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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Addiction and Health

Czasopismo irańskie Open Access.

Background: Psychotic disorder due to industrial drug abuse, such as methamphetamine addiction, is one of the important causes for referral to psychiatric hospital. Psychotic symptoms in these patients are varied. A group of researchers believe that methamphetamine-induced psychosis is completely similar to schizophrenia. Others believe that at least some cases of permanent psychotic clinical manifestation due to methamphetamine abuse are different from schizophrenia. In the present study, the existence of differences between psychotic symptoms caused by methamphetamine addiction and schizophrenia is investigated. Methods: This study was a qualitative study. Patients with psychosis due to methamphetamine addiction were selected from among patients who were hospitalized in hospitals of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran. All patients were interviewed using unstructured interview based on self- reporting. Interviews were recorded and reviewed later. Findings: Based on clinical observations, some of the patients with psychotic disorder due to methamphetamine showed rare symptoms that had been mostly reported in psychosis due to organic disorders and some of them showed symptoms that had not been reported before. Conclusion: This study showed that in a group of patients with methamphetamine-induced psychosis, clinical manifestation is different from schizophrenia. Keywords: Psychosis, Methamphetamine, Schizophrenia, Kerman (Iran)

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/199 2014/09/12 - 06:17

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http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/204 2014/09/12 - 06:17

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of smoking on speed and coordination of upper-limb movement. Methods: A total of 62 healthy, young individuals were randomly selected for participation in this study. Out of total subjects, 31 were smokers with a mean age 20.84 years and 31 were non-smokers with a mean age 19.97 years and placed in group A and group B, respectively. Plate taping test was administered to all the subjects to determine their speed and coordination of upper limb. Findings: Student’s t-test was applied between both groups to see the difference in their plate taping test’s time, its t-value was 5.03. Conclusion: Statistical significant difference was seen between both the groups in the result of plate taping test, which suggests that smoking can affect the speed and coordination of upper limb in a negative way and cause its deterioration. Therefore, immediate quitting from smoking is of high value and requirements to have a good speed and coordination of upper-limb movements. Keywords: Smoking, Speed, Coordination, Plate tapping test

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/203 2014/09/12 - 06:17

Background: Treatment of drug addicts is one of the main strategies of drug control in Iran. Client satisfaction strongly influences the success of any treatment program. This study aimed to explore the difference between customer expectations and perceptions in drug addiction treatment centers of Kerman, Iran, using SERVQUAL model. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design 260 clients referring to drug addiction treatment centers of Kerman, Iran, were enrolled in 2012. From among 84 clinics, 20 centers were selected randomly. Based on the number of clients registered in each center, a random sample proportional to the size was selected and 290 subjects were invited for interviews. A well validated 22-item questionnaire, which measured the 5 dimensions of service quality (reliability, assurance, tangibility, empathy, and responsiveness), was completed by participants. Each item measured 2 aspects of service quality; expectations and perceptions. Findings: Mean ± SD (Standard deviation) age of the subjects was 37.7 ± 9.4. Most of them were male (87.7%). Less than half of them had an educational level lower than diploma. The total score of clients` expectations was higher than their perceptions (P < 0.001). Considering the 5 dimensions of the SERVQUAL model, only 1 dimension (i.e., assurance) showed no difference between perceptions and expectations of the participants (P = 0.134). Conclusion: There was a gap between the clients’ expectations and what they actually perceived in the clinics. Thus, more attention should be devoted to the clients` views regarding service quality in addiction treatment clinics. Keywords: Service quality, Patient satisfaction, Substance dependency, Treatment

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/188 2014/08/17 - 14:14

Background: The risk of cell phone addiction is a social and psychological problem which has been proposed by psychologists, psychiatrists, and educational supervisors. The present study aimed to investigate the behavior of mobile phone addicts and mental health of university students of Shahrekord, Iran. Methods: This study was an applied research survey for the purposes of this study. The study population consisted of all the students of Payame Noor University, Islamic Azad University, and University of Medical Sciences. The study population consisted of 296 students who were randomly selected from the target population. To collect data, two types of questionnaires were used, the Symptom Checklist-‎‎90-R (SCL-90-R) questionnaire, and the 32-point scale questionnaire of behavior associated with mobile phone use (Hooper and Zhou, 2007). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software, statistical analysis, frequency distribution, mean, one-way ANOVA, chi-square, and LSD (Least significance difference). Findings: The results showed that university students of Shahrekord, based on the six categories of mobile addiction behaviors, were mostly placed in habitual behaviors (21.49%), addiction (21.49%), and intentional (21.49%) categories. By reviewing mental health indicators, it was found that students were affected with depressive disorder (17.30%), obsessive compulsive disorder (14.20%), and interpersonal sensitivity (13.80%). The results showed that there was a significant inverse relationship between mental health and habitual behaviors (r = -0.417), dependence (r = -0.317), addiction (r = -‎‎0.330), and incontinence (r = -0.309) in using mobile phone (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Survey results showed that with increased and improved mental health, the student’s rate of cell phone addiction reduced. Keywords: Mental health, Cell phone, Addiction, Behavior, University

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/193 2014/08/17 - 14:14

Background: Tincture of opium (TOP) is currently used for maintenance therapy in treatment of opioids addiction. It contains ethanol. The present study was conducted to assess the increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in its users; a process which may interfere with breath-alcohol test performed by law enforcement or traffic police. Methods: A total of 143 individuals were selected randomly from drug users who had been referred to an addiction treatment clinic. They were asked to undergo breath-alcohol test 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after taking their daily dosage of TOP. The resulting figures were statistically analyzed by t-test and chi-square test using SPSS for Windows. Findings: The calculated blood ethanol concentration rose to 26.33 ± 14.34, 29.15 ± 6.70, and 33.03 ± 8.46 in persons taking 20, 25, and 30 ml TOP respectively, 5 min after their drug ingestion. The figures turned into zero after 15 min. Conclusion: Users of TOP should be reassured about its alcoholic content. Its alcoholic content cannot produce equilibrium disturbance or notable BAC. However, it is recommended that users of TOP are observed in addiction treatment centers for 15 min after taking their drug to reach a higher degree of certainty about any effect of alcoholic content of TOP. Keywords: Addiction, Treatment, Tincture of opium, Ethanol

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/195 2014/08/17 - 14:14

Background: Methamphetamine (MA) which is known as “shisheh” in Iran is a drug that widely is used in many parts of the world and it is near to a decade that is available for the most drug users and has a considerable prevalence of use. Due to high abuse prevalence and very new challenging phenomenon, it is very important that researchers and treatment providers become more familiar with different aspects of MA. Discussion: It has multiple neurobiological impacts on the nervous system, some of which are transitory and some longer lasting. MA activates the reward system of the brain and produces effects that are highly reinforcing, which can lead to abuse and dependence. Routes of administration that produce rapid onset of the drug’s effects (i.e., smoking and injection) are likely to lead to more rapid addiction and more medical and psychiatric effects. No effective pharmacotherapies have been developed for the treatment of MA dependence; although, this is an area of very active research. Several behavioral treatments have been shown to reduce MA use, but better treatments are needed. Conclusion: Harm reduction strategies for non-treatment seeking MA users are needed to reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus and other medical risks. The research agenda for MA is substantial, with development of effective pharmacotherapies as one of the most important priorities. Appropriate and effective response for prevention, treatment and harm reduction services due to increasing problems regarding MA in Iran and some other countries in the region. Keywords: Methamphetamine, Epidemiology, Side-effects, Treatment, Harm reduction, Iran

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/187 2014/08/17 - 14:14

Background: Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine medication which selectively affects GABAA receptors and treats insomnia. There are numerous reports of psychosis following the consumption of zolpidem all of which recovered after stopping the medication. Case Report: A 27 year old male law student, who was treated with 10 mg zolpidem due to insomnia, increased the dosage to 500 mg during 3 months. Not only was his insomnia remained untreated, but also he gradually became isolated, suspicious, and aggressive, and dropped out of university. He was then hospitalized in a psychiatric ward for 2 months, and was treated with antipsychotics and gradual discontinuation of zolpidem. With no improvement in psychosis and sleep improvement he was discharged. After two weeks he was hospitalized again and went under electroconvulsive therapy and antipsychotic therapy, and was discharged with relative improvement. Now, after three years, he is diagnosed with schizophrenia and with modest improvements he is under care and treatment. Conclusion: Zolpidem is a fairly useful medication for treating sleep problems, especially improving beginning of sleep. However, physicians and clinicians should consider the conditions, predispositions, and personal and family history of types of psychosis, alcohol and drug abuse in the comprehensive assessment and treatment plan for patients with insomnia. Keywords: Zolpidem, Permanent and temporary psychosis, Insomnia

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/194 2014/08/17 - 14:14

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http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/185 2014/06/12 - 14:55

Background: Consumption of chronic morphine induces neuro-inflammation and addictive seeking behavior. Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe), a well-known spice plant, has been used traditionally in the treatment of a wide variety of ailments. It has been shown that ginger has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and antinociceptive properties. However, its influences on morphine-induced addictive behaviors have not yet been clarified. Methods: For conditioning to the morphine, the male Wistar rats received morphine (12 mg/kg intraperitoneally or i.p.) for 6 consecutive days and treatment groups were given different doses of ginger (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg intragastrically or i.g.) 30 min before morphine injection. For investigating addictive seeking behavior, conditioned place preference test (CPP) was used. Findings: Our result demonstrated that injection of morphine for 6 days induces dependency to morphine and creates addictive seeking behavior and ginger (100 mg/kg) could decrease time spend in conditioning box (addictive seeking behavior). Conclusion: The data indicated that ginger extract has a potential anti-addictive property against chronic usage of morphine. Keywords: Ginger extract, Morphine, Conditioned place preference, Addictive seeking behavior, Rats

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/183 2014/06/04 - 22:47

Background: Prisoners, compared to the general population, are at greater risk of infection. Drug injection is the main route of HIV transmission, in particular in Iran. What would be of interest is to determine variables that govern drug injection among prisoners. However, one of the issues that challenge model building is incomplete national data sets. In this paper, we addressed the process of model development when missing data exist. Methods: Complete data on 2720 prisoners was available. A logistic regression model was fitted and served as gold standard. We then randomly omitted 20%, and 50% of data. Missing date were imputed 10 times, applying multiple imputation by chained equations (MICE). Rubin’s rule (RR) was applied to select candidate variables and to combine the results across imputed data sets. In S1, S2, and S3 methods, variables retained significant in one, five, and ten imputed data sets and were candidate for the multifactorial model. Two weighting approaches were also applied. Findings: Age of onset of drug use, recent use of drug before imprisonment, being single, and length of imprisonment were significantly associated with drug injection among prisoners. All variable selection schemes were able to detect significance of these variables. Conclusion: We have seen that the performances of easier variable selection methods were comparable with RR. This indicates that the screening step can be used to select candidate variables for the multifactorial model. Keywords: Missing data, Multiple imputation, Drug injection, Prison, Variable selection

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/180 2014/04/21 - 21:56

Background: Opioids have been shown to affect learning and memory processes. Different protocols of morphine withdrawal can substantially vary in their success to prevent opioid induced impairments of cognitive performance. In the present study, we report the effects of single and repetitive ultra-rapid detoxification (URD) on spatial learning and memory in morphine addicted rats. Methods: Morphine (10 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally (IP) injected in male rats once a day over one week and after which they were detoxified with naloxone administration under anesthesia. For the repetitive procedure, a second one week morphine treatment with a second subsequent detoxification was performed. Control groups received an equivalent volume of saline injections. Spatial learning and memory was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Findings: Both protocols of morphine administration resulted in a severe spatial memory impairment that could be significantly prevented by both single and repetitive URD. However, memory abilities in animals treated with repetitive URD were still significantly lower than in animals of the corresponding control group. Alterations in motor activity or sensory-motor coordination between morphine treated and control animals could be ruled out by comparing swimming speed and visible platform performances that were not different between groups. Thus, URD and, specifically single URD, can prevent the spatial memory impairments in addicted rats. Conclusion: As opioid addiction is an extending and serious concern in many societies, these findings may have clinical values and therapeutic implications for patients who experience multiple opioid relapses. Keywords: Opioids, Addiction, Detoxification, Spatial memory, Morris water maze (MWM)

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/181 2014/04/21 - 21:56

Background: Heroin is an extremely addictive narcotic drug derived from morphine. Its continued use requires increased amounts of the drug to achieve the same effect, resulting in tolerance and addiction. This study was done in order to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and forward head posture among heroin users during their withdrawal. Methods: This research was a cross-sectional study that was done on 90 heroin users (83 males, 7 females) aged between 20 to 40 years (32.5 ± 3.81) during their withdrawal in Shiraz, Iran. They were selected by simple randomized sampling. Data were collected by a form regarding age, sex, the duration of heroin use, and musculoskeletal pain. Pain was measured by VAS (visual analog scale) and forward head posture was evaluated by plumb line. Pearson correlation technique and chi-square were used for analyzing the data. Findings: The results revealed that the majority of heroin users suffered from musculoskeletal pain during their withdrawal. At the end of withdrawal 53.4% had severe pain, 38.8% had moderate pain, and 7.8% of them had mild pain. Pain in the lower extremities and low back was more common than the upper extremities. The intensity of pain before withdrawal was mild, during withdrawal was moderate, and at the end was sever, but there was no significant correlation between them. The results also showed 43.3% of subjects had normal posture and 56.7% had forward posture. Conclusion: According to the results, the intensity of pain increased during the withdrawal period; therefore, more attention must be paid to this complication in heroin users for better evaluation and a successful withdrawal. Keywords: Addiction, Heroin, Withdrawal, Musculoskeletal pain, Forward head posture

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/174 2014/04/16 - 20:58

Background: Identifying the status of substance misuse and its psychosocial correlates among residents of juvenile correctional centers, as a high risk group, could potentially illuminate the roadmap to prevention of drug use in this group. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 93 individuals aged 13 to 18 were enrolled. A self-administered questionnaire was completed and dropped in a sealed box. It consisted of 4 parts of Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale, NEO Personality Inventory, drug use questions, and demographic variables. All questionnaires were well adapted in the Persian language. MANOVA was used to compare the subscale scores between the drug users and nonusers. Findings: All respondents were male and 40% were illiterate. More than 40% had drug dependent fathers. Use of cigarette, opium, and alcohol in the previous 30 days was reported by 31.9, 52.2, and 15.9% of respondents, respectively. In this population, the score of 3 of the 5 personality factors (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, and openness) were higher than in the general population (P < 0.001). More than 88% of subjects had negative self-concept. Both the scores of personality and self-concept showed no significant difference based on the status of drug use. Conclusion: Prevalence of lifetime and last-month drug use was found to be high. Regarding the profiles of personality and self-concept, more comprehensive evidence-based interventions are needed for improvement of their mental health. Keywords: Adolescent, Questionnaires, Substance, Self-concept, Personality

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/175 2014/04/16 - 20:58

Background: Since 2000, Iran has been delivering training and treatment services, including methadone therapy, to HIV positive patients through triangular clinics. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of these activities at the HIV Triangulation Centre in the city of Kerman, Iran, through clients’ views. Methods: Participants were recruited using a convenience sample and assessed through in-depth interviews, and observations. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis, matrix based method. Findings: The results found problems in training and counseling which was described by the staff to be due to the effects of the economic difficulties of the clients, not being of the same sex as the consultant, and lack of utilization of a variety of training methods by the clients. Furthermore, the absorption of clients was perceived as being affected by the appearance of the center, gossip around the center, limited working hours, and interpersonal relations between clients and staff. The clients also criticized the building of the center as it failed to maintain anonymity of the patients. The need for supplementary services, such as dentistry, was perceived by many clients. Conclusion: The application of appropriate strategies such as providing adequate training and removing the obstacles of absorption should be taken into account to increase the utility and coverage of the triangular clinic. These interventions could be a range of activities, such as relocating the center to a more decent place and encouraging the staff to appear in a professional white coat to help gain the trust of clients. Keywords: HIV, Triangulation clinic, Counseling, Methadone therapy

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/176 2014/04/16 - 20:58

Background: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perfectionism and coping strategies in drug-dependent men. This study is a descriptive correlational study. Methods: The statistical population of this study consisted of all drug-dependent men (n = 6237) in years 2010-2011, who were admitted to all self-referral rehabs in Kerman. From this statistical population, 361 individuals were selected using randomized cluster sampling. The measurement tools applied in this study were positive and negative perfectionism questionnaires (Terry short et al., 1995) and coping responses (Blinger and Moose, 1981). Findings: The data was analyzed using statistical methods, Pearson Coefficient Correlation and multivariable regression inferential statistics. The results showed that there is a significant correlation between positive and negative perfectionism and problem- focused and emotion-focused coping strategies (P ≤ 0.01). Conclusion: The results of the current study show that positive and negative perfectionism predicts problem- focused and emotion-focused coping strategies for drug-dependent men. Keywords: Perfectionism, Coping strategies, Opium-dependent men

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/177 2014/04/16 - 20:58

Background: Enucleation is a topic discussed in psychiatry which is a self-injury matter. Enucleation is observed as psychotic disorder due to substance abuse. In people with mental disorders who also have substance use leading to hallucinations and delusions, unusual eye evacuation were reported. In most cases, enucleation was done using sharp tools. Case Report: This report describes a man suffering from psychosis after consuming hashish and has attempted to evacuate his eyes with his finger. Conclusion: Given the increasing prevalence of hashish use by young people, and false beliefs about the use of hashish in order to withdraw other substances, preventive methods and education for young and vulnerable people are suggested. Keywords: Eye enucleation, Substance use, Hashish

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/158 2014/03/22 - 20:35

Background: The rate of cardiovascular diseases in developing countries is approximately 60% and it is still has an increasing trend. The clinical effectiveness of aspirin in preventing cardiovascular events has been well proven. Although aspirin is an effective and inexpensive drug, its consumption is not equally beneficial for all patients. Many factors can be affective on the efficacy of antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin. Methods: This study was carried out on 260 patients who had stable angina pectoris and coronary artery disease was approved by coronary angiography. Based on opium addiction, the patients were divided into two groups. Opium addiction was diagnosed base on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM IV) criteria. The mid stream morning urinary sample were collected for measuring the urinary 11-dehydroxy thromboxane B2 level (UTXB2). Urinary level of UTXB2 was considered as an aspirin resistance index. Findings: The mean age of patients was 57.3 ± 8.9; and 44.6% of them were females. The aspirin resistance rate was 41.5%. Significant difference in aspirin resistance was observed between the opium addicts and non-addicts. (51.5% vs. 31.5%) (P = 0.001). The effects of confounding variables such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia were eliminated by regression logistic multivariable analysis. Conclusion: The prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with stable angina pectoris was 41.5%. The prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with stable angina pectoris who had opium addiction was significantly higher them non-addicts. Keywords: Opium addiction, Aspirin resistance, Stable angina pectoris, Coronary angiography

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/156 2014/01/20 - 06:22

Background: Tobacco is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality. Tobacco toll in India has one-fifth of all worldwide death attributed to tobacco. There are 700000 deaths per year due to smoking and 800000-900000 per year to all forms of tobacco use of exposure in India. The role of dentist in supporting their patients to quit smoking has been recognized. The present study was conducted to know the attitudes, practices and barriers in tobacco cessation among dentists of Udaipur city (Rajasthan, India). Methods: A pretested, close-ended, self-administered, coded questionnaire was distributed among all the 262 dental health practitioners and the teaching staff. Out of 262 questionnaires distributed among the dentist, 151 dentists filled out and returned the questionnaire. Findings: The majority of the dentists (98.7%) agreed that it was their responsibility to provide smoking cessation counseling. 54.3% of dentists agreed that such discussions were too time consuming. 37.1% thought they lacked knowledge regarding this subject. 35.8% feared to an extent about patient leaving their clinic if counseled much. Conclusion: In general, the dentists were in favorable attitude in tobacco cessation counseling for the patients; however, the lacks of time and knowledge and to an extent, a fear that the patients would leave their clinic, were the main identified barriers. Keywords: Dentists, Smoking Cessation, Attitudes, Barriers

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/157 2014/01/20 - 06:22

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http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/152 2013/11/22 - 23:14

Background: Withdrawal syndrome may influence patient's motivation for participation in addiction treatment programs. Management of the symptoms can improve the success rate of addiction treatment programs. In the present study, we have evaluated the efficiency of an herbal product as adjunct therapy for alleviation of withdrawal syndrome in opium abuse. Methods: In the present clinical trial, 81 patients were assigned into case and control groups. The control group was treated with methadone and placebo for 4 weeks. The case group was treated with methadone and powdered dried leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis for the same interval. Occurrence of withdrawal syndrome was compared between groups on days 3, 7, and 14 after beginning of the treatment, and the possible signs and symptoms of withdrawal syndrome were checked. The clinical opioid withdrawal scale (COWS) was used for evaluation of withdrawal syndrome in the patients. Findings: Patients in the case group experienced less severe withdrawal syndrome compared to those in the control group; chiefly bone pain, perspiration, and insomnia. Conclusion: The present study showed that rosemary can be used as an optional extra drug for treatment of withdrawal syndrome during treatment programs for opium addiction and possibly addiction to other opioids. Keywords: Withdrawal syndrome, Rosmarinus officinalis, Opium, Addiction

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/148 2013/11/06 - 19:45

Background: The prevalence of substance use among bodybuilding athletes has been poorly studied in Iran. This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of drug use, especially anabolic steroids, among bodybuilding athletes. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the first half of 2013 among body building athletes referring to gyms located in Kerman, Iran. Five gyms were selected randomly and 380 athletes were invited to complete a self-administered anonymous questionnaire, consecutively. The questionnaire included two parts; baseline characteristics and substance related questions. The prevalence of anabolic steroids was estimated based on three methods; self-report, projective question, and crosswise model. Findings: We enrolled 298 male athletes in the final analysis. Mean ± SD age of subjects was 25.9 ± 8.4. The most frequent recent (past 30 days) drug use was waterpipe smoking (45%). The second most frequently used drug was alcohol (26.5%, recent use). Based on self-reports, the prevalence of lifetime anabolic steroid use was calculated to be 24.5%. The corresponding figure based on crosswise method was obtained to be 56.8%. Participants believed that a median of 40% of athletes had used anabolic steroids in their lifetime. The prevalence of anabolic steroid was higher in single and less educated individuals (P < 0.05). The main reason for using anabolic steroids was to increase muscle size. Conclusion: The prevalence of drug use, especially tobacco, alcohol, and anabolic steroids, was high among bodybuilding athletes. We could not rely on self-reports to examine anabolic steroid use. Keywords: Substance abuse, Anabolic steroids, Athletes, Iran

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/149 2013/11/06 - 19:45

Background: Substance abuse is a social, and health problem in Middle Eastern countries such as Iran. One of its most devastating effects is domestic violence against children. This study examined the association between the history of parental substance abuse, and rate of child abuse in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods: This was a case-control study. The study population included all parents with high school children in Ahwaz within the academic year 2012-2013. The sample size was 384 people in two groups; with a history of substance abuse (case group) and no history of substance abuse (control group). Multi-stage cluster random sampling method was used through the Cochran formula. The data collection tools included a Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) (Bernstein, 1995), a demographic questionnaire, Duncan Socioeconomic Index (DSI), and a researcher-made questionnaire for the history of substance abuse. For data analysis, statistical indicators such as percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, and correlation and regression analysis were used. Findings: Data analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation among parents with a history of substance abuse and domestic violence toward children. Mean and standard deviation of the violence level in families with normal parents were 61.34 ± 16.88, and in families with a history of substance abuse were 98.99 ± 32.07. Therefore, the test results showed that there was a significant difference between normal families and families with history of substance abuse and violence toward children (P < 0.001, t = 8.60). Conclusion: Based on the findings, the history of domestic violence and parental substance abuse (physical and emotional abuse, emotional and physical neglect) had a significant positive correlation with their behavior toward their children. After matching the two groups we found that the most common types of violence against children by their parents were, respectively, emotional violence (r = 58%), physical neglect (r = 54%), emotional neglect (r = 46%), and then physical violence (r = 39%). Keywords: Domestic violence, Childhood trauma questionnaire, History of substance abuse, Parents, Aspects of domestic violence, Children

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/150 2013/11/06 - 19:45

Background: Ischemic stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Various studies on the etiology of this disease are in progress. Some studies have suggested that opium abuse may is associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. The present study aimed to analyze the frequency of opium addiction and to compare cerebrovascular ultrasound patients’ changes to non-addicts. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 97 patients with ischemic stroke. The diagnosis was confirmed by imaging and paraclinical studies. All the patients underwent cerebrovascular ultrasound in the first 4 days of symptoms onset. A questionnaire containing demographic data, opium use information [based on the 4th Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria], and vascular ultrasound findings were completed for each patient and the results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Findings: In this study 38 patients (39.18%) were addicted to opium and the remaining were non-addicts. Among the addicted patients, 31 patients were male and 7 patients were female, while 26 and 33 patients of non-addicts were male and female, respectively (P < 0.01). Among the risk factors for stroke, smoking was higher in the addicts than non-addicts (P = 0.04). Frequency of vascular stenosis and stenosis location did not show a statistical significant difference between the addicted and non-addicted patients. Conclusion: More than one-third of the patients with stroke were addicted to opium which was higher than general population; although the pattern of stenosis in these patients was similar to the non-addicts. Keywords: Opium, Transcranial Doppler ultrasound, Stroke

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/146 2013/10/21 - 05:30

Background: Considering the need for a better understanding of smoking among the student population and its impact on their mental health and their success, this study was conducted in Kerman Medical Sciences University. Methods: This cross-sectional study on 772 students, chosen by random sampling, was conducted in 2007. Subjects were assessed with 28-questionquestionnaires that included demographic questions, questions about smoking, fagerstrom nicotine dependence test, and a general health questionnaire (GHQ). Findings: The prevalence of smoking was 15. 8%. Records of failing in high school and conditional failures of a university semester in smokers were significantly higher than non-smokers. The average scores of the mental health questionnaires showed a significant difference between smokers and non-smokers (P < 0.001). Based on the results, 2.35% of smokers and 9.5% of non-smokers had mental illnesses. Conclusion: Since cigarette dependence in teens and youth is significantly high and failures in education and mental health disorders are more common among them, it is necessary that the authorities pay more attention to the social skill training and timely diagnosis of mental disorders. Keywords: Frequency, Cigarettes, Public health, Students, Kerman

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/145 2013/10/04 - 19:14

Background: Due to this belief that opium may have beneficial effects on diabetes or cardiovascular risk factors, the present study aimed to assess the potential and possible effects of opium consumption on diabetes control and some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients. Methods: This study enrolled 374 diabetic subjects from diabetes care centers in Kerman, Iran including opium user group (n = 179) and a non opium user group (n = 195). The data were collected through a questionnaire completed by interviewing, physical examination and laboratory assessment. Findings: Opium did not show any statistically significant effect on blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), fasting blood sugar (FBS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and diastolic blood pressure. However, systolic blood pressure and prevalence of high systolic blood pressure were significantly higher in opium user group (P < 0.050). In addition, lower serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and frequency of lower HDL was significantly higher in opium user group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: According to this study, opium does not seem to have beneficial effects on diabetes control or cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, it would not be advisable to consume opium as an anti-diabetes or cardioprotective agent. Keywords: Opium, Diabetes mellitus, Cardiovascular risk factor, Dyslipidemia, Hypertension

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/144 2013/09/18 - 14:51

Background: Child abuse is one of the vulnerabilities that threaten child's physical and mental health in childhood and is associated with serious short-term and long-term complications. The present study aimed to review the association of parental addiction with types of child abuse in high-school students of Kerman, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 360 students were recruited and studied through cluster sampling method. Abuse and the related factors were assessed using a standard self-report 48-item questionnaire. Findings: Average child abuse among the study subjects was 27.6%. Physical behavior, negligence, and emotional abuse were seen in 9.7%, 23.6%, and 17.9% of the subjects, respectively. Parental addiction had a significant association (P = 0.001) with incidence of all the child abuse domains. Conclusion: Special consideration to families of addicted parents and early identification of child abuse cases may prevent the adverse side effects. Keywords: Child abuse, Physical abuse, Emotional abuse, Neglect, Parents, Addiction

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/143 2013/09/08 - 13:04

Background: Addiction has a long history in Iran and it is one of the social problems that create psychological and social conflicts for addicts and their families. Addiction just like other social deviations affects young who are the most valuable assets of a nation. Recognition of socio-economic factors responsible for addiction can help planning and management of programs to fight against addiction. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire on 261 spouses of addicts referring to the detoxification centers of Yazd, Iran who were selected randomly. Their perspectives regarding factors thought to be effective in addiction were examined. Statistical tests included chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Findings: Economic problems, divorce, marital problems, lack of familial supervision, unemployment, psychological and physical problems had a statistically significant relationship with the income of the family (P < 0.05), such that with an increase in income of the family these factors played a lesser significant role in addiction. Conclusion: Control of surrounding factors and increase in self-esteem are two important factors that can help effectively control addiction in the young population. After addiction, though environmental and surrounding factors play a role in preventing return to addiction, their role is reduced. Keywords: Addiction, Socio-economic factors, Spouse, Iran

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/134 2013/08/27 - 19:20

Background: There are numerous studies and documents regarding the prevalence of smoking in Iran. Thus, to provide suitable information for decision-making and policy-making in this regard, the prevalence of smoking in Iran was evaluated using the meta-analysis of the results of the existing researches. Methods: Data were collected by searching the keywords cigarette, smoking, tobacco, and nicotine in English databases, searching their Persian equivalents in Persian Databases, and in non-electronic resources. After studying the titles and texts of collected articles, the repeated and irrelevant cases were excluded. Cases which had the inclusion criteria of this meta-analysis were entered into the Stata software. According to heterogeneity results, random effect model was used to estimate the prevalence of smoking. Findings: In initial studies and non-communicable surveillance system, 274992 Iranian adults were studied regarding daily smoking. Among initial studies, smoking prevalence varied from 12.3% to 38.5% in men, and from 0.6% to 9.8% in women. Based on the meta-analysis of initial studies and risk factors of non-communicable disease surveillance system, smoking prevalence was estimated 21.7% and 19.8% in men and 3.6% and 0.94% in women, respectively. Moreover, smoking prevalence in all subjects was estimated 13.9% according to the meta-analysis of the initial study. Conclusion: The findings of this meta-analysis revealed that a significant part of the general population over 15 years of age, and one fifth of Iranian male adults smoke. Thus, concerning causal relationship confirmed between smoking and most diseases, if suitable guidelines are not employed the diseases related to this factor will increase in Iran. Keywords: Cigarette, Prevalence, Iran, Structured review, Meta-analysis

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/135 2013/08/27 - 19:20

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of mortality in the world and is normally argued as the third cause of all mortalities. Opium and alcohol every day consumption can cause people to have many health problems. The present study aimed to assess the effect of ethanol and opium consumption on lipid profiles and atherosclerosis in aorta. Methods: Twenty four male golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into four treatment groups (n = 6): Control, addicted (40 mg/kg), alcohol (6.0 g/kg) and combination of opium and alcohol. All of the hamsters were scarified and their livers were removed immediately and fixed in formalin solution 10%. The plasma levels of the lipid profiles were measured enzymatically. Aorta sections were examined by a pathologist. Findings: The amount of the total cholesterol significantly increased in ethanol (P < 0.05) and combination (P < 0.05) groups, while it had a non-significant decrease in opium group. Serum triglyceride significantly increased in ethanol (P < 0.05) and combination (P < 0.001) groups, as well as this parameter increased in opium group but it was not significant. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) markedly increased in the combination group (P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed in serum LDL-C among other treatment groups. Levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol had a significant rise only in ethanol group. Change in aorta histology was not significant. Conclusion: The results showed that consumption of opium plus alcohol has harmful effects on lipid profile; however, it had no effect on aorta histology that was maybe due to the short period of the treatment. Keywords: Opium, Ethanol, Aorta, Atherosclerosis

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/138 2013/08/27 - 19:20

Background: Inattention to symptoms of mental disorders and substance abuse in patients with HIV/AIDS and other at-risk groups, may lead to irreversible damages. The purpose of this study was to compare the psychopathological dimensions in substance abusers with and without HIV/AIDS and healthy matched groups. Methods: In a cross-sectional and analytical study, selected samples (by available, consecutive, and objective methods) were 43 HIV-positive substance abusers, 49 HIV negative substance abusers under methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) ‌in the counseling clinic of Behavioral Diseases and Addiction Abandonment, and 45 ordinary individuals. All of them were evaluated by matched confounding variables via Symptom Checklist-90-Revised‌ (SCL-90-R). Findings: Results indicated a significant difference between these groups in the Global Severity Index (GSI), Positive Symptom Distress Index (PSDI), ‌and Positive Symptom Total (PST) (P < 0.001). Two by two the comparison of the three groups from psychopathological dimensions revealed that substance abusers with HIV/AIDS persistently suffer more mental problems in all dimensions compared with healthy individuals (P < 0.05). In addition, in comparison with HIV negative substance abusers, they also suffer more mental problems in other dimensions, including somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, phobia, and psychoticism (P < 0.05). Yet, the difference in paranoid ideation, hostility, and obsessive-compulsive cases was insignificant. Two by two, the comparison between healthy individuals and substance abusers without HIV/AIDS showed higher levels of depression and psychoticism in substance abusers (P < 0.05), but no difference in other dimensions. Conclusion: Comorbidity of substance abuse and HIV diagnosis intensify mental disorder symptoms. Moreover, lack of prevention and implementation of appropriate psychological and psychiatric interventions after substance abuse and HIV lead to extended establishment of mental disorder symptoms. Keywords: Substance abuse, HIV/AIDS, Psychopathology, SCL-90-R

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/140 2013/08/27 - 19:20

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http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/133 2013/06/19 - 13:38

Background: Today, due to developing communicative technologies, computer games and other audio-visual media as social phenomena, are very attractive and have a great effect on children and adolescents. The increasing popularity of these games among children and adolescents results in the public uncertainties about plausible harmful effects of these games. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between computer games and behavioral problems on male guidance school students.Methods: This was a descriptive-correlative study on 384 randomly chosen male guidance school students. They were asked to answer the researcher's questionnaire about computer games and Achenbach’s Youth Self-Report (YSR).Findings: The Results of this study indicated that there was about 95% direct significant correlation between the amount of playing games among adolescents and anxiety/depression, withdrawn/depression, rule-breaking behaviors, aggression, and social problems. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the amount of computer game usage and physical complaints, thinking problems, and attention problems. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the students’ place of living and their parents’ job, and using computer games.Conclusion: Computer games lead to anxiety, depression, withdrawal, rule-breaking behavior, aggression, and social problems in adolescents.Keywords: Computer games, Social behavior, Adolescents

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/131 2013/06/08 - 19:50

Background: Cigarette smoking is a significant risk factor for periodontal disease. It also causes pigmentation of oral mucosa. The present study was aimed to assess the effects of smoking on lip and gingival pigmentation and periodontal status and the relationship between pigmentation and periodontal parameters. Methods: A total of 109 smokers and an equal number of non-smoker controls (mean age: 35.9 years, range: 35-44 years) comprised the study sample. All the participants were assessed for pigmentation on lip and gingiva and overall periodontal status (gingival bleeding, probing depth, and loss of attachment at six points in each tooth). Findings: All the smokers in this study had lip and gingival pigmentation. Two-third of non-smokers had no pigmentation. The mean scores of lip and gingival pigmentation in smokers were seven and four times higher than those of non-smokers, respectively. Pigmentation and periodontal parameters (except gingival bleeding) were found to be positively related with exposure to smoking exposure. Probing depth and loss of attachment were the highest in subjects with pigmented lips and grade three pigmented gingiva. Conclusion: Smoking influenced lip and gingival pigmentation and periodontium. All individuals with lip pigmentation presented some form of gingival pigmentation. Probing depth and loss of attachment were more severe in subjects with lip and gingival pigmentation. Keywords: Oral mucosa, Pigmentation, Smoking, Periodontium

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/132 2013/06/08 - 19:50

Background: In order to assess the status of drug abuse and likely addiction among university students, a descriptive study was designed. Methods: 1200 subjects among the students of three universities in Zanjan were selected by stratified random sampling and their demographic information and history of substance abuse including hookah, cigarette, codeine, ibuprofen, alcohol, diazepam, tramadol, cannabis, opium, grass, heroin, crack, X pill, morphine, marijuana, Librium, and LSD were assessed by a standard questionnaire and were analyzed in 2010. Findings: The mean age of students was 21.3 ± 2.3 years (ranged 18-38 years) and the mean age of drug abuse onset was 19.45 years old. 48.2% of male students and 23.4% of female had a history of drug abuse at least once. 6.3% of males and 1.2% of female subjects were addicted constantly which the difference was statically significant (P < 0.001). 32.7% were motivated by pain and 13.3% seeking for pleasure. Hookah with 18% and LSD with 1% had the lowest and highest percentage of drug use, respectively. Conclusion: Substance abuse was higher in males than females. Drug abuse was higher among older students with higher degree, and with psychological disorder history. It seems that we require goal directed programs to control and reduce the prevalence of substance abuse, raise students’ awareness and increase students’ information about substance disadvantages especially in their entrance. Keyword: Substance abuse, Addiction, University students

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/130 2013/05/12 - 19:50

Background: Fetishism is a type of paraphilia. The focus of sexual arousal in fetishism is oriented towards inanimate objects. Sexual arousal and craving are some of the reasons the youth resort to crystal (glass). Drug abuse may cause disorders in sexual function. Case Report: The patient was a 41 years old man. He married in age 22 years and experienced frequent intercourses with his wife from which he gained pleasure and it was his preferable method. Her wife left ten years ago. The patient started crystal administration through insufflations since seven months ago. Simultaneous with crystal abuse, wearing women’s underwear was the only medium through which the patient reached sexual orgasm. Discussion: A lot of psychological symptoms related to new substances (for example glass) are new to psychiatrists treating dependency in medical clinics. Fetishism may coexist with addiction as comorbidity. Another point to be mentioned is that, symptoms of fetishism increased and decreased with more and less glass administration, indicating that symptoms of paraphilia emerge as a result of glass use. In addition, prior to glass use, the patient maintained normal sexual tendencies, had experienced sexual intercourse and did not suffer from any type of paraphilia. Keywords: Paraphilia, Methamphetamine, Fetishism

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/129 2013/05/04 - 09:43

Background: Despite some evidences about protective or triggering role of opium use in patients with coronary artery disease, the exact role of opium is still under question. The current study aimed to address the relation of opium dependence on the severity and extension of myocardial infarction (MI) and its related mortality. Methods: The study population consisted of 460 consecutive patients (239 opium addicts and 221 non-addicts) with first acute MI. Study information was extracted from hospital recorded files as well as face to face interview. Findings: In-hospital mortality in opium addicted patients was numerically lower than another group (5.4% versus 8.2%), but this difference was not statistically significant. Regarding types of MI, anterior wall MI was higher in non-addicted patients than addicts (36.4% versus 26.4%). Among patients with anterior wall MI, early mortality was significantly higher in non-addicted compared to addicted subjects (20.0% versus 7.9% P = 0.043). The main associated factors of in-hospital mortality due to acute MI in addicts were advanced age and family history of coronary artery disease and in non-addicts were advanced age and hypertension. Conclusion: In current study total in-hospital mortality was not different between opium addicted and non-addicted groups but opium may reduce the occurrence of anterior wall MI and its related early mortality. Keywords: Opium, Myocardial infarction, Mortality

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/128 2013/05/01 - 16:44

Background: The direct effect of some opioids on immune cells has been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to assess the apoptotic effect of opium on Jurkat T lymphocyte cells. Methods: Different concentrations of opium (2.86 × 10-3 to 2.86 × 10-11 g/ml) were added to 24-well plates containing 5 × 105 Jurkat cells. Apoptotic events were assessed after 6, 24, and 72 hours by flow-cytometric detection of surface phosphatidylserine. Findings: Significant differences in apoptosis of Jurkat cells were seen at 24 and 72 hours in different concentrations of opium (P < 0.05). After 72 hours, significant increase in necrosis of Jurkat cells was seen in opium concentration of 2.85 × 10-3 g/ml compared to cells without opium (control) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These results showed that opium directly increases apoptosis and necrosis of T lymphocytes. This effect may play a role in immune dysfunction in opium addicts.Keywords: Opium, Apoptosis, Necrosis, Jurkat cells

http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir/index.php/ahj/article/view/114 2013/04/24 - 15:16