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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia Series Botanica

We used chromosome data to verify the taxonomic affiliation of specimens previously recognized as Brachyactis ciliata. All analyzed plants were diploids based on x = 7 (2n = 2x = 14), the basic number characteristic for Symphyotrichum ciliatum, allowing the examined species to be shifted from the genus Brachyactis to the genus Symphyotrichum sect. Conyzopsis. The chromosome number (2n = 2x = 14) for specimens of S. ciliatum from Poland is reported for the first time.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 117-119
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-011-0016-1
  • Authors
    • Marta Tucharz, Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Grodzka 52, 31-044 Cracow, Poland
    • Agnieszka Nobis, Department of Plant Taxonomy and Phytogeography, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, 31-501 Cracow, Poland
    • Marcin Nobis, Department of Plant Taxonomy and Phytogeography, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, 31-501 Cracow, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/n51l255957062440/ 2011/08/08 - 12:15

Intraspecific changes in genome size and chromosome number lead to divergence and species evolution. Heavy metals disturb the cell cycle and cause mutations. Areas contaminated by heavy metals (metalliferous sites) are places where microevolutionary processes accelerate; very often only a few generations are enough for a new genotype to arise. This study, which continues our long-term research on Viola tricolor (Violaceae), a species occurring on both metalliferous (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu) and non-metalliferous soils in Western and Central Europe, is aimed at determining the influence of environments polluted with heavy metals on genome size and karyological variability. The genome size of V. tricolor ranged from 3.801 to 4.203 pg, but the differences between metallicolous and non-metallicolous populations were not statistically significant. Altered chromosome numbers were significantly more frequent in material from the polluted sites than from the non-polluted sites (43% versus 28%). Besides the standard chromosome number (2n = 26), aneuploid cells with lower (2n = 18-25) or higher (2n = 27, 28) chromosome numbers were found in plants from both types of site, but polyploid (2n = 42) cells were observed only in plants from the metalliferous locality. The lack of correlation between chromosome variability in root meristematic cells and genome size estimated from peduncle cells can be attributed to elimination of somatic mutations in generative meristem, producing chromosome-stable non-meristematic tissues in the peduncle.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 7-15
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-011-0001-8
  • Authors
    • Aneta Słomka, Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, 52 Grodzka St., 31-044 Cracow, Poland
    • Dorota Siwińska, Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, University of Silesia, 26/28 Jagiellońska St., 40-032 Katowice, Poland
    • Elżbieta Wolny, Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, University of Silesia, 26/28 Jagiellońska St., 40-032 Katowice, Poland
    • Kristin Kellner, Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, 52 Grodzka St., 31-044 Cracow, Poland
    • Elżbieta Kuta, Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, 52 Grodzka St., 31-044 Cracow, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/63k8802r32425784/ 2011/08/08 - 12:15

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Dar) leaves exposed to UV-B irradiation at a biologically effective dose of 9.5 kJ m-2 d-1 showed decreased chlorophyll fluorescence parameter values versus the control; in peppermint (Mentha piperita L. cv. Asia) leaves those values were almost unchanged after treatment. Fv/Fo and Rfd were reduced more than other values, indicating inhibition of the oxygen-evolving complex and cooperation between the light and dark photosynthesis reactions as the primary targets of UV-B. The photosynthetic electron transport rate showed less change directly after irradiation, but after 24 h of recovery it was reduced to 50% of the control. Generally, photosystem II of peppermint leaves appeared more tolerant to the applied UV-B radiation than in cucumber leaves.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 16-19
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-011-0002-7
  • Authors
    • Elżbieta Skórska, Department of Physics and Agrophysics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Papieża Pawła VI 3, 71-459 Szczecin, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/d29m77456u216173/ 2011/08/08 - 12:15

Poor seed set is a limiting factor in alfalfa breeding, as it slows the selection response. One strategy used to overcome this problem is to search for mutations of inflorescence morphology. Long-peduncle (lp), branched-raceme (br) and top-flowering (tf) inflorescence mutations increase the number of flowers per inflorescence, but they do not improve seed set per flower. Here we assessed pollen tube growth in styles of those inflorescence mutants and we observed embryo and endosperm development in seeds 1 to 16 days after pollination (DAP). The number of pollen tubes penetrating the style and the ovary was similar in all tested mutants and in the reference cultivar Radius. At 2 DAP, fertilized ovules were 2.7-3.9 times less numerous in certain inflorescence mutants than in the short-raceme cv. Radius. Ovule degeneration progressed at 2-4 DAP in all analyzed plants. Most ovules were not properly developed in the control cultivar (62%), nor in the forms with mutated inflorescence morphology (69-86%). The number of seeds per pod was lowest in the tf form despite its having the highest number of ovules per ovary. It appears that the number of ovules per pistil is not a crucial factor in seed set in alfalfa when fertilization efficiency is very low. Both poor fertilization and gradual ovule degeneration were factors causing poor seed set in the investigated alfalfa genotypes.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 96-101
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-011-0013-4
  • Authors
    • Rafał Mól, Department of General Botany, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań, Poland
    • Dorota Weigt, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 71 C, 61-625 Poznań, Poland
    • Zbigniew Broda, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 71 C, 61-625 Poznań, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/d28457tp118t06kh/ 2011/08/08 - 12:15

Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important foliar diseases of cereals. Infection by this pathogen on triticale has intensified in Poland in the last few years. In this study we examined resistance to powdery mildew in triticale hybrids possessing resistance genes Pm4b and Pm6 introduced from common wheat. The materials tested were hybrids derived from triticale crosses with common wheat cultivars carrying the desired resistance genes. The presence of the transferred genes was reflected in increased field resistance and shown by the use of molecular markers. The paper discusses the potential introduction of the genes to improve powdery mildew resistance.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 56-61
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-011-0008-1
  • Authors
    • Krzysztof Kowalczyk, Institute of Plant Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
    • Daniela Gruszecka, Institute of Plant Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
    • Michał Nowak, Institute of Plant Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
    • Justyna Leśniowska-Nowak, Institute of Plant Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublin, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/v8477628246x7521/ 2011/08/08 - 12:15

Chromosome numbers of 46 Hieracium L. and Pilosella Vaill. taxa from Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Slovakia are presented. Chromosomes numbers are given for the first time for Hieracium amphigenum Briq. 2n = 3× = 27, H. bohatschyanum Zahn 2n = 4× = 36, H. borbasii R. Uechtr. 2n = 4× = 36, H. cernuum Friv. 2n = 2x = 18, H. hazslinszkyi Pax 2n = 3× = 27, H. mirekii Szeląg 2n = 4× = 36, H. polyphyllobasis (Nyár. & Zahn) Szeląg 2n = 3× = 27, H. porphyriticum A. Kern. 2n = 4× = 36, H. racemosum Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd. subsp. racemosum 2n = 3× = 27, H. scardicum Borm. & Zahn 2n = 4× = 36, H. sparsum subsp. ipekanum Rech. fil. & Zahn 2n = 4× = 36, H. sparsum subsp. peristeriense Behr & Zahn, H. sparsum subsp. squarrosobracchiatum Behr & al. 2n = 3× = 27, H. tomosense Simk. 2n = 4× = 36, H. tubulare Nyár. 2n = 4× = 36, H. werneri Szeląg 2n = 3× = 27 and Pilosella fusca subsp. subpedunculata (Zahn) Szeląg, as well as five species of Hieracium sect. Cernua R. Uechtr. not described to date and a hybrid between H. bifidum s. lat. and H. pojoritense Woł.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 102-110
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-011-0014-3
  • Authors
    • Tomasz Ilnicki, Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Grodzka 52, 31-044 Cracow, Poland
    • Zbigniew Szeląg, Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 31, 31-501 Cracow, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/4m7864038738l626/ 2011/08/08 - 12:15

This communication reports detection of somaclonal variation among tissue culture-raised plants of Amorphophallus rivieri Durieu, an economically important crop in China, with high content of glucomannan in its corms. A population of regenerated plants was obtained from a single donor plant of A. rivieri via corm organogenesis, and 28 plants were randomly selected as a representative sample and subjected to analysis of somaclonal variation using inter-simple sequence repeat (Issr) markers. of the 26 ISSR primers screened, 13 gave distinct and reproducible band patterns, yielding 131 bands with an average of 10.1 bands per primer. Ten primers were polymorphic and generated 16 polymorphic bands with 12.2% mean polymorphism. Based on the ISSR data from the regenerated plants and the donor plant, Jaccard's similarity coefficients were calculated; they ranged from 0.961 to 1.000 with a mean of 0.982. A dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (Upgma); it showed that a majority of regenerated plants (including the donor plant) clustered closely, with a mean similarity coefficient of 0.987. Low somaclonal variation observed in the regenerated plants indicates that rapid propagation of A. rivieri via corm organogenesis is a practicable method with a low risk of genetic instability.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 120-124
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-011-0017-0
  • Authors
    • Jian-Bin Hu, College of Horticulture, Henan Agricultural University, 95 Wenhua Road, Zhengzhou 450002, P.R. China
    • Qiong Li, College of Horticulture, Henan Agricultural University, 95 Wenhua Road, Zhengzhou 450002, P.R. China
    • Jing Li, College of Horticulture, Henan Agricultural University, 95 Wenhua Road, Zhengzhou 450002, P.R. China

http://versita.metapress.com/content/u736784547124337/ 2011/08/08 - 12:15

We examined whether allelochemical stress leads to increased lipoxygenase activity in roots of sweet maize (Zea mays L. ssp. saccharata), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and radish (Raphanus sativum L. var. radicula). The lipoxygenase activity of soluble and membrane-bound fractions was assessed in roots after exposure to ferulic and P-coumaric acids. Lipid peroxidation and membrane injury were determined as indicators of stress. Increased lipoxygenase activity of both studied fractions was followed by lipid peroxidation and plasma membrane injury. The results suggest the key role of lipoxygenase in plasma membrane injury during allelochemical stress caused by administration of hydroxycinnamic acids.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 32-37
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-011-0005-4
  • Authors
    • Joanna Gmerek, Department of Plant Physiology, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wołynska 35, 60-637 Poznan, Poland
    • Barbara Politycka, Department of Plant Physiology, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wołynska 35, 60-637 Poznan, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/385375t7267r5343/ 2011/08/08 - 12:15

Secretory ducts and cavities of roots and rhizomes are typical features of the Cardueae tribe in the Asteraceae family. We used light microscopy to analyze the anatomy of the subterranean organs of 21 species of 13 genera of the Cardueae, with particular attention to the secretory system, interpreted in taxonomic terms. The anatomy of secretory ducts varied greatly. A new measurement quotient, C1 [length of epithelial cells (longitudinal section)] and C2 [length of adjacent cells (longitudinal section)] was established. Different types of ducts are described based on type of development and the size ratios among epithelial cells. Detailed anatomical descriptions of the ducts are given, together with their occurrence in particular taxa. The simultaneous presence of various secretory ducts within a single species and their spatial position relative to other prominent anatomical features provide valuable characters for discriminating the studied Cardueae species. These analyses are of particular interest for identification of herbal drugs as, besides chemical analytical techniques such as chromatographic fingerprinting, light microscopy is a common method for purity controls and thus required in official pharmacopeias.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 62-72
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-011-0009-0
  • Authors
    • Elisabeth Fritz, Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    • Johannes Saukel, Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria

http://versita.metapress.com/content/t6442657271278h8/ 2011/08/08 - 12:15

We determined the content of biologically active compounds in the bark of seven Rhamnus L. and two Frangula Mill. species growing in Croatia. All taxa tested had high content of total polyphenols (from 2.68% in R. orbiculata Bornm. to 8.50% in R. pumila Turra), moderate content of glucofrangulins (from 0.22% in R. pumila to 9.26% in R. fallax Boiss.), nontannic polyphenols (from 0.73% in R. orbiculata to 5.92% in F. alnus Mill.) and tannins (from 1.10% in R. saxatilis Jacq. to 4.92% in R. alaternus L.), and low content of phenolic acids (from 0.44% in R. orbiculata to 1.81% in R. intermedia Steud. & Hochst.) and flavonoids (from 0.02% in F. alnus to 1.44% in R. pumila). By ANOVA, variability was highest for glucofrangulin content, less for flavonoids, phenolic acids and nontannic polyphenols, and least for total polyphenols and tannins.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 108-113
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0032-6
  • Authors
    • Željan Maleš, Department of Pharmaceutical Botany and Fran Kušan Pharmaceutical Botanical Garden, University of Zagreb, Schrottova 39, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
    • Dario Kremer, Department of Pharmaceutical Botany and Fran Kušan Pharmaceutical Botanical Garden, University of Zagreb, Schrottova 39, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
    • Zita Gašpar Randić, JADRAN Galenic Laboratory Ltd., Pulac bb, HR-51000 Rijeka, Croatia
    • Marko Randić, Priroda Public Institution, Grivica 4, HR-51000 Rijeka, Croatia
    • Kroata Hazler Pilepić, Department of Pharmaceutical Botany and Fran Kušan Pharmaceutical Botanical Garden, University of Zagreb, Schrottova 39, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
    • Mirza Bojić, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Zagreb, A. Kovačića 1, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia

http://versita.metapress.com/content/tk5v2675016565lq/ 2011/02/11 - 21:39

One of the most important technical challenges in cell biology is visualization of the actin cytoskeleton. The widely used GFP-FABD2 fusion protein is a helpful tool for investigating actin architecture in living plants. Here we report our attempt to visualize F-actin in mature leaves of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. With a confocal microscope we observed loss of GFP fluorescence in mature Arabidopsis leaves between 19 and 21 days of development. As this pattern was characteristic of all investigated plants and dependent on the age of the plants, we performed precise expression studies at the mRNA (semiquantitative PCR) and protein (Western blot) levels. Our results clearly show a sudden decrease of GFP-FABD2 expression in Arabidopsis leaves after the third week of growth. This means that transgenic Arabidopsis bearing the GFP-FABD2 construct is not a good model system for visualization of the actin cytoskeleton in leaves of mature plants.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 103-107
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0031-7
  • Authors
    • Justyna Labuz, Department of Plant Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
    • Weronika Krzeszowiec, Department of Plant Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
    • Halina Gabrys, Department of Plant Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Cracow, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/j712297063016275/ 2011/02/11 - 21:39

Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation negatively affects plant cells, causing reactive oxygen species (ROS) to be generated. To study the effects of increased UV-B exposure on antioxidant processes, we exposed germination-stage cucumber seedlings to increased ultraviolet radiation and analyzed hydrogen peroxide content and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and syringaldazine peroxidase (SPX). Enzymatic antioxidant system activity generally increased after UV-B supplementation. Activation of CAT, GPX and SPX in cucumber cotyledons correlated positively with increases in SOD activity and hydrogen peroxide content. The results indicate that ROS accumulated despite higher engagement of the enzymatic antioxidant system, and that elevated UV-B radiation triggered oxidative stress in the cucumber cotyledons.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 97-102
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0030-8
  • Authors
    • Magdalena Rybus-Zając, Department of Plant Physiology, University of Life Sciences in Poznań, Wołyńska 35, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
    • Jan Kubiś, Department of Plant Physiology, University of Life Sciences in Poznań, Wołyńska 35, 60-637 Poznań, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/2vjr1xl14u78q54t/ 2011/02/11 - 21:39

The influence of initial medium pH on long-term axillary shoot proliferation was tested in Anderson's media supplemented with 0.5 mg.l-1 zeatin with initial pH adjusted to 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5 and 6.0 before autoclaving, with the aim of increasing shoot proliferation in Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. cv. Koralle and Red Pearl. Shoot proliferation using in-vitro-derived single-node segments was markedly influenced by the cultivar and medium pH. Shoot proliferation was significantly higher in cv. Koralle (6.92 shoots/explant) than in cv. Red Pearl (5.61 shoots/explant) at different culture medium pH. The study confirmed the importance of properly adjusted initial culture medium pH for effective shoot proliferation. For cv. Koralle, medium pH 5.5 was the most favorable for shoot proliferation. For cv. Red Pearl, the number of shoots formed was highest at pH 4.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 92-96
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0029-1
  • Authors
    • Mária Gabriela Ostrolucká, Institute of Plant Genetics, Biotechnology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Akademická 2, 950 07 Nitra, Slovak Republic
    • Alena Gajdošová, Institute of Plant Genetics, Biotechnology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Akademická 2, 950 07 Nitra, Slovak Republic
    • Emília Ondrušková, Institute of Forest Ecology, Nitra Branch (Woody Plant Biology), Slovak Academy of Sciences, Akademická 2, 950 07 Nitra, Slovak Republic
    • Miroslava Latečková, Institute of Plant Genetics, Biotechnology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Akademická 2, 950 07 Nitra, Slovak Republic
    • Gabriela Libiaková, Institute of Plant Genetics, Biotechnology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Akademická 2, 950 07 Nitra, Slovak Republic

http://versita.metapress.com/content/951202k4135m1g66/ 2011/02/11 - 21:39

At a molecular level, the length of the vernalization period of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is determined mainly by three loci: VRN-1, VRN-2 and VRN-3. In hexaploid wheat, the Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1 genes are dominant for spring growth habit and epistatic to the alleles for winter growth habit. We used DNA markers to determine the VRN-1 genotypes of 43 common wheat cultivars from the Polish register. All of the 30 examined winter wheat cultivars carried the recessive vrn-A1 allele, and all of the 13 analyzed spring cultivars carried the dominant Vrn-A1a allele. Moreover, 13 winter and 11 spring cultivars carried the dominant Vrn-B1 allele. These results confirmed that the hexaploid wheat growth habit is determined mainly by the VRN-A1 locus.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 86-91
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0028-2
  • Authors
    • Michał Nowak, Institute of Plant Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
    • Krzysztof Kowalczyk, Institute of Plant Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublin, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/q8r55r352hq80111/ 2011/02/11 - 21:39

The paper reports karyomorphometric features and somatic chromosome numbers for seven Trifolium L. taxa. Three basic chromosome numbers are identified (x=5, 7, 8). Trifolium speciosum Willd. and Trifolium physodes Stev. ex Bieb. var. physodes have somatic chromosome number 2n=16; Trifolium campestre Schreb., Trifolium pratense L. var. americanum Harz and Trifolium sylvaticum Gerard ex Lois. have 2n=14; Trifolium bocconei Savi has 2n=10; and Trifolium repens L. var. repens is tetraploid 2n=32. All chromosomes have the centromeres at the median point (M) or median region (m) except for one chromosome of Trifolium sylvaticum Gerard ex Lois, which is submetacentric (sm). The only satellite observed was in the genome of Trifolium bocconei Savi.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 81-85
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0027-3
  • Authors
    • Yasar Kiran, Department of Biology, Firat University, 23169, Elazig, Turkey
    • Ahmet Sahin, Department of Secondary Science and Mathemathics Education, Erciyes University, 38039, Kayseri, Turkey
    • Ismail Türkoglu, Department of Secondary Science and Mathemathics Education, Firat University, 23169, Elazig, Turkey
    • Murat Kursat, Department of Biology, Bitlis Eren University, 13000, Bitlis, Turkey
    • Ifran Emre, Department of Primary Education, Firat University, 23169, Elazig, Turkey

http://versita.metapress.com/content/88600582g1547727/ 2011/02/11 - 21:39

We determined the chlorophyll a and b levels (SPAD readings) in uninfested leaves and in leaves after 7 and 17 days of aphid infestation in four Fabaceae species (Pisum sativum L., Vicia faba L., Trifolium pretense L, Medicago sativa L.). Feeding by pea aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae) caused significant loss of chlorophyll a and b in the infested plants. Uninfested leaves on both short- and long-infestation plants had significantly higher chlorophyll a and b than infested leaves.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 76-80
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0026-4
  • Authors
    • Sylwia Goławska, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Natural Sciences and Humanities in Siedlce, Prusa 12, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland
    • Robert Krzyżanowski, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Natural Sciences and Humanities in Siedlce, Prusa 12, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland
    • Iwona Łukasik, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Natural Sciences and Humanities in Siedlce, Prusa 12, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/0877732334047q17/ 2011/02/11 - 21:39

A successful in vitro propagation system has been developed for the valuable ornamental and medicinal plant rugosa rose (Rosa rugosa Thunb.) by in vitro culture of nodal segments from mature plants. MS media supplemented with BA 2.2 μM, NAA 0.054 μM, GA3 2.0 μM and 3% sucrose significantly improved bud break and growth directly from nodal segment explants. High proliferation and average height of shoots were achieved using MS media supplemented with 3% sucrose or glucose adjusted for each cultivar. All the cultivars studied proliferated on MS medium supplemented with BA (2.2 μM), NAA (0.054 μM) and GA3 (0.4 μM). Rooting of shoots was achieved on half-strength MS medium with IBA (2.5-5.0 μM) combined with glucose or sucrose depending on the cultivar. Plantlets were successfully transferred to pots for acclimatization after they had grown more than 3 roots and average root length exceeded 10 mm.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 69-75
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0025-5
  • Authors
    • Wen Xing, Key laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology, College of Horticulture and Forestry Sciences, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, P. R. China
    • Manzhu Bao, Key laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology, College of Horticulture and Forestry Sciences, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, P. R. China
    • Hongdao Qin, Key laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology, College of Horticulture and Forestry Sciences, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, P. R. China
    • Guogui Ning, Key laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology, College of Horticulture and Forestry Sciences, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, P. R. China

http://versita.metapress.com/content/p830738777756270/ 2011/02/11 - 21:39

We measured cadmium and lead concentrations in two littoral plants (Phragmites australis Cav. Trin ex. Steudel and Typha angustifolia L.) collected in June and September 2007 from five selected lakes in the Poznan city area, and also in sediment and water samples from the same places. We determined the metal concentrations in rhizomes and leaves, and in sediment and water from the littoral and near the bank zone. Only low levels of the heavy metals were found. Pb and Cd concentrations were higher in water collected from the bank zone than from the littoral zone. Pb and Cd accumulation was noted in sediments. Heavy metal levels were higher in rhizomes than in stems and leaves. The studied aquatic macrophytes may be bioaccumulators and bioindicators of Pb and Cd in freshwater in natural conditions, even when concentrations are low.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 59-68
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0024-6
  • Authors
    • Kinga Drzewiecka, Department of Chemistry, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 75, 60-625 Poznan, Poland
    • Klaudia Borowiak, Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Piątkowska 94C, 60-649 Poznań, Poland
    • Mirosław Mleczek, Department of Chemistry, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 75, 60-625 Poznan, Poland
    • Iwona Zawada, Department of Chemistry, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 75, 60-625 Poznan, Poland
    • Piotr Goliński, Department of Chemistry, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 75, 60-625 Poznan, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/xx08704511mu87r5/ 2011/02/11 - 21:39

An efficient plant regeneration protocol has been developed from nodal explants of Ocimum Kilimandscharicum Guerke, a medicinally important herbaceous plant species belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Axillary shoot bud proliferation was initiated from nodal explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzyladenine (BA) (0.5-3.0 mg/l), kinetin (KN) (0.5-3.0 mg/l) and 2-isoPentenyladenine (2-iP) (0.5-3.0 mg/l). The maximum number of shoots (6.09±0.05), with average length 3.83±0.11 cm, was achieved with medium containing 1.0 mg/l BA. Shoot culture was established by repeated subculturing of the original nodal explants on shoot multiplication medium after each harvest of newly formed shoots. In this way, 20-30 shoots were obtained from a single nodal explant after 5 months. Rooting of shoots was achieved on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/1 Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 2% sucrose. Well-developed plantlets transferred to plastic pots containing soil and vermiculite (1:1) showed 81.13% survival. The genetic fidelity of in-vitro-raised field-grown plants to the donor plant was ascertained from random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. This protocol can be used for commercial propagation and for future genetic improvement studies.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 50-58
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0023-7
  • Authors
    • Soumen Saha, Cytogenetics and Plant Biotechnology Research Unit, Department of Botany, University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741235, West Bengal, India
    • Tulsi Dey, Cytogenetics and Plant Biotechnology Research Unit, Department of Botany, University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741235, West Bengal, India
    • Parthadeb Ghosh, Cytogenetics and Plant Biotechnology Research Unit, Department of Botany, University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741235, West Bengal, India

http://versita.metapress.com/content/n1r5v80p53111528/ 2011/02/11 - 21:39

We tested autumn frost hardiness in three Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) provenances originating from different altitudes at two trial plots in Slovakia (Vel'ký Lom at 450 m a.s.l., Mútne-Zákamenné at 1,250 m a.s.l.) in a spinoff experiment of the IUFRO 1964/68 Inventory Provenance Experiment with Norway spruce. Two approaches were used to assess hardiness: the electrolyte-leakage method based on artificial freezing, and measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters. The frost injury index at -20°C differed between provenances, with a significant provenance-by-plot interaction. In material from the lower-altitude Vel'ký Lom trial plot, the high-elevation TANAP provenance exhibited much lower frost injury than the middle-elevation Habovka and low-elevation Beňuš provenances. In material from the high-altitude Mútne-Zákamenné trial plot, all three tested provenances showed approximately the same degree of frost injury. At -80°C no differences between provenances were observed, and the trees growing at the high-elevation site exhibited lower average frost injury than the trees at Vel'ký Lom. Most parameters of the kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence followed the same trends as frost injury, and differed significantly between plots. We suggest that the observed differences resulted from acclimation of trees to the conditions of the trial plots rather than from adaptation through natural selection.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 42-49
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0022-8
  • Authors
    • Dušan Gömöry, Technical University in Zvolen, TG Masaryka 24, 96053 Zvolen, Slovakia
    • Elena Foffová, National Forestry Centre, Forestry Research Institute, TG Masaryka 22, 96092 Zvolen, Slovakia
    • Jaroslav Kmeť, Technical University in Zvolen, TG Masaryka 24, 96053 Zvolen, Slovakia
    • Roman Longauer, National Forestry Centre, Forestry Research Institute, TG Masaryka 22, 96092 Zvolen, Slovakia
    • Ivana Romšáková, Technical University in Zvolen, TG Masaryka 24, 96053 Zvolen, Slovakia

http://versita.metapress.com/content/67400683280330l2/ 2011/02/11 - 21:39

We estimated similarity and differences at the level of isozymes among populations of Malva alcea from various habitats and parts of Central Europe. Our analyses revealed the activity of 8 enzyme systems: 6 polymorphic (PGI, IDH, PX, DIA, PGM, SHD KB) and 2 monomorphic (GOT, ME). The mean number of alleles per locus is 2.12. Nei's genetic distances among populations are small, not exceeding 0.3. Mean values of Nei's genetic similarity are typical of populations of the same species. Grouping by UPGMA based on Nei's genetic distances showed that the distinguished groups are only partly correlated with geographic region.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 32-41
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0021-9
  • Authors
    • Zbigniew Celka, Department of Plant Taxonomy, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań, Poland
    • Katarzyna Buczkowska, Department of Genetics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań, Poland
    • Alina Bączkiewicz, Department of Genetics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań, Poland
    • Maria Drapikowska, Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, University of Life Sciences in Poznań, Piątkowska 94, 61-691 Poznań, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/m22522243n1r0181/ 2011/02/11 - 21:39

MicroRNA miR408 is predicted to target the transcripts for the copper proteins plantacyanin and laccase in Arabidopsis. In this study it was found that miR408 is present in tobacco also. Its accumulation was positively induced by copper deficiency, providing additional evidence for the important role of miR408 in plant responses to nutriment conditions. To examine the functions of miR408 in tobacco, transgenic tobacco lines containing the Arabidopsis AtmiR408 gene were created. Two transgenic lines with miR408 oversupply were chosen for functional characterization. The results showed that miR408 oversupply down-regulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, POD and CAT. As a result, transgenic lines exhibited altered chlorophyll content and seedling root growth, especially under high copper conditions. This suggests that miR408 accumulates in response to copper deficiency and influences plant growth by regulating antioxidant enzymes. It may be that miR408 exists and functions in tobacco in a conserved way similarly to miR408 in Arabidopsis.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 26-31
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0020-x
  • Authors
    • Xiao-Ming Feng, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-An, Shandong 271018, China
    • Yu Qiao, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-An, Shandong 271018, China
    • Ke Mao, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-An, Shandong 271018, China
    • Yu-Jin Hao, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-An, Shandong 271018, China
    • Chun-Xiang You, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-An, Shandong 271018, China

http://versita.metapress.com/content/561r248g80086080/ 2011/02/11 - 21:39

Hybridization may induce rapid genomic changes, including gain or loss of DNA. We examined nuclear DNA content of a diploid hybrid species, Hippophae goniocarpa and its two parental species. The nuclear 2C DNA value was 2.95±0.08 pg for H. goniocarpa; for the parental species it ranged from 2.54±0.09 pg to 2.66±0.12 pg for H. rhamnoides ssp. sinensis and from 3.15±0.19 pg to 3.49±0.06 pg for H. neurocarpa ssp. neurocarpa. The nuclear DNA content of H. goniocarpa was intermediate between those of the two parental species, confirming that this species is of diploid hybrid origin and further suggesting that it is in an early stage of the process of speciation.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 12-16
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0018-4
  • Authors
    • Xiangyan Zhou, Molecular Ecology Group, Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, P.R. China
    • Jingfang Ma, School of Life Sciences, Gansu Agriculture University, Lanzhou 730000, P.R. China
    • Wangtian Wang, School of Life Sciences, Gansu Agriculture University, Lanzhou 730000, P.R. China
    • Na Gong, Molecular Ecology Group, Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, P.R. China
    • Yanyun Zhang, School of Life Sciences, Gansu Agriculture University, Lanzhou 730000, P.R. China
    • Jianquan Liu, Molecular Ecology Group, Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, P.R. China

http://versita.metapress.com/content/xv4360p2946145rt/ 2011/01/19 - 04:26

Root growth and protective enzymes of Festuca arundinacea L. and Lolium perenne L. under Cu stress were investigated in a hydroponic experiment. Cu stress significantly inhibited root growth (root elongation and dry biomass) of both turfgrasses. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content in roots of both turfgrasses markedly increased under copper stress. In F. arundinacea root, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased greatly with increasing Cu concentration; peroxidase (POD) activity increased at low Cu level and decreased at high Cu level. Increased MDA content indicated the formation of free radicals under Cu stress, while increased SOD activity pointed to the operation of a scavenging mechanism. In roots of L. perenne, however, SOD and POD were not activated by copper. These results demonstrate that turfgrass cultivars clearly differ in tolerance to Cu stress, and that the tolerance depends largely on the enhanced activity of its antioxidant system.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 7-11
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0017-5
  • Authors
    • Shulan Zhao, College of Life Sciences, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China
    • Qing Liu, College of Life Sciences, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China
    • Yanting Qi, College of Life Sciences, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China
    • Lian Duo, College of Life Sciences, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China

http://versita.metapress.com/content/x33p260q731t4857/ 2011/01/19 - 04:26

A PR10 gene (ThPR10) was cloned from Tamarix hispida and characterized. Real-time RT-PCR was employed to evaluate gene expression levels. ThPR10 was expressed in both leaves and roots of T. hispida under normal growth conditions, and can be highly induced in both leaf and root tissues by abiotic stresses including NaCl, PEG, cold, CdCl2, and ABA (abscisic acid) treatments. Our results indicated that ThPR10 is involved in the abiotic stress response, and regulated by an ABA-dependent signaling pathway. Subsequently, ThPR10 was localized at the subcellular level. The gene was fused with the GFP N-terminal driven by CaMV35S promoter and transiently expressed in onion epidermal cells. This strategy localized the ThPR10 protein to the nucleus of onion epidermal cells, suggesting that the pathogenesis-related proteins play a functional role in the cell nucleus.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 17-25
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0019-3
  • Authors
    • Ruiping Zhang, Key Laboratory of Forest Tree Genetic Improvement and Biotechnology, Northeast Forestry University, 26 Hexing Road, 150040 Harbin, People's Republic of China
    • Yucheng Wang, Key Laboratory of Forest Tree Genetic Improvement and Biotechnology, Northeast Forestry University, 26 Hexing Road, 150040 Harbin, People's Republic of China
    • Guifeng Liu, Key Laboratory of Forest Tree Genetic Improvement and Biotechnology, Northeast Forestry University, 26 Hexing Road, 150040 Harbin, People's Republic of China
    • Huiyu Li, Key Laboratory of Forest Tree Genetic Improvement and Biotechnology, Northeast Forestry University, 26 Hexing Road, 150040 Harbin, People's Republic of China

http://versita.metapress.com/content/x17p81662310136k/ 2011/01/19 - 04:26

We used different tests to assess the effect of high soil concentrations of heavy metals on pollen viability in plants from metallicolous (MET) and nonmetallicolous (NONMET) populations. The frequency of viable pollen depended on the test applied: MET plants showed no significant reduction of pollen viability by acetocarmine, Alexander, MTT and X-Gal dye testing, but a drastic reduction of pollen viability in MET flowers (MET 56% vs 72% NONMET) by the FDA test. There was no correlation between pollen viability estimated in histochemical tests and pollen germination in vitro or in vivo. We discuss the terminology used to describe pollen viability as determined by histochemical tests.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 123-127
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0016-6
  • Authors
    • Aneta Słomka, Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, ul. Grodzka 52, 31-044 Cracow, Poland
    • Piotr Kawalec, Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, ul. Grodzka 52, 31-044 Cracow, Poland
    • Kristin Kellner, Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, ul. Grodzka 52, 31-044 Cracow, Poland
    • Monika Jędrzejczyk-Korycińska, Department of Plant Systematics, Silesian University, ul. Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland
    • Adam Rostański, Department of Plant Systematics, Silesian University, ul. Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland
    • Elżbieta Kuta, Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, ul. Grodzka 52, 31-044 Cracow, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/t7700tg56l014048/ 2011/01/19 - 04:26

Chromosome numbers are given for the following species of Taraxacum sect. Palustria from Poland: T. paucilobum Hudziok (2n = 24, 25), T. belorussicum Val. N. Tikhom. (2n = 24), T. subdolum Kirschner & Štěpánek (2n = 24), T. udum Jordan (2n = 24), T. trilobifolium Hudziok (2n = 24), T. bavaricum Soest (2n = 24), T. portentosum Kirschner & Štěpánek (2n = 32), T. vindobonense Soest (2n = 32), and T. brandenburgicum Hudziok (2n = 32). The chromosome numbers of T. belorussicum and T. portentosum are published for the first time, and for T. subdolum, T. bavaricum and T. brandenburgicum for the first time from Poland. The analyzed group of taxa is heterogenous in respect of stomatal size, and after pooling of data the tetraploids show bigger stomata than the triploids.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 117-121
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0015-7
  • Authors
    • Jolanta Marciniuk, Department of Botany, University of Podlasie, ul. Prusa 12, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland
    • Joanna Rerak, Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, ul. Grodzka 52, 31-044 Cracow, Poland
    • Aleksandra Grabowska-Joachimiak, Cytogenetics Group in the Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, University of Agriculture in Cracow, ul. Łobzowska 24, 31-140 Cracow, Poland
    • Iwona Jastrząb, Cytogenetics Group in the Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, University of Agriculture in Cracow, ul. Łobzowska 24, 31-140 Cracow, Poland
    • Krystyna Musiał, Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, ul. Grodzka 52, 31-044 Cracow, Poland
    • Andrzej J. Joachimiak, Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, ul. Grodzka 52, 31-044 Cracow, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/a71j4804748t541k/ 2011/01/19 - 04:26

In vitro pollination can be used to overcome crossing barriers in interspecific hybridization within the genus Cucumis. This technique offers a way to produce viable interspecific hybrids. We tested two types of media, designated CP and YS, for in vitro pollination in Cucumis sativus and C. melo. Pollen grains were isolated by centrifugation or directly from mature male flowers and were cultured with mature ovules. We assessed pollen grain viability, fertilization ability, and fertilized ovule development. The developing ovules (becoming enlarged and green) were transferred to media supporting embryogenesis (with ascorbic acid, caseinhydrolysate, coconut water and gibberellic acid). The highest level of regeneration after in vitro pollination was callus formation from ovules. We found caseinhydrolysate to be the most beneficial component during in vitro pollination (CP medium) and during development of fertilized ovules (ON medium). The hybrid character of fertilized ovules arisen from crosses between cucumber and muskmelon was checked but not confirmed by RAPD analysis, for reasons we suggest. The in vitro protocol needs to be optimized further to obtain a high yield of potential hybrid embryos.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 111-115
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0014-8
  • Authors
    • Dagmar Skálová, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany, Palacký University in Olomouc, Šlechtitelů 11, 783 71 Olomouc-Holice, Czech Republic
    • Božena Navrátilová, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany, Palacký University in Olomouc, Šlechtitelů 11, 783 71 Olomouc-Holice, Czech Republic
    • Vladan Ondřej, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany, Palacký University in Olomouc, Šlechtitelů 11, 783 71 Olomouc-Holice, Czech Republic
    • Aleš Lebeda, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany, Palacký University in Olomouc, Šlechtitelů 11, 783 71 Olomouc-Holice, Czech Republic

http://versita.metapress.com/content/r574853405133551/ 2011/01/19 - 04:26

Miscanthus x giganteus tissue cultures brown quickly and strongly, probably as an effect of oxidation of phenolics produced by plant tissue. The aim of the work was to improve the medium composition for callus induction and plant regeneration of M. giganteus, with two experiments. The first one was aimed at developing a protocol to inhibit biosynthesis and oxidation of phenolics. Callus was induced from immature inflorescences on basal MS medium with 6.5 mg · dm-3 2,4-D, 0.25 mg · dm-3 BAP, 500 mg · dm-3 casein hydrolysate and 30 g · dm-3 sucrose (control medium), and this medium supplemented with one of the following: 200 mg · dm-3 chitosan, 65 g · dm-3 banana pulp (BP), 100 mg · dm-3 cysteine, or 30 g · dm-3 honey instead of sucrose. Plant regeneration used basal MS medium supplemented with 30 g · dm-3 sucrose and 0.2 mg · dm-3 BAP or 0.05 mg · dm-3 KIN. The second experiment was to verify whether BP and honey increase callus production and plant regeneration. For callus induction the explants were put on the control medium and medium supplemented with one of these: 65 g · dm-3 BP, 30 g · dm-3 honey instead of sucrose, or 65 g · dm-3 BP + 30 g · dm-3 honey instead of sucrose. The regeneration medium was basal MS medium supplemented with 0.05 mg · dm-3 KIN and 30 g · dm-3 sucrose or 30 g · dm-3 honey. Tissue browning was independent of medium content, but there was less browning on medium supplemented with honey. In the first experiment, regenerated plants were obtained only on basal MS medium with 30 g · dm-3 sucrose and 0.05 mg · dm-3 KIN. In the second experiment, MS medium containing BP and honey instead of sucrose was the best medium for callus induction, and regeneration from these calli was highest on basal MS with KIN and honey.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 105-110
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0013-9
  • Authors
    • Agnieszka Płażek, Department of Plant Physiology, University of Agriculture, ul. Podłużna 3, 30-239 Cracow, Poland
    • Franciszek Dubert, Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/957l13pu8040576v/ 2011/01/19 - 04:26

Modified ABTS cation radical decolorization assay and EPR technique were applied to screen the antioxidant activity of three flavonoids with different polarity: 7-O-β-[2-O-feruloyl-β-glucuronopyranosyl (1→2) glucuronopyranoside] (tricine), 4'-methoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone 6-C-β-glucopyranoside (isocytisoside) and I 3' II 8 biapigenine (amentoflavone), with nonpolar all-trans β-carotene used as standard carotenoid molecule. The ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] cation radical decolorization assay was modified as follows: (1) measurements extended up to 8 days after preparation, (2) method adapted for flavonoids with different polarity and β-carotene, (3) concentrations in the 0.01-10 μM range of both trolox and antioxidants in order to use the same experimental conditions for both this technique and EPR measurement.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 97-104
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0012-x
  • Authors
    • Krzysztof Pawlak, Department of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, ul. Nieszawska 13 A, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
    • Wieslawa Bylka, Department of Pharmacognosy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, ul. Swiecickiego 4, 60-781 Poznan, Poland
    • Beata Jazurek, Department of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, ul. Nieszawska 13 A, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
    • Irena Matlawska, Department of Pharmacognosy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, ul. Swiecickiego 4, 60-781 Poznan, Poland
    • Maria Sikorska, Department of Pharmacognosy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, ul. Swiecickiego 4, 60-781 Poznan, Poland
    • Henryk Manikowski, Department of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, ul. Nieszawska 13 A, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
    • Grazyna Bialek-Bylka, Department of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, ul. Nieszawska 13 A, 60-965 Poznan, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/q1422342xh614908/ 2011/01/19 - 04:26

Research on five lines of sugar beet with a tendency towards apomixis showed the presence of facultative apomicts among the studied plants (2.4%). Facultative agamospermy was detected by isozyme analysis and by nuclear DNA amount estimation using flow cytometry. Genetic segregation according to isozymes in seed progenies showed the presence of meiotic agamospermy; its probable mechanism was normal meiosis in tetraploid cells of the female archespore. The occurrence of cytologically unreduced male gametophytes was confirmed in 21% of the plants by the indirect method of determining ploidy level from the number of pore regions in mature pollen grains. These studies identified homozygotic sublines with a tendency towards apomixis, proposed for practical breeding at the Kutno Sugar Beet Breeding Company Ltd., to be included in breeding experiments as components of heterotic hybrids.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 87-96
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0011-y
  • Authors
    • Teresa Szkutnik, Kutno Sugar Beet Breeding Company Ltd., Straszków, 62-650 Kłodawa, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/0v45m56757100662/ 2011/01/19 - 04:26

Upon stress treatment, isolated microspores of triticale (xTriticosecale Wittm.) were directed towards sporophytic development (androgenesis). We used fluorescence microscopy to study the cell structural reorganization associated with the process. Changes in the developmental pathway coincided with the character of the microtubular cytoskeleton configuration, the number and direction of nuclear divisions, changes in vacuolization, the distribution of mitochondria, ER and starch grains, and the architecture of new cell wall formation. A band of diffused fluorescence surrounding the nucleus was observed before the first symmetric division of microspores. This structure most likely represents a preprophase band (PPB). Successive mitotic divisions within the microspore wall led to the formation of multinucleate or multicellular structures consisting of one or two domains of cells differing in size. They were later released from the sporoderm and continued further development with features typical for a monocotyledonous embryo. The pattern of internal architecture of androgenic structures depended on their developmental phase. Before and after release from the microspore wall, cortical microtubules (MTs) exhibited various configurations without preferential orientation. They formed a denser network in the region opposite to the sporoderm rupture site. Released multicellular structures showed both intensely fluorescing cortical MTs and more dispersed endoplasmic MTs radiating along the cytoplasmic strands from the nuclear region to the cell cortex. Up to globular stage, isotropically expanding cells of androgenic embryos showed a random pattern of MTs. This is the first report that successive events of androgenic development of triticale microspores are associated with MT reorganization. The results support the view that changes in cytoskeleton architecture are critical during induction of androgenesis.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 73-86
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0010-z
  • Authors
    • Ewa Dubas, The Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland
    • Maria Wędzony, The Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland
    • Beata Petrovska, The Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland
    • Jan Salaj, The Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland
    • Iwona Żur, The Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/y755m18447g63586/ 2011/01/19 - 04:26

This is the first protocol for in vitro micropropagation of Senecio macrophyllus. Shoot tips and fragments of the cotyledon, hypocotyls and roots were isolated from 10-day-old sterile seedlings. The morphological response was tested on MS medium supplemented with different types of cytokinins: BA (2.2 μM, 4.4 μM or 13.3 μM), KN (4.7 μM or 13.9 μM) and ZEA (4.6 μM or 13,7 μM) in combination with 0.54 μM NAA or 0.27 μM NAA (with 2.2 μM BA only), but only shoot tips were capable of shoot organogenesis. Shoot proliferation was highest for explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 4.4 μM BA in combination with 0.54 μM NAA. The shoots formed were then multiplied on the same medium. Rooting was achieved on full- and half-strength MS medium without auxin, but shoots cultured on medium BA-supplemented began inducing roots a week later than shoots obtained on media with other types of cytokinins. Well-rooted plantlets were transferred to ex vitro conditions. The survival rate of rooted plants was 100% for plants cultured in a mixture of vermiculite and sand, and 92% for those planted in soil after 4 weeks of acclimatization. In the first year the plants grew intensively under field conditions and were able to develop a leaf rosette. In the second year the plants were able to flower and produce viable seeds.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 67-72
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0009-5
  • Authors
    • Alina Trejgell, Department of Biotechnology, Institute of General and Molecular Biology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 9, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
    • Magdalena Michalska, Department of Biotechnology, Institute of General and Molecular Biology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 9, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
    • Andrzej Tretyn, Department of Biotechnology, Institute of General and Molecular Biology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 9, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/f102372732693262/ 2011/01/19 - 04:26

This work examined the distribution of necrosis on stems of two cultivars of potato (Ania, Glada) with different levels of resistance to PVY infection. Potato virus Y particles and/or cytoplasmic (CI) and amorphous inclusions (AI) were identified in insert and offshoot potato cells of susceptible cv. Glada. Cytoplasmic inclusions were not observed in insert and offshoot stems of resistant cv. Ania, although there were numerous deformations, degeneration and tissue necrosis. It was found that (1) necrotic reactions were the form of plant cell response for both the PVY-resistant and susceptible cultivars, (2) development of necrosis in vascular tissue did not prevent the pathogen from spreading outside the necrotic region in the less resistant cultivar (Glada), and (3) extreme resistance to PVY in potato plants, determined by the Rysto gene, was manifested in the absence of virus particles and cytoplasmic inclusions in infected plant cells.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 61-66
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0008-6
  • Authors
    • Grażyna Garbaczewska, Department of Botany, Faculty of Agriculture and Biology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, ul. Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
    • Katarzyna Otulak, Department of Botany, Faculty of Agriculture and Biology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, ul. Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/x026477324v68726/ 2011/01/19 - 04:26

Saffron, made from the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L., contains pigments and valuable aromatic compounds, and can be used in medicine and as a spice. Nowadays its production is lower than demand. Tissue culture presents an alternative biochemical tool which can be used to produce stigma-like structure (SLS) in vitro. In this study, the origin and induction of SLS formation was investigated in ovary and style explants of floral buds on MS medium supplemented with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzlaminopurine (BAP). SLS were directly originated through meristematic cells or indirectly in the form of colorless globular structures from parenchyma tissue. The colorless globular structures initially were conical and pale yellow color at the sharp ends; subsequently they matured into trumpet-like red stigmas with or without finger-like papillae at the margins. Light and electron microscopic observations of ultra- and semithin sections of different developmental stages of SLS showed that these structures possess two kinds of cells: (1) small cells close to parenchyma tissues and (2) large cells oriented towards the peripheral area and apparently originated from the small ones. Our results suggest that the SLS originated from internal parenchyma tissues.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 55-60
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0007-7
  • Authors
    • Monir Hosseinzadeh Namin, School of Biology, College of Science, University of Tehran, PO Box: 14155-6455, Tehran, I.R Iran
    • Hassan Ebrahimzadeh, School of Biology, College of Science, University of Tehran, PO Box: 14155-6455, Tehran, I.R Iran
    • Behzad Ghareyazie, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karadj, Iran
    • Tayebeh Radjabian, Department of Biology, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
    • Hooman Hosseinzadeh Namin, School of Biology, College of Science, University of Tehran, PO Box: 14155-6455, Tehran, I.R Iran

http://versita.metapress.com/content/62r0h23841521006/ 2011/01/19 - 04:26

Empirical data on functional growth dynamics are extremely limited for herbaceous plants and do not exist for milkvetch (Astragalus) species, although they are essential to an understanding a plant's ability to acclimate to a new habitat, which we need to know in order to predict its performance in future climate scenarios. The paper examines how species spread to a habitat in which they do not initially occur. It presents results on changes in growth, canopy behavior, competition ability and morphological traits of Cicer milkvetch (Astragalus cicer L.), Sweet milkvetch (Astragalus glycyphyllos L.) and Russian milkvetch (Astragalus falcatus Lam.) from a ten-year experiment. They successfully acclimated to a new habitat and presented clearly similar growth dynamics and similar strategies for establishing and maintaining populations. Developmental and reductional perennial phases were noted. The developmental phase showed slow and fast subphases. Canopy cover area peaked at the height of the developmental phase. Morphological parameters measured from parts of plants growing outside the experimental plot were greater than for plants growing inside it. Milkvetch species are good competitors. Unlike invasive species, their expansion strategy is not colonization-oriented. The data suggest that systematic and evolutionary studies on these species should pay attention to morphological changes.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 45-54
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0006-8
  • Authors
    • Tadeusz Aniszewski, Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, P. O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/wq3306878832q388/ 2011/01/19 - 04:26

In Ctenanthe setosa we studied changes in apoplastic and symplastic sugar, proline, ions and organic acids under drought stress causing leaf rolling. Leaf extractions were made at visually judged leaf rolling stages (not rolled, slightly rolled, strongly rolled, completely rolled). Glucose and sucrose content increased in the symplast. Glucose declined during leaf rolling in the apoplast, and sucrose was not present. Symplastic and apoplastic proline content increased during leaf rolling; citrate increased in both compartments, and malate increased in the symplast but declined in the apoplast. Symplastic and apoplastic K+ declined during rolling. Ca2+ increased at slightly rolled stage but then began to decrease in both compartments. Na+ level increasing in the symplast but decreased in the apoplast. Cl- decreased in both compartments during rolling. Glucose, proline, Na+ and K+ are preferred for osmotic adjustment during leaf rolling under drought.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 37-44
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0005-9
  • Authors
    • Aykut Saglam, Department of Biology, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080, Trabzon, Turkey
    • Rabiye Terzi, Department of Biology, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080, Trabzon, Turkey
    • Hatice Nar, Department of Biology, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080, Trabzon, Turkey
    • Neslihan Saruhan, Department of Biology, Rize University, 53100, Rize, Turkey
    • Faik Ahmet Ayaz, Department of Biology, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080, Trabzon, Turkey
    • Asim Kadioglu, Department of Biology, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080, Trabzon, Turkey

http://versita.metapress.com/content/d65624n20673417k/ 2011/01/19 - 04:26

We compared the soluble carbohydrate composition of seeds of ten wild and cultivated species of the genus Vicia. In some Vicia species (V. angustifolia, V. grandiflora, V. sativa, V. sepium) they contained only raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) and in others also D-pinitol and its α-D-galactosides. In terms of galactosyl pinitol composition they were divided into three groups: those accumulating small amounts of mono-, di-, tri-galactosyl pinitol A (GPA, ciceritol and TGPA, respectively) and unknown compound (V. sylvatica and V. hirsuta); those accumulating more ciceritol than TGPA (V. tetrasperma and V. villosa); and those accumulating more TGPA than ciceritol (V. cracca and V. tenuifolia). The differences in the activity of galactosyltransferases engaged in RFOs and galactosyl pinitol synthesis confirmed this classification. Seeds of V. angustifolia, naturally accumulating only RFOs, showed an ability to accumulate exogenously applied D-pinitol or D-chiro-inositol and to form the respective α-D-galactosyl cyclitols. Levels of synthesized galactosides depended on the type and concentration of cyclitol in the feeding solution, and seed maturation stage. However, even a high level of D-pinitol or D-chiro-inositol in the feeding solution caused accumulation of only small amounts of mono- and di-galactosyl pinitols, or tri-galactosyl D-chiro-inositol in seeds of V. angustifolia. Enhanced synthesis of galactosyl cyclitols, mainly mono- and di-galactosides of D-chiro-inositol (fagopyritols), clearly reduced production of verbascose. We suggest that exogenously applied free cyclitols inhibit biosynthesis of tri- and di-galactosides and/or cause substrate competition in enzymes of Vicia species.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 27-35
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0004-x
  • Authors
    • Lesław B. Lahuta, Department of Plant Physiology and Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, ul. Oczapowskiego 1A, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
    • Joanna Goszczyńska, Department of Plant Physiology and Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, ul. Oczapowskiego 1A, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
    • Marcin Horbowicz, Marcin Horbowicz, Department of Plant Physiology and Genetics, University of Podlasie, ul. Prusa 12, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/vn450q7262438406/ 2011/01/19 - 04:26

In this work we searched for genetic similarities in twelve wild rye species and subspecies and a control (S. cereale ssp. cereale, cv. Walet), using RAPD and AFLP markers. AFLP is useful for distinguishing homo- and heterozygotes but is not recommended for evaluation of codominant markers. We assessed the usefulness of the applied methods for examining genetic similarity in rye. RAPD yielded four groups of genetic similarity, with similarity values between 0.32 and 0.81. AFLP markers distinguished two groups of genetic similarity, ranging from 0.49 to 0.79.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 19-25
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0003-y
  • Authors
    • Anna Ćwiklińska, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Poznan University of Life Sciences, ul. Wojska Polskiego 71c, 60-625 Poznań, Poland
    • Zbigniew Broda, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Poznan University of Life Sciences, ul. Wojska Polskiego 71c, 60-625 Poznań, Poland
    • Jan Bocianowski, Department of Mathematical and Statistical Methods, Poznan University of Life Sciences, ul. Wojska Polskiego 28, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
    • Agnieszka Dobrzycka, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Poznan University of Life Sciences, ul. Wojska Polskiego 71c, 60-625 Poznań, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/c237772282712h82/ 2011/01/19 - 04:26

Anacamptis pyramidalis shows great phenotypic variability. Additional lateral sepal spurs were observed in f. fumeauxiana. We used light and scanning electron microscopy to examine the anatomy of the lip spur and additional lateral sepal spur(s). The spurs have the same anatomical structure. We describe the features of the inner and external epidermis, report the presence of an appendix at the base of the additional spur, and discuss the evolutionary context.

  • Content Type Journal Article
  • Pages 13-18
  • DOI 10.2478/v10182-010-0002-z
  • Authors
    • Agnieszka K. Kowalkowska, Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, University of Gdańsk, ul. Kładki 24, 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland
    • Hanna B. Margońska, Department of Plant Taxonomy and Nature Conservation, University of Gdańsk, ul. Legionów 9, 80-441 Gdańsk, Poland
    • Małgorzata Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, University of Gdańsk, ul. Kładki 24, 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland

http://versita.metapress.com/content/u73w2281v314n723/ 2011/01/19 - 04:26