of the uniformed user and the use environment in this domain. Data from extensive ethnographic fieldwork are analyzed. Personas and scenarios are used in this paper to illustrate the properties and conditions of police work. Evidence from the study suggests that personas and scenarios can make the daily work visible and support the emergent design of information systems in the dialogue between designers and users. The paper concludes that personas and their scenarios provide a richer description of the specifics of a context and a design space. A scenario is used to show characteristic properties and the emergence of work practice in relation to the design of information systems.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol4/iss2/4 2012/06/28 - 06:29

The user role in the design of information systems is increasingly portrayed as active and complex, and the relationships between users and developers are portrayed as blurry. Information systems have become ubiquitous in most work processes, and users typically rely on several large scale information systems tightly integrated into other information systems, machines and work practices. In this paper we propose the notion of generativity as a framework to assess generative socio-technical characteristics of such systems, conceptualized as information infrastructures. Further, the paper will discuss the role these characteristics play in users’ involvement by exploring the ways in which users can contribute as designers and thereby expand on the conceptual views of users and design processes of generative information infrastructures.
Empirically, this paper presents the evolution of an information system for cooperation between general practice and hospital laboratories, where users in both settings participated in the design process. The system was designed using agile methods, and design and implementation were continuous and iterative co-existing processes. The case showed that a high degree of generativity in the system itself is a necessary condition for users to make changes. However, in an integrated and complex setting the flexibility of the existing and integrated systems will heavily influence the possibility to make changes. The paper also provides an in-depth illustration of how user and designer roles evolve together with circumstances and relationships. However, we argue that this type of evolvement requires dedicating a considerable amount of time and effort to achieve a climate in which such evolvement can take place. Finally, design is more than just the development of technology. It is also the development of work practices in which users’ contributions are decisive. Designing work practices alongside the design of the technology has given rise to insights that feed directly into the design process. Acknowledging users’ substantial contributions in design processes can aid in refining conceptualizations of users and developers along with bolstering efforts to facilitate appropriate user involvement.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol4/iss2/3 2012/06/28 - 06:29

Today’s information systems are often large and complex, affecting many people within and beyond the organization. Participation in this context is increasingly challenging because of the complexity of involving all who might be affected by a new information system. As a result, systems of representation, in which individuals are chosen to represent others, are often put in place to manage the participation process.
Research has considered particular challenges of “representative participation” (Mumford, 1983); however, there is little empirical research comprehensively examining these systems of representation. Who participates in these systems, how are they structured and how is this representative work undertaken? Most importantly, what are the impacts of these decisions on the representation systems that are built and on the participation that flows from them?
The purpose of our research is to explore the structuring of systems of representation in IS development and implementation. Building on the work of Land and Hirschheim (1983) and Mumford (1983), and drawing on Habermas’ deliberative democracy (1998), this research explores the system of representation employed in a large Electronic Health Record implementation as empirical evidence. Healthcare is a critical context for studying information systems implementation because of its uniqueness and complexity (Chiasson and Davidson, 2004; LeRouge et al., 2007), and therefore serves as an important environment for this research.
Our contributions, drawn from this Electronic Health Record project, include an understanding of three fundamental tasks for developing systems of representation: defining the constituency, selecting representatives, and determining how the representation relationship will be carried out. We demonstrate that systems of representation can be classified by different meanings of “represent.” These types – “represent as spokesperson,” “represent as example” and “represent as symbol” – differ in the purpose of representation, in who is involved and in how representation is undertaken. Most importantly, these types of systems differ in their participatory potential. The findings highlight the opportunities and challenges inherent in the construction and implementation of systems of representation.
The paper concludes by exploring the implications of these findings for practitioners and researchers, suggesting that representation should be more than simply appointing representatives, and offering mechanisms for participation and influence. We call on researchers to view these systems of representation in more fine-grained ways to better understand what their complexities mean for contemporary system development and implementation.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol4/iss2/2 2012/06/28 - 06:29

This study incorporates perceived system quality into the original expectation-confirmation based information system continuance model in order to investigate the role of perceived system quality in users’ motivation to continue e-learning system use. Our proposed model was tested among university educators (n = 175) who use the popular open-source e-learning system, Moodle. The results reveal that perceived usefulness, confirmation of initial expectations, and perceived system quality significantly affected educators’ satisfaction. In addition, perceived usefulness and satisfaction significantly affected continuance intention. Unexpectedly, no direct association between perceived system quality and continuance intention was found. The determinants of continuance intention explain around 64% of its total variance. The paper finishes with conclusions and implications for future research and practice.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol4/iss1/2 2012/03/29 - 06:55

The internet has become part of everyday life and revolutionized the shopping experience. Consumers’ emotional responses play an important role in predicting and measuring behavioral intentions and satisfaction; therefore, it is imperative to study e-commerce from an affective perspective.This research adopted the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) model to examine the effects of web atmospheric cues, mainly vividness and interactivity, on users’ emotional responses in e-commerce, and the influence of users’ emotional responses on their purchasing intentions.
This research involved three stages: a pretest, an experimental study, and an online survey. First, recruited experts in human-computer interaction (HCI) evaluated 25 different e-commerce websites on interactivity and vividness. These ratings informed the selection of three websites to represent various levels of atmospheric cues: high interactivity and vividness, medium interactivity and vividness, and low interactivity and vividness. In the second stage, an experiment was conducted to collect the physiological responses of 20 participants, including galvanic skin response, heart rate variability, and pupil dilation, as they viewed each of the three e-commerce websites; participants’ self-reported emotional responses were also recorded. Finally, an online survey collected data on the emotional responses and purchase intentions of 53 participants after viewing the three e-commerce websites. The results of the experimental study indicate that web atmospheric cues such as vividness and interactivity had significant positive effects on users’ valence and arousal rates. Furthermore, users experiencing higher arousal and more positive valence rates reported higher intentions to purchase from the e-commerce website. Analysis of the physiological data showed that users’ heart rate variability exhibited a trend similar to that of their self-reported valance rate, but no such trend was observed for self-reported arousal rates, galvanic skin response, or pupil dilation values.
This paper not only extends the S-O-R paradigm in the e-commerce context and provides empirical evidence for the model, but also applies Russel’s (1980) emotional model to understand the users’ emotional responses to e-commerce websites. The physiological measures employed in this study are examples of new usability evaluation tools for determining complex affective measures in HCI.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol4/iss1/1 2012/03/29 - 06:55

This paper describes the design and evaluation of NFriendConnector, a prototype application that allows for better integration between online and offline social networks. Online social networks are currently used to maintain and strengthen existing real-life social connections, rather than establishing ties that exist only online. However, users incur significant time and search related costs in replicating a naturally occurring social interaction using a social networking site (SNS). Therefore, there exists a gap between initiating social contact in real-life versus initiating social contact via an online social network. Using the design science paradigm, our research addresses this gap by introducing NFriendConnector. This application allows users to map their offline interactions, as and when they take place, onto their SNS presence, therefore making it possible to complement offline social interactions with SNS profile information. The prototype is implemented using Near Field Communication (NFC)-enabled mobile phones and Facebook. We evaluate the prototype in an experimental setting using expectation confirmation theory (ECT) as the theoretical framework. Findings show that NFriendConnector was able to satisfy users, therefore indicating a successful design exercise. We discuss the implications of this research in the context of current developments in online social networking.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol3/iss4/2 2011/12/31 - 07:15

As work teams become more distributed, effective computer-mediated communication is increasingly impacting their performance. This study investigates how team climate influences communication frequency among team members and their use of different communication media. Data were collected in two information systems courses offered at an Austrian university in which 50 student teams developed web-based applications and conducted usability tests. A team climate framework based on task and social orientation was used to assess the teams’ performance and communication patterns. We found that both task and social dimensions of team climate were positively related to higher communication frequency as well as objective and subjective performance. Among other things, the results suggest that a task-oriented climate is especially linked to the use of e-mail, while social orientation is linked to the use of face-to-face meetings. We also found differences in communication patterns and performance across four different types of team climates (fully functioning, cozy, cold, and dysfunctional). The results underscore the importance of both task and social dimensions for a team to perform well. Our study contributes to both the academic literature that investigates factors affecting media choice and the practitioner literature that examines how to manage virtual teamwork effectively.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol3/iss4/1 2011/12/31 - 07:15

The popularity of social networking websites among Internet users continues to grow, even though social networking remains a risk for users who do not participate with caution. Using protection motivation theory (PMT) as a theoretical lens to provide a research model, and by issuing a fear appeal to social network users about the potential threat to their privacy, this study identified perceptions and beliefs held by users that influence their behavioral responses to the imposed threats. A snowball sample survey measuring the variables conceptualized by PMT was completed by 522 social network users. A time-ordered hierarchical regression analysis of the responses showed that PMT provides explanations for both adaptive and maladaptive responses, particularly for the response of hopelessness. Implications and directions for future research in this area are offered.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol3/iss3/2 2011/09/27 - 04:13

This paper analyzes the mediating role of customer satisfaction by studying the relationship between IT-enabled customer service and content management efforts and online sales performance. Using data on the top performing Web retailers in the U.S. based on their online annual sales, we show that the extent of retailers’ efforts in online customer service and content management is positively linked to customer satisfaction, which in turn is positively related to the retailers’ online sales performance. In addition to directly increasing the revenue, our results indicate that customer service and content management features can also indirectly improve the retailers’ financial performance. Specifically, customer service management impacts the sales performance via the average ticket amount, while content management affects the sales via the repeat visit.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol3/iss3/1 2011/09/27 - 04:13

Value Sensitive Design (VSD) is a comprehensive framework for advancing a value-centered research and design agenda. It provides methods for producing and evaluating a design outcome by taking human values into account. Drawing on discourse ethics, this paper first critically analyzes the status quo in VSD and identifies some gaps. These mainly concern the lack of explicit methods for supporting a deliberative and legitimate process of decision making with respect to many concerns, including the identification of stakeholders, the legitimation of common design communication, the justification of trade-offs and/or a common regulation in case of competing or incommensurable values, as well as the deliberativeness of other design decisions such as the selection of design goals and means. In addition, this paper suggests ways to move VSD toward the standards of discourse ethics by drawing on the knowledge base of critical research in the Information Systems field. In particular, the suggestions concern the inclusion of a practical method for boundary critique and different types of discourses and principles as well as discourse support methods and tools for structuring participation in a way that allows participants to deal with the plurality of values, norms, goals and means deliberatively. Finally, this paper revisits a VSD case and explores the applicability of the ideas suggested.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol3/iss2/5 2011/07/01 - 01:06

Research surrounding visualization for computer and network security has produced differing accepted methods for adequately developing security visualization products. The current work proposes a design methodology that melds the research of the three competing frameworks for security visualization development. In addition, a product that incorporates the proposed design methodology is developed, used, and evaluated. Findings show that users of the system believe the system has increased their effectiveness at performing network security tasks and are likely to use such a system in the future.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol3/iss2/4 2011/07/01 - 01:06

When prioritizing projects, managers usually have to evaluate multiple attributes (dimensions) of project data. However, these dimensions are usually condensed into one or two indicators in many existing analysis processes. For example, projects are commonly prioritized using a scoring approach: they are evaluated according to predefined categories, which are then aggregated into one or two priority numbers. We argue that aggregated scores may only offer a limited view of project importance. This often leads decision makers to ignore the possible differences masked by the aggregation. Following the design science research paradigm, this paper presents a visual exploration approach based on multi-dimensional perceptual maps. It incorporates human intuition in the process and maintains the multidimensionality of project data as a decision basis for project prioritization and selection. A prototype system based on the approach was developed and qualitatively evaluated by a group of project managers. A qualitative analysis of the data collected shows its utility and usability.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol3/iss2/3 2011/07/01 - 01:06

As information systems increase their ability to gather and analyze data from the natural environment and as computational power increases, the next generation of human-computer interfaces will be able to facilitate more lifelike and natural interactions with humans. This can be accomplished by using sensors to non-invasively gather information from the user, using artificial intelligence to interpret this information to perceive users’ emotional and cognitive states, and using customized interfaces and responses based on embodied-conversational-agent (avatar) technology to respond to the user. We refer to this novel and unique class of intelligent agents as Special Purpose Embodied Conversational Intelligence with Environmental Sensors (SPECIES) agents. In this paper, we build on interpersonal communication theory to specify four essential design principles of all SPECIES agents. We also share findings of initial research that demonstrates how SPECIES agents can be deployed to augment human tasks. Results of this paper organize future research efforts in collectively studying and creating more robust, influential, and intelligent SPECIES agents.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol3/iss2/2 2011/07/01 - 01:06

Design Research (DR) creates, builds, and evaluates innovative artifacts such as constructs, models, methods, and instantiations as well as operational information systems. It also investigates approaches, methods, behaviors, and processes related to design. Although the design research paradigm as an engineering approach in Information Systems (IS) research has been actively discussed in recent years (Hevner et al., 2004), comparatively little design related research has made its way into the IS community by means of widely recognized and outstanding publications. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) Research is concerned with the ways humans interact with information, technologies, and tasks; especially in business, managerial, organizational, and cultural contexts (Zhang et al., 2002). Despite the realization that it is important for HCI research to focus on all issues that occur along the lifecycles of any information and communication technology (ICT) artifacts, IS scholars have traditionally put less effort into the design and development stage and more effort into the use and impact stage (Zhang and Li, 2005; Zhang et al., 2009).

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol3/iss2/1 2011/07/01 - 01:06

Emergency response systems are a relatively new and important area of research in the information systems community. While there is a growing body of literature in this research stream, human-computer interaction (HCI) issues concerning the design of emergency response system interfaces have received limited attention. Emergency responders often work in time pressured situations and depend on fast access to key information. One of the problems studied in HCI research is the design of interfaces to improve user information selection and processing performance. Based on cue-summation theory and research findings on parallel processing, associative processing, and hemispheric differences in information processing, this study proposes that information selection of target information in an emergency response dispatch application can be improved by using supplementary cues. Color-coding and sorting are proposed as relevant cues that can improve processing performance by providing prioritization heuristics. An experimental emergency response dispatch application is developed, and user performance is tested under conditions of varying complexity and time pressure. The results suggest that supplementary cues significantly improve performance, with better results often obtained when both cues are used. Additionally, the use of these cues becomes more beneficial as time pressure and task complexity increase.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol3/iss1/2 2011/03/31 - 12:22

News reports of Internet-based security breaches, identity theft, fraud, and other dangers may increase the perceived risk and decrease the perceived benefits of using electronic services (or e-services). We examine whether interactivity serves as a means to diminish the perceived risks and increase the perceived benefits of using e-services. To examine interactivity’s influence on consumers’ perceptions, we conducted a laboratory experiment using a simulated web-based, online payment system. When compared to a non-interactive preview of an online payment system, we found that consumers who used an interactive e-service simulation reported higher perceived involvement and authenticity as well as higher intangibility and risks of e-services. Further, we found that interactivity moderated relationships such that consumers were more likely to report higher intentions to use e-services. The paper concludes with implications for research and practice.

http://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol3/iss1/1 2011/03/31 - 12:22